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Introduction to VMware

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This software helps us in various domains like security, storage, networking, etc. VMware provides us with various software and products that can be used for different benefits; here, we will see the various benefits of using that product and software for better understanding and usage.

Various VMware Benefits

As we already know, VMware has many benefits, which can be understood by the various product it provides, which adds great help to security networking, storage, and many more areas.

1. Provides virtual desktop infrastructure

One of the benefits of using this is we can use the desktop from anywhere we want. From this, we do not require a full desktop setup in the workplace; we can use VMware Horizon, which allows us to manage and run the Windows desktop from VMware Cloud or AWS. This removes a lot of things for us, like we do not require to manage and set up the full desktop at the workplace. Also, it helps reduce the monitoring and managing of user security and centralizes management. We can use this with two more VMware products, Dynamic Environment Manager and App Volumes, which help us in application delivery and managing the Windows desktop.

2. Provide personal desktop

VMware created this as their first product, enabling users to run or manage virtual machines directly on a single Linux, Windows, or laptop. Using this, we can have a virtual machine inside the physical machine, which can run without causing any issues; in short, it can run parallel or simultaneously. If we talk about virtual machines, they have operating systems such as Linux or Windows. With this, we can even run Windows on the Linux machine and vice versa without worrying about the installed operating system on the machine. The product name VM Workstation enables us to run the virtual machine in the machine; for Mac computers, we have VM Fusion.

3. Provide storage and availability 4. Provide disaster recovery management

VMware benefits also include disaster recovery; for this, it provides us with the Site Recovery Manager, which helps us create the recovery plan, which will be executed automatically in the case of failure. The NSX further integrates with this system to maintain and preserve the security and network on the migrated VMs.

5. Provide the cloud infrastructure

For infrastructure, we have one product from VMware which is known as vSphere, which provide the following points:

vMotion

vSphere Client

ESXi

vCenter Server

6. Provide us SDDC platform

SDDC manager helps to integrate various software into a single platform, such as VMware NSX, vSphere, vSAN, etc. So for this, we have VMware cloud foundation, which is a software that helps to bundle this mentioned software by the use of the SDDC platform; now we can deploy this bundle on the private cloud or also have the option to run this bundle within as public cloud but as a service. Admin can do all these tasks; admin also has the provision to the application without the need for storage and network.

7. Provide network and security

As seen above are the main benefits of VM, as we have already seen it provides us with many products which can be used for different purposes as per the need, one of the main things about doing things virtually without carrying the setup at the workplace.

Below are the key points that need to be kept in mind while using the VN product; they provide us with many benefits, but we also have some drawbacks that must be focused on.

Also, there is a lack of support, which means we may encounter several bugs while using the VM product.

Not all things are free; the fees are very high for licensing.

Conclusion – VMware Benefits

As we have already seen so many benefits of VM in this article, we have also seen the different products that provide for different purposes; you can understand and start using them by the above explanation; we have many more things in VM.

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A Complete Guide To The Jira Versions

Introduction to Jira Versions

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Different Jira Versions 8.7. X Version

Maintenance of GDPR: This version supports the general data protection policy for the real user of the tool, i.e. the admin has the power to store all data of employees and erase the personal data of employees who left the company.

Support SQL 11: This version Jira tool supports SQL 11 for the database to the server.

Support DataCenter Authentication: This version provides OpenID authentication to the user and supports the datacenter authentication to the JIRA tool user.

8.6. X Version

Handles Version Control: It can handle each modified copy of older version files and copy them into the new Jira instance.

Provide Notification to Outlook:  The company maps the response or notifications into the Outlook mail services in this version. Any task, issue, or work will be transparent to everyone.

Users & Roles Made Easier: In this version, the users and roles section is added reasonably, i.e., adding a resource to a project or assigning a role to the resource will be easier or more noticeable.

Support SQL 10: This version Jira tool supports SQL 10 for the database to the server.

Search by Prefix & Suffix: The search with prefix or suffix name of a task or issue can be possible from this version.

Provides Burnup chart & Edit Sprint: From this version, the Burnup chart (status of task pending) of the task generated, and the team to edit the sprint as per requirement. For this, it keeps the status report.

8.5. X Version

It is one of the stable releases of the Jira tool and an Enterprise edition.

Managed by Mobile App: The team member can manage the tool through authenticated mobile devices from this version.

