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We rank Apex Legend’s weapons and see which are worth a shot!
Apex Legends is EA’s popular Battle Royale, with an estimated 10 million players every day. The game plays like most other Battle Royales, with the winner being the last one standing. In Apex, teams are made up of either three players or two.
Players have the choice between 17 characters to play from, each with a different ability and playstyle. From stealthy and quiet to loud and aggressive, there’s a character for everyone.
As with the characters, there are also a limited number of weapons, each of which are available for anyone and everyone to pick up in-game. Thankfully, there’s no pay-to-win in Apex, meaning all weapons and upgrades are available for all players the second they drop into the map.
Weapons in any battle royale tend to be the deciding factor in a win. A brilliant weapon in the hands of a not-so-skilled gamer could turn the tide in their favour against a poorly equipped more-skilled player.
However, as expected, some weapons, whilst brilliant and powerful, require a higher skill rating than others. What might be a devastating weapon in one’s hand could be the undoing in someone else’s.
We rank Apex Legend’s weapons in this tier list but bear in mind this is a subjective tier list subject to change. It is based off Season 10’s Emergence.
None of the Care Package weapons will be ranked with the normal weapons, but we’ll rank them separately at the bottom of our weapon tier list.
S Tier – The picks in this bracket are the strongest in the current metagame. These are the picks you’ll either be seeing in the esport tournaments, your favourite streamer play, or in higher-level ranked games.
A Tier – Picks in this bracket are overall very good. They are the weapons that are historically always strong, but not quite meta favoured at the minute. Perhaps these are the picks that are not necessarily dominating the game but are certainly strong enough to be competitive.
B Tier – Overall, these weapons are good, not amazing. They come with an equal amount of strengths and flaws.
C Tier – Sadly these weapons are slightly weak. Generally, you should avoid playing them unless you want a bit of casual fun.
D Tier – These weapons are relatively unplayable and weak. They need a serious buff or a huge meta shift to become relevant again.
Apex Legends Weapon Tier List
Coming in at the top of our list is the ideal weapon to find in any game, the stunning Volt. The energy SMG can be a lethal weapon in anyone’s hands. The gun’s recoil is barely present, leading to all players able to land almost all their shots. What lands this weapon in S-Tier is just how easy to it is to find one as well as how easy it is to use. Players can and will find this gun with ease, and as long as they can see their enemy in their sights, it’ll be hard not to miss!
This Light Assault Rifle is a deadly weapon in anyone’s hands. This gun has a reputation for one-clipping people and that’s without any upgrades. This weapon is an all-rounder, at long, medium or short range, this gun can turn the tides in any battle.
A personal favourite of mine, the Wingman is a terrifying gun to go against. Although it does have a high skill ceiling, this weapon is notorious and feared for a reason. If you can land those shots, you’ll be turning that fleeing Octane into paste. It’s worth practicing in, and if you’re already good with it, then you’ll have people bolting away from you.
At the top of our A-Tier is the rapid-fire LMG. You might have been like me, turning a corner and before you know it, you’ve been peppered by the R-99 before you can even blink. What’s stopping this gun from being in S-Tier is the gun’s recoil which can be quite hard to get used to and it’s small magazine capacity. Granted, you can get extended mags but even with a gold mag attached, you’ll find yourself reloading more often than shooting. Once you’ve tamed this beast and learnt how to control that recoil, you’ll be shredding through your poor enemies.
Now here’s a shotgun that doesn’t play around. It’s likely you’ve been two-shot by this shotgun before the first ring’s even closed in. The EVA-8 is a powerful and frightening weapon in the right hands, even more so with a purple shotgun bolt attached.
The L-Star is a recent A-Tier addition. The weapon was barely scraping B-Tier last season but with its recent updates and rework, the energy LMG is a fierce beast. With its extended mag and stock, this gun is just a laser beam without the beam. Its only problem is its unpredictability, the gun has an infamous recoil and although you might be firing out plenty of shots, only a few will actually hit if you’re not careful enough.
The Longbow doesn’t get enough credit for the fantastic sniper rifle that it is. The fully automatic rifle, with all its upgrades can be a great option for that pesky Kraber across the map.
