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Excel is all about working with numbers. However, if your data consists of too much text, you don’t have to worry at all. Excel provides several functions that make it easier to manipulate text strings. These functions let you easily find a string, count the characters in a string, remove extra spaces from a string, join two or more strings, and perform other similar tasks on the textual data.

What are Text functions in Excel?

Text Functions are Microsoft Excel’s native functions that allow transforming or analyzing textual data. Excel provides a total of 30+ Text functions and many of these are often used by people for data analysis. This post highlights 10 such Text functions, with their uses and examples.

10 Text Functions in Excel with Examples

Following is the list of top 10 functions in Excel:

FIND

LEN

LEFT

RIGHT

MID

SUBSTITUTE

UPPER

TRIM

CONCATENATE

TEXT

Let’s take a detailed look at these functions, one by one.

1] FIND

The FIND function allows you to find a text string within another. It returns the position at which a character or string begins within another text string.

Syntax

FIND(find_text, within_text, [start_num])

find_text argument is used to enter the text the user wants to search.

within-text argument takes the text which contains the text that needs to be found.

[start_num] is an optional argument that takes the position from where to start the search. It takes the value 1 by default.

Example

Let us say the A3 cell in an Excel sheet contains the string ‘The Windows Club’. If the user wants to find the position of ‘Win’ within the string, he may use the ‘Find’ functions as:

f(x)=FIND("Win", A1)

The output of the above function will be 5, as 5 represents the starting position of the text ‘Win’ within ‘The Windows Club’.

Note: The FIND function is case-sensitive. If you do not want to match the case, you can use the SEARCH function, which has the same syntax as the FIND function.

Read: How to use the new TEXTSPLIT function in Excel

2] LEN

The LEN function calculates the length of the string, i.e. the number of characters present in a string. It counts the spaces as characters.

Syntax

LEN(text)

text argument takes the string whose length the user wants to find.

Example

In the above example, if the user wants to find the length of the string ‘The Windows Club’, he may use the ‘LEN’ function as:

f(x)=LEN (A3)

The output of the above function will be 16, as there are 16 characters in the string ‘The Windows Club’, including spaces.

Also read: Arrows keys are not working in Microsoft Excel.

3] LEFT

The LEFT function returns several successive characters from the left side of a string, based on the number specified by the user.

Syntax

LEFT(text, [num_chars])

text argument is used to specify the string that contains the characters that need to be found.

[num_chars] specifies the number of characters to be extracted from the left of the main string. This argument is optional. It takes ‘1’ as a default value, if not specified by the user.

Example

In the same example as stated above, if the user wants to extract the first 7 characters from ‘The Windows Club’, he may use the ‘LEFT’ function as:

f(x)=LEFT (A3, 7)

The output of the above function will be The Win, as these are the 7 leftmost characters in the string ‘The Windows Club’, including spaces.

4] RIGHT

The RIGHT function is used to extract several characters from the extreme right of a string.

Syntax

RIGHT(text, [num_chars])

text argument specifies the string that contains the desired characters.

[num_chars] argument specifies the number of characters that need to be extracted, moving from the extreme right to the left of the string. This is an optional argument that takes ‘1’ as the default value if left unspecified.

Example

Taking the same example, if the user wants to extract the last 7 characters from the string ‘The Windows Club’, he may use the ‘RIGHT’ function as:

f(x)=RIGHT(A3, 7)

The output of the above function will be ws Club, since they are the 7 rightmost characters in ‘The Windows Club’, including spaces.

5] MID

The MID function returns several consecutive characters or a substring from the middle of another string.

Syntax

MID(text, start_num, num_chars)

text argument takes the string that contains the desired characters.

start_num argument takes the position from where to start extracting the characters.

num_chars argument takes the number of characters the user wants to extract from the string.

Example

In the above example, if the user wants to extract 4 characters starting from the 3rd character in the string ‘The Windows Club’, he may use the ‘MID’ function as:

f(x)=MID(A3, 3, 4)

The output of the above function will be e Wi, as ‘e’ is the third character and staring from ‘e’ counting spaces as well, ‘e Wi’ are the 4 consecutive characters in the string ‘The Windows Club’.