Support Memory Management: It provides troubleshooting and supporting plugins for JVM garbage collection, i.e., to delete unwanted objects.

Improving Performance: Compared to the previous version, it provides high performance, accessibility, and issue archive.

7.13. X Version

Adopt Java version JDK8: As Oracle stops JDK updates, so Jira 7.13 tool will adopt OpenJDK8. It supports maintenance and security patches.

Improving Performance: As the tool is utilized for performance and regression testing, it showcases a performance improvement compared to the previous version.

7.10. X Version

Produce good GUI: In this version, the Jira tools look and feel changes, i.e., colors, pages, icons, etc., but the navigation remains the same.

History of Projects: This version shows the previous project list to team members to improve the work culture and performance.

Project List Refreshed: The team can refresh the project list or display the ongoing projects, introducing new projects and the project search bar.

Team Workflow: It provides the status report of team workflow by mailing notifications via Outlook or internal conversation through Stride. It shows the full update regarding the project.

7.8. X Version

Support Work Faster: From this version onwards, the quick search option will be added to the Jira tool, so we easily search any project or issue, or task by putting the full name or part of the name in the quick search box. It shows us the most relevant results so the work will be faster.

Add new Language: This version adds the “Dutch” language to the Jira tool.

7.6. X Version

It is also an Enterprise edition of the Jira tool.

Support Java JDK8: When the support from Oracle stops for JDK8, then the Jira tool adopts OpenJDK8 for maintenance and security updates for the tool. It will support both Jira with JDK8 or JRE8.

Introduce Priority: From this version onwards, the JIRA tool introduces the concept of priority to the issue or task, or project. The workflow will move from one level to another, depending on the priority.

Support Live Monitoring: This version of the Jira tool supports the live monitoring of the workflow or status of the project. It is real-time monitoring of the Jira tool to calculate the team’s efficiency.

Support Extra Features: From this version, some features are added to the JIRA tool, like drag and drop, Issue movement between columns, better security, and performance issue.

Conclusion

This article briefly discusses the different versions of the Jira tool with some extreme features. There are so many versions of this tool, but I discuss some Enterprise versions. Now, the modified release of the tool is going on, but in the near future, some enterprise editions will be released with some new features.

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A Complete Guide To The Db2 Version

Introduction to DB2

Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

Later, after 1990, universal database called as UDB which is one of the DB2 server was created after deciding that the product should be able to run on any given authorized operating system such as windows, unix and linux platforms. Here we will see various versions of the DB2 and how it has evolved by adding new functionalities and supporting new programming languages over the period of time.

Various DB2 Versions

Given below are the various DB2 versions:

Version Code Name

Version 3.4 Code language used to create this platform is Cobweb.

Version 8.1, Version 8.2 Code language used to create this platform is Stinger.

Version 9.1 Code language used to create this platform is Viper.

Version 9.5 Code language used to create this platform is Viper 2.

Version 9.7 Code language used to create this platform is Cobra.

Version 9.8 Code language used to create this platform is PureScale.

Version 10.1 Code language used to create this platform is Galileo.

Version 10.5 Code language used to create this platform is Kepler.

To check the version of DB2 on you LUW machine, you can type the following command on the terminal or console:

Code:

SELECT fixpack_num, service_level FROM TABLE (sysproc.env_get_inst_info()) as informationOfInstance

Output:

1. Viper 2. Viper 2 3. Cobra

IBM came up with a new version called cobra in the month of June in 2009 which is the codename for DB2 9.7 for LUW which introduced new features of temporary tables, compression of data for database indexes and storage of objects which are very large. Cobra also came up with support of various XML data partitioning techniques like range partitioning, hash partitioning and multidimensional clustering. Because of these features one can easily work with XML in environment of data warehousing.

Many additional functionalities for users working with oracle database were also introduced in DB2 which included PL/ SQL syntax, commonly used syntaxes of SQL, scripting syntax and oracle database’s datatypes. Microsoft SQL server and oracle database users find it very familiar for using DB2 because of the exhibition of behavior of concurrency model.

4. Purescale

IBM launched a new DB2 version release in 2009 in the month of October named DB2 purescale which is the cluster database mainly designed for the non-main frame platforms which is mostly suitable for OLTP transactions that is online transaction processing. The design of the DB2 purescale is based on the DB2 data sharing with parallel sysplex on the main frame platforms. The architecture of DB2 purescale is completely fault-tolerant and has the storage of shared disk. This version of DB2 provides automatic load balancing and complete availability which can be extended upto 128 servers of database.