The Charge Rifle, a very simple and not often-picked sniper rifle. But I’m here to tell you that this gun is sorely underestimated. What makes it fantastic is that unlike the other snipers, the charge rifle is hitscan. So as long as you have a good scope, you’ll be making those long-distance shots. Shredding through armour from a distance while your teammates use your laser beam as a distraction and charge the poor unsuspecting target.
At the top of our B-Tiers is the Havoc. Although some prefer the devotion, I think the Havoc has that extra something that just makes it a more reliable gun. Although it does have a wind-up, if you can time the wind-up right, you can overcome that slight delay.
Next up is the Flatline, a powerful Heavy weapon which can pack a punch if you can control it’s recoil.
A former care-package weapon has now returned to the floor. This weapon is a lethal force against any time with a surprising range to it, but nothing can beat it’s nearly perfect hip-fire accuracy.
Up next is the Mastiff, a line-shotgun which can be a fantastic weapon in enclosed spaces, shredding through multiple targets that might have huddled for safety.
Rampart‘s own LMG the Rampage comes up next. This weapon is a great asset to a team but is a little awkward when in close-combat unless revved up. Nonetheless, it’s a great mid-range weapon that can deal a substantial amount of damage to unsuspecting foes.
The Devotion can be deadly, but in other cases it can cost you vital seconds because of its charge-up. A turbocharged devotion on the other hand is a different story, if Turbochargers weren’t so hard to find then the Devotion would likely hop up a rank but most players aren’t going to want a devotion without the turbocharger.
The Peacekeeper was once a fearsome care package weapon and although it still stands as a solid pick, it’s not quite what it used to be. The weapon can sometimes deal a frightening 100 damage in one shot, but it seems so rare to land these ideal shots, hence it’s B-Tier rating.
At the top of our C-Tiers is the Hemlock. A heavy weapon which can be useful in the right hands but it seems so finnicky and picky about how good it’ll be on any given day. In a game where each second in a firefight counts, this burst-fire weapon just doesn’t quite make the cut. You’re better off using it’s single fire mode.
Although many have a certain hatred for the 30-30, I found that in the right situation it back be a good weapon to have. Granted that situation doesn’t show up often, hence it’s low ranking.
Although upon its initial release, the bow was – as some might remember – overpowered. It’s sadly been nerfed a little too much. Despite it’s capability to deal a large amount of damage, it’s just a little too slow in a fast-paced game.
Powerful? Yes. But very very slow. The bolt-action rifle just doesn’t make the cut, as I’d much rather have a Longbow or Charge Rifle instead of a Sentinel. The Kraber is only as good as it is because it makes up for its flaws by possibly one-shotting people given enough skill and patience.
Although the G7 Scout might be useful in some’s hands, it’s never proven me or anyone I know anything good. The gun has gotten me killed more often than I’ve killed anyone else, so much so that I’d rather go into a fist-fight with an enemy than waste time picking up the G7.
Sadly, it seems no amount of buffing this shotgun will make it a player’s ideal choice. Sure, it’s not terrible if it’s the first gun you pick up, but most players will instantly swap it for something better when the opportunity comes.
It’s not surprise that people call this the worst pistol in the game. Sure, it’s fire rate isn’t bad… But it’ll never do enough damage to a person to knock them unless they’re point-blank and somehow completely unaware of you shooting them.
Care Package Weapons
We didn’t want to rank the care package weapons alongside the normal ones, but I’ve ranked them in their own little list:
3 – Alternator
4 – Triple Take
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7 Quick Ways to Fix Apex Legends Lag Spikes on PC Fix Apex Legends lag spikes and dominate the battlefield once again
Apex Legends is an awesome multiplayer game, but you might have trouble getting it to work due to lag spikes.
Try using a different server or check if your network connection is working correctly to fix this issue.
Updating your drivers can prevent this and many other problems in Apex Legends.
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Apex Legends is an awesome game you can play on Steam, but you might stumble upon connectivity issues now and then.
So if you’re looking for a way to fix Apex Legends lag spikes, high ping, FPS drops, or latency issues on your PC, we’re here to help.
Users reported the issue on many instances, and the Apex Legends lag in firing range was a common observation.