6] SUBSTITUTE

The Substitute function replaces an existing text with a new text in a given string.

Syntax

SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num])

text argument specifies the main string.

old_text argument specifies the text that needs to be replaced.

new_text argument specifies the text that needs to be put in place of the existing text.

[instance_num] argument specifies which instance (or occurrence) of the existing text is to be replaced. This is an optional argument. If you specify this value, only that instance of the text will be replaced; otherwise, all the instances of the existing text will be replaced with the new text.

Example

In the same example, if the user wants to substitute ‘Welcome to The’ for ‘The’ in ‘The Windows Club’, he may use the ‘SUBSTITUTE’ function as:

f(x)=SUBSTITUTE(A3, "The", "Welcome to The")

The output of the above function will be Welcome to The Windows Club, as the substitute function has replaced ‘The’ with ‘Welcome to The’ in the text string ‘The Windows Club’.

7] UPPER

The UPPER function converts a string into uppercase, i.e., it returns a string after capitalizing each letter.

Syntax

UPPER(text)

text argument takes the string that needs to be capitalized.

Example

Following the same example, if the user wants to capitalize each letter in the string ‘The Windows Club’, he may use the ‘UPPER’ function as:

f(x)=UPPER(A3)

The output of the above function will be THE WINDOWS CLUB.

Note:

If you want to convert a string into lowercase, you may use the LOWER function, having the same syntax as that of the UPPER function.

If you want to capitalize the first letter of each word in a string, you may use the PROPER function with the same syntax.

8] TRIM

The TRIM function removes all the extra spaces within a string, leaving just 1 space between two words.

Syntax

TRIM(text)

text argument takes the string with irregular spacing.

Example

In the example stated above, if the user wants to remove unnecessary spaces from the string ‘The      Windows        Club’, he may use the ‘TRIM’ function as:

f(x)=TRIM(A3)

The output of the above function will be The Windows Club, leaving just a single space between words.

9] CONCATENATE

The CONCATENATE function joins two or more strings in Excel.

Syntax

CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ...)

text1 argument is mandatory. It takes the first string to join.

text2 argument takes the additional string to join. You may join up to 255 strings.

Example

Let us say the A3 cell in an Excel sheet contains the string ‘The’, the A4 cell contains the string ‘Windows’, and the A5 cell contains the string ‘Club’. If the user wants to join these strings, he may use the ‘CONCATENATE’ functions as:

f(x)=CONCATENATE(A3, " ", A4, " ", A5)

The output of the above function will be The Windows Club, joining the strings in A3, A4, and A5 cells with spaces between these strings.

Tip: Use the ampersand (&) symbol to concatenate two text strings.

10] TEXT

The TEXT function converts the format of a number from ‘numeric’ to ‘text’. The function can be used to place formatted numbers between text.

Syntax

TEXT(value, format_text)

value argument takes the numerical value that needs to be formatted.

format_text argument takes the format that needs to be applied to the value.

Example

Let us say the A2 cell in Excel contains the string ‘The Windows Club started on’ and the A3 cell contains the numeric data ’20-04-2009′; the two of these can be combined in a single sentence using the ‘CONCATENATE’ and the ‘TEXT’ functions as:

f(x)=A2&" "&TEXT(A3,"mmmm d, yyyy")&"."

The output of the above functions will be The Windows Club started on April 20, 2009.

Also read: How to convert currencies in Excel.

What is an example of a text function?

The TEXT function in Excel is used to join a formatted number with a text string. For example, if an Excel sheet contains the string ‘Retails sales surge by’ in cell A1, and the number ‘20000’ in cell A2, then TEXT function can be used to join the content of these two cells as:

f(x)=A1&" "&TEXT(A3,"\$ ##,###")&".".

The above function will return ‘Retails sales surge by \$20,000.’, where the number 20000 has been formatted using a currency symbol and comma separator.

What is the use of lower function?