5. Galileo

IBM introduced to a new version of DB2 in early 2012 which was DB2 10.1 and the code name for this version was Galileo which can be used for windows, Linux and Unix platforms. One of the most promising features that became available was fine-level control over the database in which we can restrict the access on row level and column level. Besides this, Galileo came up with lot many new data management capabilities like multi-temperature management of the data which helps in deciding whether the data is hot or cold which means how often the data is accessed and accordingly we can decide the storage of the data. Another feature of Galileo includes the adaptive compression capability.

6. Kepler

IBM announced a new version of DB2 named Kepler in June 2013 which is the code name for DB2 10.5.

7. Other Versions

IBM launched a new version of DB2 distribution system for hadoop in the month of April 2024 to June 2024 which was named as DB2 LUW 11.1. IBM also relaunched a version of DB2 and dashDB in the middle of 2023 year and named them to DB2. An artificial intelligence enabled DB2 version was released by IBM on June 27 in 2023 which introduced many new performance improvements in query building and execution as well as features which can help in creating the applications which are enabled with AI.

Conclusion – DB2 Version Recommended Articles

This is a guide to DB2 Version. Here we discuss the introduction and the various DB2 versions for the better understanding. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

A Complete Guide To Google Ads Editor

If you’ve used Google Ads for any amount of time, you’ve probably used Google Ads Editor. It’s a desktop application that’s invaluable for managing campaigns and making bulk changes.

So how can you make the best use of this tool and all of the features it entails?

In this guide, you’ll find everything you need to get started with Google Ads Editor, use basic features, create new builds offline, and more.

What is Google Ads Editor?

Google Ads Editor is an offline editor for your Google Ads accounts.

Instead of making changes directly in the online UI, you can make them offline in Editor and then post in bulk.

Advertisers can also work across multiple accounts simultaneously using Editor.

How Google Ads Editor Got Started

In the early days of Google Ads (formerly called Google AdWords), all we had was the online interface.

I started managing Google Ads campaigns as an in-house PPC manager in 2002, and it was so successful for us that we quickly expanded our account to represent all our products.

Managing so many campaigns quickly became unwieldy. Any changes we made went live immediately – there was no way to review the work before it became active.

And there was no way to make bulk changes. Everything had to be edited by hand, one change at a time.

In early 2006, Google Ads Editor (then called AdWords Editor) rolled out.

Search marketers everywhere rejoiced. Finally, bulk editing was going to be a lot easier.

Why an Offline Editor?

It turns out that Google Ads had been using a version of Editor internally for a while. Advertisers could send bulk changes to their reps, and the reps used Editor to make the changes.

Getting Started With Google Ads Editor

To use Google Ads Editor, first, download it from Google Ads.

Once you download the tool, you’ll be prompted to log in and download your Google Ads accounts from your My Client Center (MCC).

The Accounts Manager shows all the accounts in your MCC, along with an optimization score, stats on the last date updated, and any errors.

Using Google Ads Editor: The Basics

Once the account is downloaded, you’ll see the main screen:

In the left nav, you’ll see all your campaigns, along with an icon indicating the campaign type:

The magnifying glass indicates a search campaign, and the video camera indicates a YouTube campaign. There is also an icon for display campaigns.

You can search for a campaign in the left navigational menu by typing a search term or campaign name into the Search Campaign box at the top.

There’s also an icon to tell you whether the account has been synced.

Syncing is important to make sure you’ve imported any changes made directly in Google Ads into Google Ads Editor.

We’ll talk about syncing later in this article.

Now you can see all the ad groups within the campaign.

Selecting a campaign or ad group in the top left will change the information in the bottom – you’ll just see info for the selected campaign.

When you select an element from the lower left, you’ll see details in the center and right-hand section of Editor:

In this example, I’ve selected “Ad groups” for the entire account.

In the center, I can see all the ad groups, along with their status (green dot for active, hash marks for paused).

On the right, I can select an ad group and make edits to any of the fields shown.

Selecting multiple elements (in this case, ad groups) allows you to make bulk changes all at once.

Let’s say I wanted to update all the bids for every ad group in the entire account to the same amount. I simply select all the ad groups in the center, and then make the change in the right:

Then enter the desired bid in the Default Max CPC box shown above, which will update all the ad group bids to the same amount.