Check out our complete guide below to significantly improve your gaming experience without buying a new PC.
In addition, we prepared a list of foolproof solutions you can try at the software level of your computer.Why do I keep having lag spikes in Apex?
If you’re experiencing Apex Legends lag spikes on your PC, you may be connecting to a server that’s too far away. That will result in high latency and possibly lag. Also, problems with your network connection will cause lag spikes to occur.
Outdated drivers can also be a problem, so ensure that your graphics and network driver are up to date. If the issue is caused by network problems, such as your ISP, you can fix that with specialized tools.What is a good ping for Apex Legends?
Low ping is beneficial for enhanced gameplay, and in Apex Legends, you should try to have it in the 20-50 ms range.
You may witness a spike when changing servers or a slow Internet connection. But anything under 80 ms should do for a game like Apex Legends.1. Choose a different in-game region
Apex Legends lag spikes and high ping could be caused by too many players on the same server.
If you notice peak hours when this happens, like in the evening or at the weekend, this is probably the reason why your entire game is slowed down.
You might not even be able to connect to a server. To resolve the matter, connect to another region in Apex Legends and try again. If the issue persists, keep changing regions until you exhaust all options.
This issue helps if you’re experiencing Apex Legends lag spikes on Xbox or PS5, so be sure to try it.2. Use a gaming VPN
Using an Apex Legends VPN, you can improve your ping and enhance your gameplay. First, of course, you must connect to a VPN server closer to the region you’re playing it.
We recommend ExpressVPN because it’s the most used in the business and improves your connection and gaming speed.
Created by Kape Technologies, it can protect your computer from DDoS attacks and defend your home router from hackers. Express is also the best VPN choice to fix Apex Legends packet loss.
Plus, this VPN has OpenVPN with 256-bit encryption to secure your data. As a result, it enables your devices to keep a consistent internet connection with fast protocols such as Lightway.
According to our tests, ExpressVPN works well with Xbox One, Android phones, and PS consoles. As a result, you can confidently choose it as the finest VPN for Apex Legends.
Furthermore, in such cases, you can use the virtual server functionality to access blocked websites and games. Express comes with servers in 94 regions.
Use this fast and optimized VPN for gaming to fix Apex Legends lag issues.
Check price Visit website3. Check your Internet connection
It’s impossible to enjoy a smooth-free online game if your Internet connection is not strong enough to sustain it.
Try running a speed test to determine if your network connection is slower than usual. You could also temporarily launch a different game to see if it has lag spikes like Apex Legends.
If your Internet connection is faulty, you can try restarting your PC and terminating any high-consuming background processes or services needed online, like web browsers, torrenting clients, or download managers.
In addition to that, you can fix your slow Wi-Fi or switch to Ethernet mode.4. Use Nvidia Control Panel
If you’re experiencing Apex Legends lag spikes due to GPU issues, you can use Nvidia Control Panel to optimize your PC for gaming.
It integrates the most critical PC settings into a user-friendly interface, which you can easily enable or disable for gaming. Besides, the tool is entirely free to use. However, it only works for Nvidia GPUs.
Your device drivers are responsible for everything on your computer, including graphics and sound.
So if you often have to deal with FPS drops in Apex Legends, check if your drivers are updated to the newest edition, especially regarding your GPU.
It’s possible to update the graphics driver manually, but finding what you need on the web might take a while.
On top of that, there’s always the risk of getting incompatible drivers that could harm your operating system. So instead, it’s better to resort to driver update software.
To avoid damaging your system, you can update outdated drivers with Outbyte Driver Updater, a tool that specializes in finding and updating them. The process is safe and will only take a few moments to find old drivers.
Your software is only as good as its latest updates, whether we’re talking about the operating system or gaming platform. So make sure to update Apex Legends and Steam to the newest version.
Remember that this isn’t a 100%-effective solution, and many reported Apex Legends lag after the update.
However, it would help if you stayed away from Steam beta updates. Although they are newer, they don’t guarantee stability.
And, if your Steam updates got stuck, you can fix this problem using our easy workarounds.
The same goes for Windows. If the system update service doesn’t run automatically on your PC, you should check Windows Update for any new critical fixes or security patches at least once a week.