The LOWER function is used to change the case of a string to lowercase. If a given string is in uppercase, proper case, or sentence case, the LOWER function will return the string with each of its alphabet converted in small letters. The syntax for LOWER function is LOWER(text), where text specifies the string or reference to the cell that contains the string that needs to be converted into lowercase.

Read Next: Top 15 Financial functions in Microsoft Excel.

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## Address In Excel (Formula, Examples)

Address Function is a pre-built integrated Excel function categorized under Lookup and Reference functions. Address Function in Excel is used to find out the address of a cell in a worksheet. ADDRESS Function in Excel returns or displays the address of a cell based on a given row and column number.

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Below is the ADDRESS Formula in Excel :

=ADDRESS (row, column, [ref_type], [ref_style], [sheet_name] )

The ADDRESS Function in Excel has the below-mentioned arguments:

Row or row_num: (Compulsory or required parameter) It is a row number of the cell address.

Column or Column_num: (Compulsory or required parameter) It is a column number of the cell address.

[abs_num] or ref_type: (optional argument) It is a numeric value specified to obtain the reference type below.

Note: If this parameter or argument is omitted or not entered, it returns an Absolute reference of the cell, e.g., \$A\$1. This argument allows you to select the numeric value below (1 to 4) based on the output requirement.

Different types of references

Value Explanation

1 or Default Absolute referencing, e.g., \$A\$1

2 Relative column & absolute row, e.g. A\$1

3 Absolute column & relative row e.g. \$A1

4 Relative referencing, e.g., A1

[ref_style] or [a1] : (optional argument) It is a logical value indicating whether to use standard (A1 style) cell reference format or R1C1 style cell reference format. This argument allows you to select the below-mentioned ref_style.

If this parameter or argument is omitted or not entered, it will consider the default value 1 or TRUE (A1 style).

Note: Excel has two types of cell reference styles, i.e., A1 & R1C1.

In the A1 reference style, the column name is mentioned as an alphabet, and the row name as a number, Whereas in the R1C1 reference style, both row and column are mentioned in numbers.

[sheet_text]) or [sheet_name]: (optional argument) It is the name of the worksheet to return. Or the worksheet name is mentioned in quotes, e.g., “Sales”.

Note: No sheet name appears if this argument is omitted or left blank.

How to Use Address Function in Excel?

The ADDRESS Function in Excel is very simple and easy to use. Let us understand the working of the ADDRESS Function in Excel by some ADDRESS Formula in Excel example.

Example #1

In the below-mentioned example, I have a row number in Cell “B11” & a column number in cell “C11”. Here I need to find the cell address with row & column numbers.

Let’s apply the ADDRESS function in cell “D11”. Select the cell “D11,” where the ADDRESS function needs to be applied.

A dialog box appears where arguments for the ADDRESS function need to be filled or entered i.e.

Row or row_num: (Compulsory or required parameter) It is a row number of the cell address. Here it is 2.

Column or Column_num: (Compulsory or required parameter) It is a Column number of the cell address. Here it is, 8.

[abs_num] or ref_type: (optional argument) This argument is omitted or not entered. By default, it will consider 1, i.e., Absolute reference.

[ref_style] or [a1] : (optional argument) This argument is omitted or not entered. By default, it will consider 1 or TRUE (A1 style).

[sheet_text]) or [sheet_name]: (optional argument) This argument is omitted or not entered; it is left blank. By default, no sheet name appears.

When the above parameters or arguments, i.e. ([abs_num], [a1], [sheet_text]), are not mentioned, then the ADDRESS function results in or returns a pattern of absolute address with row and column name (i.e., \$H\$2).

\$H indicates the Absolut column (8), whereas \$2 indicates the Absolute Row (2).

Example #2

In the below-mentioned example, I have a row number in Cell “B16,” & a column number in cell “C8,” & Reference type or abs_num as 3 in cell “D16”. Here I need to find out the cell address & it should reflect as Absolute Column & Relative Row in Cell Address.

Let’s apply the ADDRESS function in cell “E16”. Select the cell “E16”. where the ADDRESS function needs to be applied.

A dialog box appears where arguments for the ADDRESS function need to be filled or entered i.e.

Row or row_num: (Compulsory or required parameter) It is a row number of the cell address. Here it is 2.