You can make a myriad of bulk edits this way.

Let’s say I wanted to update all the final URLs for every ad in each campaign to the same URL.

First, select the campaign in the left nav, as seen in number one, above.

Finally, change the Final URL to the new URL in the right nav as seen in number four.

Posting Your Changes

You may be reading this and thinking, “I can do all of these things in the online Google Ads UI. Why would I use this Editor?”

The difference is that changes made in the online UI go live immediately.

As mentioned earlier, the great thing about using Google Ads Editor is that your changes are all made offline. This allows you to check your work for errors before it goes live.

We’ve all made a change that we’ve had to go back and undo – and sometimes this is a daunting task. Using Editor greatly reduces the chance for error.

Training New Hires

I love using Editor to train new hires. Not only is it easy to see and understand the account structure in Editor, but it helps with QA-ing the work of a trainee.

If you’re working alongside the trainee in person, you can physically look at their changes in Editor before they’re pushed live.

If you’re training someone remotely, you can have them upload their changes in a paused state, import them to your local Editor, and check them – and then change the status to Active.

Be sure to select All Campaigns or Selected Campaigns to post the correct changes.

Need to undo a change? There’s an Undo button above the center section:

View and Edit Settings

Google Ads Editor is great for viewing and editing campaign settings. I talked about using Editor to audit settings in an earlier article, 10 Tips for a Fresh Start After a Google Ads Account Takeover.

Filtering in Google Ads Editor

If you work in large Google Ads accounts, it may be overwhelming to look at the entire account all at once, especially if there are a lot of paused campaigns.

Here’s what I see when I first open one of our enterprise accounts:

The entire screen is filled with paused campaigns. Not helpful if I’m trying to work on active campaigns.

That’s where filters come in.

You can create a filter for just about anything:

That’s only through the I’s in the alphabet!

One filter I use a lot is a filter that shows me only enabled entities: campaigns, ad groups, keywords, etc.:

This filter is invaluable for working in large accounts with a lot of paused entities.

Import Statistics Into Google Ads Editor

We’ve covered a lot of ways to view your Google Ads account and make changes.

At this point, you may be thinking, “This is all fine, but if I’m working on my account, wouldn’t I want to see performance data?”

Yes, you would, and yes you can!

Google Ads Editor has a View Statistics feature that allows you to import performance stats.

You can choose your date range at the top left, and then select whatever statistics you want to view in Editor. You can also save the set of stats to view later.

Viewing stats in Google Ads Editor allows you to make optimization decisions, just like you would in the online UI.

Here I’ve selected all the stats in the Performance drop-down:

Make sure to check the box next to the campaigns for which you want to view stats, in the left-hand section.

Create New Builds in Google Ads Editor

One of the most useful features of Google Ads Editor is the ability to create new builds offline.

This allows you to check your work and even have someone else check your work before you post.

Many PPC managers use Excel to develop campaigns, ad groups, keywords, and ad copy.

Excel is the ideal tool for campaign development because it’s easy to sort, filter, organize, and measure the length of each field.

Just make sure your Excel sheet has the correct column headings, and you can easily import your new campaigns to Editor.

I like to start a new build with keywords. You can create new campaigns and ad groups in Editor at the same time you create keywords.

Here are the column headings I use:

You could also add columns for status, bid, and other relevant fields.

From there, you can just copy and paste from Excel. As long as your column headings exactly match the entity name in Editor, Editor will pick them up and know what they are.

You can use the Make multiple changes feature to upload elements to existing campaigns and ad groups, too. There are two ways to do this.

Alternately, you can choose Use selected destinations in the upper left of the Make multiple changes menu.

Select the ad group(s) or campaign(s) you want to add elements to, then paste and process.

Google Ads Editor allows you to check your changes prior to posting. You can check for errors and fix them before you post.

Find and Replace

One of my favorite features of Google Ads Editor is the find and replace function.

You can replace text, append text, change capitalization, or change URLs.

Replace text is useful if you need to change a word or phrase in ad copy or keywords, or even in naming conventions for campaigns and ad groups.

Append text is especially helpful if you need to append URL tracking parameters to a URL or entity name.

Change capitalization allows you to change to title case, sentence case, or all lower case.

Change URLs is a great tool that allows you to set URLs, append text to URLs, or remove a URL parameter.

Important Reminders

Whew! I hope by now you can see the power of Google Ads Editor. There are so many things you can do with it.