Column or Column_num: (Compulsory or required parameter) It is a column number of the cell address. Here it is, 8.

[abs_num] or ref_type: (optional argument) Here, in the cell address, output is to be returned as an absolute column & relative row in cell address. Therefore, we have to enter 3.

[ref_style] or [a1] : (optional argument) This argument is omitted or not entered. By default, it will consider 1 or TRUE (A1 style).

[sheet_text]) or [sheet_name]: (optional argument) This argument is omitted or not entered. It is left blank. By default, no sheet name appears.

ADDRESS function results in or returns a pattern of absolute column & relative row in cell address (i.e., \$H2).

Here, \$H indicates the Absolut column, whereas 2 indicates the relative Row (2).

Things to Remember

#VALUE! error occurs if the row or column number argument is less than 1. If the Column number is greater than the number of columns in Excel (16,384 Columns). If the row number exceeds the number of rows in Excel (10,48,576 rows).

In the ADDRESS function argument, if row_num, column_num, or [abs_num] is a nonnumeric value, it returns #VALUE! Error.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to ADDRESS in Excel. Here we discuss the ADDRESS Formula in Excel and How to use the ADDRESS Function in Excel, along with practical examples and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## Stdev Function In Excel (Formula, Examples)

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STDEV Function in Excel

Stdev in Excel is used for calculating the standard deviation of any data set. Standard Deviation shows how one value deviates to another with how many digits. Stdev is used only for sample data, whereas we have other Standard Deviation functions such as STDEV.P for the entire population. To calculate the standard deviation of sample data, we have a new function which is STDEV.S. To calculate standard deviation, select the range of numbers.

STDEV Formula in Excel

Below is the STDEV Formula in Excel :

Examples of STDEV function in Excel

1) Let us take a look at some examples of STDEV. STDEV is widely used to measure how much the individual data elements are dispersed from the average value.

You can download this STDEV Function Excel Template here – STDEV Function Excel Template

For example, let’s say we have a dataset of parts for a store which is being checked for quality. We need to find the standard deviation between the number of parts we have, the number of parts to be reworked, parts that failed, the parts yet to be checked, and the total number of parts.

The function STDEV will use like this:

This would give us the standard deviation for values in the cells A2 till F2. Similarly, we can find out the standard deviation for others.

The above data analysis means that the difference between the number of parts for each category is high. If the formula returned a lower number, it would mean that the number of parts of each category is closer. This is an important factor in many applications, such as analyzing the effectiveness of quality control measures.

2) Let’s look at another example where the STDEV function is useful.

Suppose we have weight data for a number of shipments. We want to find out how much they differ from each other.

The data is as below:

Shipment 1:  0.5kg

Shipment 2: 2 kg

Shipment 3: 0.8 kg

Shipment 4: 2.8 kg

Shipment 5: 1.1 kg

We put this in an Excel sheet.

Now Use the STDEV function to get the standard deviation:

This would give us the standard deviation in cell B7.

Now we find that the standard deviation is about 0.9, which means that the weights do not vary much between the shipments. Such problems contain many more data points in real life and use more measures such as average and variance to create solutions to specific problems.

Explanation of the STDEV function

In this formula, one of the values (say 1,  etc.) is the mean or average of the numbers, while n is the total sample size. Standard deviation measures how widely each value in a sample varies from the average value. It is the square root of the variance. Variance is the squared differences’ average from a dataset’s mean or average.

How to Use the STDEV Function in Excel

Now that we have an overview of the statistics underlying the STDEV function in Excel, and a few examples of STDEV functions’ uses, let us look at how to use the function and the correct syntax.

First, we need one or more data points to choose from. Once we have done that, we need to pick a cell where we want the result displayed.

Now type the function and arguments correctly and press F2 and Enter.

And the result will be :

The syntax of the STDEV function is as follows:

In STDEV, the number 1 is called a mandatory argument and corresponds to a sample of the data. The number 2 and other numbers are optional arguments but should correspond to a dataset sample to get correct results.