Here are a few important things to remember when using Google Ads Editor.

Before beginning an Editor session, be sure to get recent changes!

Remember, Google Ads Editor is an offline editor. It won’t know if changes were made to your Google Ads account by you or others in the online UI unless you get recent changes:

Don’t forget to post any changes you’ve made before closing the Google Ads Editor app. I’m sure every PPC manager has forgotten to do this at least once and then wondered why the changes weren’t live in their account.

You’ll still want to work in the online UI for many tasks.

Editor won’t replace reporting, viewing graphs, checking billing, and many other features available in the online UI.

Use both Google Ads Editor and the online UI for maximum efficiency.

Editor has a lot of annoying error messages that aren’t “fatal” errors.

Seeing a bunch of yellow exclamation error messages in Google Ads Editor can be unnerving.

Think of these less like “errors” and more like “reminders.”

This example is in an account that makes extensive use of modified broad match. It’s a large account where we haven’t switched everything over to phrase match yet.

It’s good to have the reminder to make the switch but seeing a bunch of exclamation points can be scary.

Note that red error messages are indeed fatal errors that will need to be fixed immediately.

Now that you understand how to use Google Ads Editor, I hope you make it a regular part of your PPC management workflow.

More Resources:

Featured image: Iconic Bestiary/Shutterstock

Complete Guide To Sql Row_Number

Introduction to SQL ROW_NUMBER

Syntax and Parameters:

The basic syntax for writing the ROW_NUMBER function in SQL is as follows :

ROW_NUMBER() OVER( [PARTITION BY partition_expression] )

The parameters used in the above syntax are as follows :

partition_expression: The column or expression on the basis of which the entire dataset has to be divided. If you do not specify anything, by default, the entire result set is considered as a single window or partition.

order_expression: The column or expression on the basis of which the rows in the partition set are ordered or sorted in a particular ascending or descending order.

Examples of SQL ROW_NUMBER

In order to illustrate ROW_NUMBER() function in great detail, let us create a table called “yearly_sales”.It contains details pertaining to sales made by a salesperson in a particular year. We can use the following code snippet to create the table.

CREATE TABLE public.yearly_sales ( year smallint NOT NULL, salesperson character varying(255) COLLATE pg_catalog."default" NOT NULL, store_state character varying(255) COLLATE pg_catalog."default" NOT NULL, sale_amount numeric NOT NULL );

We can use the following code snippet to insert values.

INSERT INTO public.yearly_sales( year, salesperson, store_state, sale_amount) VALUES (2024,'Radhika Singh','DL',18000), (2024,' Kate Dave','DL',12000), (2024,'Kate Dave','DL',13260), (2024,'Radhika Singh','DL',11200), (2024,'Radhika Singh','KA',18000), (2024,'Kate Dave','MH',14300), (2024,'Kate Dave','MH',15100), (2024,'Greg Morocco','NY',17200), (2024,'Greg Morocco','NY',12350);

After the above-mentioned insertion operations, the data in the “yearly_sales” table looks something as shown below :

SELECT * FROM yearly_sales;

Now we are all set to try a few examples based on the newly created “yearly_sales” table.

Example #1

SQL query to illustrate the use of ROW_NUMBER() function to assign a sequential number to each row in the result set.

SELECT year, salesperson, sale_amount, store_state, ROW_NUMBER () OVER (ORDER BY year) FROM yearly_sales;

In this example, since we have not created any partition, the entire result set by default is considered as a single partition. We can see in the data output that the row_number() function has sequentially assigned a unique integer number to each row in the partition, starting from 1 and ending at 9.

Example #2

Use of ROW_NUMBER() function to assign a row number to each row in a partition created by year in the result set.

SELECT year, salesperson, sale_amount, store_state, ROW_NUMBER () OVER (PARTITION BY year ORDER BY sale_amount DESC) FROM yearly_sales;

We can observe in the image that the ROW_NUMBER() function first created partitions by year (2024,2024, and 2023) and then uniquely numbered each row starting from 1 within each partition.

Example #3

(the salesperson who made sales of the maximum amount) during the years 2023, 2023, and 2023.

WITH CTE AS ( SELECT year, salesperson, sale_amount, store_state, ROW_NUMBER () OVER (PARTITION BY year ORDER BY sale_amount DESC) as row_number FROM yearly_sales ) SELECT year, salesperson FROM CTE WHERE row_number = 1;

In this example, we have created a CTE to illustrate the same. In the next example, we will use a subquery to illustrate the same further.

Example #4

SQL query to illustrate the use of the ROW_NUMBER() function to perform pagination of a huge result set.

SELECT * FROM (SELECT year, salesperson, sale_amount, store_state, ROW_NUMBER () OVER (ORDER BY year DESC) as row_number FROM yearly_sales ) t WHERE row_number BETWEEN 4 AND 8 ORDER BY sale_amount;

Many times, we might have to create dashboards or web applications where we cannot show the entire result set on a single page.

Conclusion Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “SQL ROW_NUMBER” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

A Complete Guide On Docker For Beginners

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon

Introduction

It is not difficult to create a machine learning model that operates on our computers. It is more difficult when you are working with a customer who wants to use the model at scale, that is, a model that can scale and perform on all types of servers all over the world. After you have finished designing your model, it may function smoothly on your laptop or server, but not so well on other platforms, such as when you move it to the production stage or a different server. Many things can go wrong, such as performance issues, the application crashing, or the application not being effectively optimized.

Sometimes it is not the model that is the issue but the requirement to recreate the entire stack. Docker enables you to easily replicate the training and running environment for the machine learning model from any location. Docker allows you to package your code and dependencies into containers that can be transferred to different hosts, regardless of hardware or operating system.

Developers can use Docker to keep track of different versions of a container image, see who produced it with what, and roll back to prior versions. Finally, even if one of your machine learning application services is upgrading, fixing, or down, your machine learning application can continue to run. To update an output message integrated throughout the application, you do not have to update the whole application and disrupt other services.

Image 1

Let’s dig in and start investigating Docker.

What is Docker!

It is a software platform that makes developing, executing, managing, and distributing applications easier. That had accomplished by virtualizing the operating system of the computer it had installed.

Docker’s first edition had launched in 2013.

The GO programming language had used for creating Docker.

Looking at the rich set of functionality Docker has got to offer, it’s been widely accepted by some of the world’s leading organizations and universities, such as Visa, PayPal, Cornell University and Indiana University (just to name a few) to run and manage their applications using Docker.

Now we try to understand the problem, and solution offered by Docker

Problem

Let us imagine you want to host three separate Python-based applications on a single server (which could either be a physical or a virtual machine). A different version of Python used by these programs, libraries and dependencies varies from application to application.

We are unable to host all three applications on the same workstation since various versions of Python can not be installed on the same machine,

Solution

Let’s see what we could do if we didn’t use Docker to tackle this problem. In this case, we might solve the problem with the help of three physical machines or by using a single physical computer that is powerful enough to host and run three virtual machines.

Both approaches would help us install various versions of Python, and their associated dependencies, on each of these machines.

Regardless of which solution we chose, the costs of purchasing and maintaining the hardware are substantial.

Let’s look at how Docker might be a viable and cost-effective solution to this issue.

To comprehend this, we must first examine it’s functionality.

Image 2

In simple terms, the system with Docker installed and running is referred to as a Docker Host or Host.

As a result, anytime you want to deploy an application on the host, it will build a logical entity to host that application. This logical object is known as a Container or a Docker Container in the Docker nomenclature.

There is no operating system installed or running on a Docker Container. However, a virtual replica of the process table, network interface(s), and file system mount point would be included (s).

It is passed further from the host operating system on which the container is hosted and executing. The kernel of the host’s operating system, on the other hand, is shared by all the containers executing on it.

It allows each container on the same host to be isolated from the others. As a result, it helps numerous containers with varied application requirements and dependencies to run on the same host as long as the operating system requirements are the same.

In other words, rather than virtualizing hardware components, Docker would virtualize the operating system of the host on which it had installed and running.

Pros and Cons of using Docker

Docker allows numerous programs with varied requirements and dependencies to be hosted on the same host as long as they use the same operating system.

Containers are typically a few megabytes in size and occupy relatively little disc space, allowing many applications hosted on the same host.

Robustness, There is no operating system installed on a container. As a result, it uses extremely little memory when compared to a virtual machine (which would have a complete operating system installed and running on it). It cuts the bootup time to only a few seconds, whereas it takes several minutes to start a virtual machine.

Cost is less when it comes to the hardware necessary to run Docker, and it is less demanding.