STDEV has some related functions for use with different types of datasets; the most commonly used are the following:

STDEV.S for a numeric data sample does not calculate standard deviation based on text and logical values.

STDEVA for calculations based on logical values and text

We can also use the STDEV function from the formula bar, as shown below:

Pick a dataset and select any cell in which we would like to display the result.

Then select the data that needs analysis.

And the result will be :

Things to Remember About the STDEV Function in Excel

We have seen a few examples of the STDEV function and have also seen how to use it in problems of data analysis in the examples; here are a few things to remember:

When using STDEV, the function assumes that the sample is the entire size of the population. So when we want to determine the standard deviation from a subset of the whole data, we should use STDEV.S

The standard deviation formula used in STDEV is called the (n-1) method.

The arguments in STDEV can be numbers or text, arrays of different types, and references containing numbers.

The calculation in STDEV uses logical values and text typed directly in the arguments. If the logical values or text are referenced from an array, empty cells, or error values in the reference, STDEV ignores them.

To use logical and text values referenced from elsewhere and not typed directly in the argument, we should use the STDEVA function.

Population in statistics means the entire dataset we are using. A sample is a part of the dataset which we pick to analyze.

Conclusion – STDEV Function in Excel

Data science is one of the most important areas of study currently. Excel is a tool we can use in many data science applications without resorting to high-level programming or having an in-depth knowledge of the mathematics involved. STDEV and many other such functions make it much easier for us to be data analysts. However, we need to know the basics and think about creative solutions to apply them.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to STDEV Function in Excel. Here we discuss the STDEV Formula in Excel and How to use the STDEV function in Excel, along with practical examples and a downloadable Excel template. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## Top 10 File Operations In Bash With Examples

Introduction to Bash File

Bash file is a methodology wherein bash offers various possibilities of operations to be performed to derive meaning out of the extensive data present in a file. This file is a collection of space where data, information, and various other parameters are stored for execution. In the current scenario, there is huge data present everywhere, and deriving important meaning out of them is a daunting task. Operations in a file are specifically for handling these scenarios like truncating a file, appending to a file, reading from a file, and many more.

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File operations in bash

As we mentioned in the introduction about the presence of a lot of file operations in bash and here, we will be saying about 10 of them, which are widely used in the industry. We want to inform you that this list won’t be exhaustive! So, let us get right into the gist of the article.

1. Truncating a File

Code:

file1.txt

Output:

Explanation: At first, we see that the size of file1 is 396 bytes, and once we truncate, the size is 0, as evident in the shaded output.

2. Appending a string to a file

This methodology is more or less like the truncation method only difference is that we add a line to the file.

Code:

echo "Size of the files in the folder: " ls -lh echo "Last line of the file: " tail -n 1 file1.txt echo "Adding a new line:"

Output:

Explanation: Here, we can see that the new last line has changed from Cras pharetra dolor eu eros iaculis porta to Mauris tempus quis est vitae eleifend.

Now that we have seen how to write into a file, it becomes inevitable to understand how to read from a file. Here we would use the keyword read and the opposite redirection operator “<” to fulfill the utility.

Here -r ensures the line read is raw and doesn’t escape and backslash characters. The word variableName is the variable where this line would be stored after it is ready for further use. Though this is one of the ways, there are other ways of reading a file.

Code:

echo "Reading the first line " read -r variableName < file1.txt echo "The first line is stored in the variable is: \$variableName"

Output:

4. Individual line-by-line read from a file

Code:

echo "Reading each line and printing them one by one" count=1 while read -r variableName; do echo "Line \$count" echo \$variableName count=\$((count+1)) done < file1.txt

Output:

5. Copy a file

The utility of this command is to copy the file to another location while keeping one at the original location. One uses this utility to keep a backup of the files so that an accidental deletion shouldn’t lead to significant consequences.

Code:

echo "Copying chúng tôi to a backup folder" echo "Files before copying: " ls /home/user/Backup cp chúng tôi /home/user/Backup echo "Files after copying: " ls /home/user/Backup

Output:

Explanation: You will eventually realize that chúng tôi is still in the original location.

6. Move a file

Code:

echo "Moving chúng tôi to a backup folder" echo "Files in Backup before copying: " ls /home/user/Backup echo "Files in original folder before copying: " ls /home/user mv chúng tôi /home/user/Backup echo "Files after copying: " ls /home/user/Backup echo "Files in original folder after copying: " ls /home/user

Output:

Explanation: Eventually, you’ll realize that we’ve moved chúng tôi from its original source to the new directory.

7. Finding the size of the file

It is often essential to understand the size of a file to further understand the disk’s health in terms of free space. Using the below command, we can easily keep track of the size of files and hence the health.

Code:

echo "Finding File Size of File2.txt" echo "Size of the file is: \$file_size bytes"

Output:

Conclusion

In this module, we have looked into all aspects of file operations in bash and would highly encourage you to have hands-on practice with all the commands to get acquainted. In this article, we have gone through all the utilities with an example to mark the effectiveness of learning bash the EduCBa way.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Bash File” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

## How To Perform Spell Check In Excel (Examples)

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Introduction to Spell Check in Excel Uses of Spell Check in Excel

Spell Check is used to identify spelling errors, typing errors, or any kind of duplicate words (I will explain it with an example) in Excel. It may be a useful tool when using some texts repetitively in Excel. Although many of us play with numbers in Excel, spell check is crucial in creating some reports and datasets that may have text. So, nobody will want to see any errors in it, or you don’t want to upset your managers/bosses with these mistakes.

Examples of Spell Check in Excel

In the below screenshot, I have the conversation between 2 guys saved in Excel. Don’t go with the content; it’s purely to make you understand better.

Screenshot 1

In Screenshot 1, you can see there are a lot of typing errors and spelling mistakes.

To run spell check in this particular workbook, you must activate the cells where you want to check spelling or typing errors and go to the “REVIEW” tab in the Excel ribbon, and there you will find the spell check option.

A shortcut to run spell-check is simply pressing the “F7” button from your keyboard after activating the cells/worksheet.

Screenshot 2

In the above Screenshot 2, you can notice that I have selected the A1 cell and the spell check option in the review tab.

Key Point: If you select cell A1, it will go through all the cells horizontally, i.e., all columns of the first row, then move to the second row and check all the column cells in the second row (from left to right) and then move to the third row and so on.

A spelling dialogue box will be displayed after going on to the last cell, where any value is stored and identifies any spelling error.

If you want to start to spell check from somewhere else, let’s take an example, cell D5, it will simply go through all cells of Row 5 and then rows below it, and when done will all rows after D5, it will ask you, “if you want to continue checking at the beginning of the sheet?”. Some dialogue boxes like the below screenshot will appear. If you select yes, it will check the remaining cells (A1 to D5 in our case) and shows suggestion. To make you understand better, I have selected the D5 cell and pressed F7 now; it will check all the cells after it, give spelling correction suggestions & after it will ask you to check the remaining cells or not and work accordingly. For your better understanding, please go through the below Screenshots.

Screenshot 3

Pressed F7 after activating B13 cell, now spell check dialogue box will appear with correction suggestions.

Screenshot 4

The results of the cell B13 correction through Spell Check is mentioned in the screenshot.

Screenshot 5

After completing the last cell with correction(C13), it has asked to check from the beginning of the sheet. As discussed above.

Features of Spell Check in Excel Dialog Box

You might have noticed in the screenshots that many spell-check options are available. Let us discuss them one by one.

Add to Dictionary: If there is an error in any text, but you anticipate using the word frequently in the future (such as a name or abbreviation), you can add it to the dictionary in Excel. It will become part of the dictionary and a list of acceptable words. Any word added to Excel’s Dictionary will not be detected as an error in the future in any workbook.

Change: you can use it when you want to change a word according to suggestions, and it will change it according to the selected suggested word. (You can see in Screenshot 3 the words suggested for text in cell C5.)

Change all: It will replace all the instances of that word in a worksheet according to the selected suggestion.

Autocorrect: If you go with this option, it will autocorrect the word with a selected suggestion, and it will be added to the autocorrect list viz; every time you type that word, it will be automatically corrected according to the selected suggestion.