On the same Docker Host, we can not host applications together that have various operating system needs. Let’s pretend we have four separate programs, three of which require a Linux-based operating system and one of which requires a Windows-based operating system. The three apps that require a Linux-based OS can be on a single Docker Host. The application that requires a Windows-based OS must be on a separate Docker Host.

Docker Core Components

Docker Engine is one of the core components and is responsible for overall functioning.

It is a client-server based application with three main components.

Server

Rest API

Client

Image 3

The Server executes the dockerd (Docker Daemon) daemon, which is nothing more than a process. On the Docker platform, it is in charge of creating and managing Docker Images, Containers, Networks, and Volumes.

The REST API defines how applications can interface with server and tell it how to complete their tasks.

The Client is a command-line interface that allows users to communicate with Docker by issuing commands.

Docker Terminologies

Let’s have a look at some of the terms used in the Docker world.

Docker Images and Docker Containers are the two most key items you’ll encounter while working with Docker regularly.

In simple terms, a Docker Image is a template that includes the program, dependencies needed to run it on Docker.

A Docker Container, on the other hand, is a logical entity, as previously indicated. It is a functioning instance of the Docker Image in more technical terms.

Docker Hub

Docker Hub is the official online repository where we can find all of the Docker Images that we can use.

If we like, we can also use Docker Hub to store and distribute our custom images. We could also make them public or private, depending on our needs.

Note: Free users can keep one Docker Image private. More than one requires a paid subscription.

Installation

Before we get our hands dirty with Docker, one last thing we need to know is that we need to have it installed.

The official Docker CE installation directions are linked below. These instructions for installing Docker on your PC are straightforward.

Do you wish to skip installation and start practicing Docker? 

If you’re too slow to install Docker or don’t have enough resources on your PC, don’t panic – there’s a solution to your problem.

Play with Docker, an online playground for Docker, is the best place to start. It enables users to immediately practice Docker commands without the need to install anything on their PC. The best part is that it’s easy to use and completely free.

Docker Commands

It’s finally time to get our hands dirty with Docker commands, as we’ve all been waiting for

docker create

The docker create command will be the first command we’ll look at

We can use this command to build a new container.

The following is the syntax for this command:

docker create [options] IMAGE [commands] [arguments]

Please keep in mind that everything placed in square brackets is optional. It holds for all of the instructions presented in this guide.

The following are some examples of how to use this command:

$ docker create fedora 02576e880a2ccbb4ce5c51032ea3b3bb8316e5b626861fc87d28627c810af03

The docker create command in the preceding example would create a new container using the most recent Fedora image.

It will verify if the latest official Fedora image is available on the Docker Host before building the container. If the most recent image isn’t accessible on the Docker Host, the container had initiated using the Fedora image downloaded from the Docker Hub. If the Fedora image is already present on the Docker Host, the container uses that image for creation.

Docker results in the container ID on successful creation of the container. The container ID returned by Docker is in the above example.

A container ID had assigned to each container. When executing various activities on the container, such as starting, stopping, resuming, and so on, we refer to it by its container ID.

Let’s look at another example of the docker create command, this time with parameters and command supplied to it.

$ docker create -t -i ubuntu bash 30986b73dc0022dbba81648d9e35e6e866b4356f026e75660460c3474f1ca005

The docker create command in the preceding example builds a container using the Ubuntu image (if the image isn’t available on the Docker Host, it will download the most recent image from the Docker Hub before building the container).

The -t and -i options tell Docker to assign a terminal to the container so that the user can interact with it. It also tells Docker to run the bash command every time the container starts.

docker ps

The docker ps command is the next we’ll look at

We can use the docker ps command to see all the containers currently executing on the Docker Host.

$ docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES30986b73dc00 ubuntu "bash" 45 minutes ago Up About a minute elated_franklin

It only shows the containers that are running on the Docker Host right now.

To view the containers created on this Docker host, regardless of their current condition, whether it is running or not, you must use the -a option, which lists all containers created on this Docker Host.

$ docker ps -a CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES30986b73dc00 ubuntu “bash” About an hour ago Up 29 minutes elated_franklin02576e880a2c fedora “/bin/bash” About an hour ago Created hungry_sinoussi

Let us understand the above output of the docker ps command.

CONTAINER ID: consists of a unique string with alphanumeric characters connected with each container.

IMAGE: Docker Image used to create the container.

COMMAND: After the start of the container, it runs any application-specific commands.

CREATED: It provides the elapsed time since the creation of the container.