Dictionary Language: We can change the dictionary used in Excel.

Options: Used to change the Excel default settings (discussed later in this guide), and it will open an option box where you can make changes accordingly.

Now I chose to continue to spell check from the beginning of the sheet. And chose options accordingly. All spell checks are done.

In the above Screenshot 6, you might have noticed some spelling errors in the worksheet, but Excel isn’t detecting them. Have you noticed? It has brought us to notice the default settings of the Spellcheck, and they are:

It ignores all errors in the upper case. For e.g., the words “AAM” and “FIINE” in cells C4 & D4 are not marked as errors.

All words with numbers in them will be ignored too. (cell B12 “newww123”)

It also ignores all internet addresses and file addresses. (D7 & B12)

Screenshot 7

Another important feature to note here is Spell check doesn’t ignore repeated words. You can identify it by comparing Screenshot 1 and Screenshot 6 carefully.

Cell F4 has “how are you?” and spell check has detected it. I have deleted it with the delete option, which only appears when we have any kind of repetition in Excel.

Things to Remember

Excel uses spell check to identify spelling errors.

It detects the repetition of words.

You can ignore, change, autocorrect, or add to the dictionary all detected errors according to your requirement.

It doesn’t detect errors in words written in uppercase or have numbers in it.

It ignores all file and internet addresses.

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This is a guide to Spell Check in Excel. Here we discuss Spell Check in Excel and How to use Spell Check in Excel, along with practical examples and downloadable Excel templates. You can also go through our other suggested articles –

## Polymorphism In Python With Examples

What is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism can be defined as a condition that occurs in many different forms. It is a concept in Python programming wherein an object defined in Python can be used in different ways. It allows the programmer to define multiple methods in a derived class, and it has the same name as present in the parent class. Such scenarios support method overloading in Python.

In this Python Polymorphism tutorial, you will learn:

Polymorphism in Operators

An operator in Python helps perform mathematical and several other programming tasks. For example, the ‘+’ operator helps in performing addition between two integer types in Python, and in the same way, the same operator helps in concatenating strings in Python programming.

Let us take an example of + (plus) operator in Python to display an application of Polymorphism in Python as shown below:

Python Code:

p = 55 q = 77 r = 9.5 g1 = "Guru" g2 = "99!" print("the sum of two numbers",p + q) print("the data type of result is",type(p + q)) print("The sum of two numbers",q + r) print("the data type of result is", type (q + r)) print("The concatenated string is", g1 + g2) print("The data type of two strings",type(g1 + g2))

Output:

the sum of two numbers 132 The sum of the two numbers 86.5 The concatenated string is Guru99!

The above example can also be regarded as the example of operator overloading.

Polymorphism in user-defined methods

A user-defined method in the Python programming language are methods that the user creates, and it is declared using the keyword def with the function name.

Polymorphism in the Python programming language is achieved through method overloading and overriding. Python defines methods with def keyword and with the same name in both child and parent class.

Let us take the following example as shown below: –

Python Code:

from math import pi class square: def __init__(self, length): self.l = length def perimeter(self): return 4 * (self.l) def area(self): return self.l * self.l class Circle: def __init__(self, radius): self.r = radius def perimeter(self): return 2 * pi * self.r def area(self): return pi * self.r * * 2 # Initialize the classes sqr = square(10) c1 = Circle(4) print("Perimeter computed for square: ", sqr.perimeter()) print("Area computed for square: ", sqr.area()) print("Perimeter computed for Circle: ", c1.perimeter()) print("Area computed for Circle: ", c1.area())

Output:

Perimeter computed for square:  40 Area computed for square:  100 Perimeter computed for Circle:  25.132741228718345 Area computed for Circle:  50.26548245743669

In the above code, there are two user-defined methods, perimeter and area, defined in circle and square classes.

As shown above, both circle class and square class invoke the same method name displaying the characteristic of Polymorphism to deliver the required output.

Polymorphism in Functions

The built-in functions in Python are designed and made compatible to execute several data types. In Python, Len() is one of the key built-in functions.

It works on several data types: list, tuple, string, and dictionary. The Len () function returns definite information aligned with these many data types.

The following figure shows how Polymorphism can be applied in Python with relation to in-built functions: –

Following program helps in illustrating the application of Polymorphism in Python: –

Python Code:

print ("The length of string Guru99 is ",len("Guru99")) print("The length of list is ",len(["Guru99","Example","Reader"])) print("The length of dictionary is ",len({"Website name":"Guru99","Type":"Education"}))

Output:

The length of string Guru99 is 6 The length of the list is 3 The length of the dictionary is 2

In the above example, Len () function of Python performs Polymorphism for string, list, and dictionary data types, respectively.

Polymorphism and Inheritance

Inheritance in Python can be defined as the programming concept wherein a child class defined inherit properties from another base class present in Python.

There are two key Python concepts termed method overriding and method overloading.

In method overloading, Python provides the feature of creating methods that have the same name to perform or execute different functionalities in a given piece of code. It allows to overload methods and uses them to perform different tasks in simpler terms.

In Method overriding, Python overrides the value that shares a similar name in parent and child classes.

Let us take the following example of Polymorphism and inheritance as shown below: –

Python Code:

class baseclass: def __init__(self, name): chúng tôi = name def area1(self): pass def __str__(self): return self.name class rectangle(baseclass): def __init__(self, length, breadth): super().__init__("rectangle") self.length = length self.breadth = breadth def area1(self): return self.length * self.breadth class triangle(baseclass): def __init__(self, height, base): super().__init__("triangle") self.height = height self.base = base def area1(self): return (self.base * self.height) / 2 a = rectangle(90, 80) b = triangle(77, 64) print("The shape is: ", b) print("The area of shape is", b.area1()) print("The shape is:", a) print("The area of shape is", a.area1())

Output:

The shape is: a triangle The area of a shape is 2464.0 The shape is: a rectangle The area of a shape is 7200

In above code, the methods have the same name defined as init method and area1 method. The object of class square and rectangle are then used to invoke the two methods to perform different tasks and provide the output of the area of square and rectangle.

Polymorphism with the Class Methods

The Python programming enables programmers to achieve Polymorphism and method overloading with class methods. The different classes in Python can have methods that are declared in the same name across the Python code.

In Python, two different classes can be defined. One would be child class, and it derives attributes from another defined class termed as parent class.

The following example illustrates the concept of Polymorphism with class methods: –

Python Code:

class amazon: def __init__(self, name, price): chúng tôi = name self.price = price def info(self): print("This is product and am class is invoked. The name is {self.name}. This costs {self.price} rupees.") class flipkart: def __init__(self, name, price): chúng tôi = name self.price = price def info(self): print(f "This is product and fli class is invoked. The name is {self.name}. This costs {self.price} rupees.") FLP = flipkart("Iphone", 2.5) AMZ = amazon("Iphone", 4) for product1 in (FLP, AMZ): product1.info()

Output:

This is a product, and fli class is invoked. The name is iPhone, and this costs 2.5 rupees. This is a product, and am class is invoked. The name is iPhone, and this costs 4 rupees.

In the above code, two different classes named as flipkart and amazon use the same method names info and init to provide respective price quotations of the product and further illustrate the concept of Polymorphism in Python.

In compile-time Polymorphism, the compiler of the Python program resolves the call. Compile-time Polymorphism is accomplished through method overloading.

The Python compiler does not resolve the calls during run time for polymorphism. It is also classified as method overriding wherein the same methods carry similar signatures or properties, but they form a part of different classes.

Summary:

Polymorphism can be defined as a condition that occurs in many different forms.

An operator in Python helps perform mathematical and several other programming tasks.

A user-defined method in the Python programming language are methods that the user creates, and it is declared using the keyword def with the function name.

Polymorphism in Python offers several desirable qualities, such as it promotes the reusability of codes written for different classes and methods.

A child class is a derived class, and it gets its attributes from the parent class.

The Polymorphism is also achieved through run-time method overriding and compile-time method overloading.

Polymorphism in Python is also attained through operator overloading and class methods.

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