STATUS: It provides the current status of the container.

If the container is running, it will display Up along with time elapsed. (Up About an hour or Up 5 minutes)

If the container is not running, the status will be Exited, with the exit status code enclosed in round brackets and the time expired. (Exited (0) 2 weeks ago or Exited (137) 10 seconds ago,)

PORTS: It provides port mappings described for the container.

NAMES: In addition to the CONTAINER ID, each container had given a unique name. A container can be identified by its container ID or by its unique name. Each container Docker generates and assigns a unique name by default. If you wish to change the container to a unique name, use the  –name option with the docker create or docker run commands.

I hope this helps you better grasp what the docker ps command returns.

docker start

The command helps to start any stopped containers.

docker start [options] CONTAINER ID/NAME [CONTAINER ID/NAME…]

To start the container, you can specify the first unique characters of the container ID or its name.

Below you can look at the example.

$ docker start 30986 $ docker start elated_franklin

docker restart

The command helps to restart any running containers.

docker restart [options] CONTAINER ID/NAME [CONTAINER ID/NAME…]

Similarly, we can restart by specifying the first unique characters of the container ID or its name.

Look at the examples using this command

$ docker restart 30986 $ docker restart elated_franklin

docker stop

The command helps to stop any running containers.

docker stop [options] CONTAINER ID/NAME [CONTAINER ID/NAME…]

It is related to the start command.

You can specify the first unique characters of the container ID or its name to stop the container.

Have a look at the below examples

$ docker stop 30986 $ docker stop elated_franklin

docker run

It first creates the container and then starts it. In summary, it is a combination of the docker create and start commands.

It has a similar syntax to docker create.

docker run [options] IMAGE [commands] [arguments] $ docker run ubuntu 30fa018c72682d78cf168626b5e6138bb3b3ae23015c5ec4bbcc2a088e67520

In the above example, it creates a container using the latest Ubuntu image and starts the container, and immediately stops it. We can not get a chance to interact with it.

To interact with the container, we need to specify the options -it to the docker run command, then we can interact with the container.

$ docker run -it ubuntu

Type exit in the terminal to come out of the container.

docker rm

We use this command to delete a container.

docker rm [options] CONTAINER ID/NAME [CONTAINER ID/NAME...] $ docker rm 30fa elated_franklin

In the above example, we are instructing docker to delete two containers in a single command. We specify the ID for the first and the name for the second container for deletion.

The container should be in a stopped state to delete it.

docker images

The command lists out all docker images present on the docker host.

$ docker images

REPOSITORY: It describes the unique name of the docker image.

TAG: Each image is associated with a unique tag that represents a version of the image.

A tag had represented using a word or set of numbers or alphanumeric characters.

IMAGE: It is a string of alphanumeric characters associated with each image.

CREATED: It provides elapsed time since the image had been created.

SIZE: It provides the size of the image.

docker rmi

This command allows us to remove images from the docker host.

docker rmi [options] IMAGE NAME/ID [IMAGE NAME/ID...] docker rmi mysql

The command removes image mysql from the docker host.

The below command removes the image with ID 94e81 from the docker host.

docker rmi 94e81

The below command removes image ubuntu with tag trusty.

docker rmi ubuntu:trusty

These are some of the basic commands you come across. There are numerous other instructions to explore.

Wind Up

Although containerization has been around for a long time, it has only recently received the attention it deserves. Google, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Intel, Tesla are just a few leading tech businesses with their specialized container engines. They rely significantly on them to develop, run, administer, and distribute their software.

Docker is an extremely powerful containerization engine, and it has a lot to offer when it comes to building, running, managing and distributing your applications efficiently.

You had seen docker at a high level. There is a lot to study about docker, like

Commands(More powerful commands)

Docker Images are a type of container (Build your custom images)

Networking with Docker (Setup and configure networking)

Stack of Docker (Grouping services required by an application)

Docker Compose is a tool that allows you to create a container (Tool for managing and running multiple containers)

Swarm of Dockers (Grouping and managing one or more machines on which docker is running)

If you’ve found this fascinating and want to learn more about it, I recommend enrolling in one of the courses listed below. They were educational and right to the point, in my opinion.

If you are a complete beginner, I recommend enrolling in this course, which has been prepared specifically for you.

Investing your time and money into studying Docker is not something you will regret.

End Notes

I hope you find this article helpful. Please feel free to share it. Thank you, have a great day.

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