Then, restart your PC several times until all updates get installed, and try running Apex Legends to check for lag spikes.
Using the abovementioned solutions, you should have fixed Apex Legends lag spikes and other latency problems.
Also, please find out how to optimize the PC for gaming and get the best performance out of it.
Still experiencing issues?
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Electronic sports, or esports, isn’t just a fringe pastime for hardcore video gamers anymore. In fact, professional online gaming has exploded in recent years, with millions of people watching esports matches and tens of thousands participating in them.SSD gaming: High-stakes demand a need for speed
One of the most popular esports contests, League of Legends, is a multiplayer, team-based online battle arena game where the goal is to destroy the other team’s base while scoring kills and collecting gold.
The league attracts players from all over the world, who vie for big cash prizes. In 2023, for example, the Counter Logic Gaming (CLG) League of Legends team competed for championship rings, medals and a shared jackpot of $2.225 million.How over-provisioning SSDs impacts performance
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With such high stakes, it’s no wonder that having the best gaming system isn’t just a desire for esports contestants, it’s a necessity. That’s why SSD gaming is becoming an industry standard, according to Jonathon McDaniel, general manager of CLG League of Legends.
“Playing League of Legends, well, you really need a good computer,” he says. “Frame rate is really important for League of Legends, and anything from graphics cards to processors to even SSDs can really make a difference, from boot speeds to just general performance in the game. You never want to have any dropped frames or any kind of performance issues throughout your game,” McDaniel says. “Games can go for 20, 30, even 40 minutes, so you want to make sure your computer can be at its best during that whole time.”SSDs improve gaming performance
As McDaniel points out, solid state drives (SSDs) play a critical role in esports. SSDs, unlike traditional hard disk drives (HDDs), have no moving parts. They use flash memory instead of a spinning platter and actuator arm.
Data stored in flash memory can be retrieved almost instantaneously, while HDDs have to account for rotational latency — the amount of time it takes for the arm to find the right storage sector on a spinning platter. This makes SSDs significantly faster than HDDs, with read/write speeds that are at least four times faster. SSDs with non-volatile memory express (NVMe) connections are even quicker because they link the drive directly to the computer’s PCIe lanes, boosting overall throughput.
No matter what kind of connectivity they use, SSDs’ ability to access data quickly means better frame rates, boot speeds, and overall CPU performance. This translates to games loading faster and graphics that don’t stutter or lag. With SSDs, gamers won’t find themselves stuck at overlong loading screens or moving the controller in vain while their character stands idle due to lag.
The CLG League of Legends team uses SSDs to improve their competitive performance, according to McDaniel. He also notes that Samsung SSDs are his esports SSD of choice.
“For these players, competition is what they do. They wake up every day and play the game not just to win, but to get better so that they can continue to win. You definitely need all the different things to compete at the top level, and SSDs are an important component,” he says.Heightened gaming experience with easy installation
While Samsung SSDs are installed at the factory in many cases, some esports players, including CLG League of Legends Philippe Lavoie-Giguere, are installing their own Samsung SSDs, such as Samsung’s 980 PRO M.2 Gen4 NVMe SSD.
Installing a Samsung SSD is easy, he says, and it’s made his game play better. “I use Samsung SSDs at home and at work because they’re the most reliable brand,” he says. “We can launch our game super rapidly. We can launch all of our applications super fast. There are some games where it’s really important to have SSDs because it would load the map faster, and they could start the game before the opponent,” Lavoie–G says. “You know, we don’t waste time. We just get in our game.”
Explore Samsung’s game-ready SSDs, and get your free white paper on how over-provisioning of SSDs can improve memory performance even more.
What is an audience?
In the sense of traditional marketing metrics, you’re probably thinking about building personas using demographic data like age, geographic location, gender, income level, etc.
But in search, we don’t always have access to that data for people landing on the site.
We instead turn to search data.
There is a user that lives behind every search query, and each search is driven by something.
It’s our job as search experts to understand that and to speak directly to their motivation.
With a bit of research, we can capitalize on the most important information a user could give us: the problem they are trying to solve with unedited insight into their needs.
Because remember: nobody lies to the search bar.
The search engine acts as a barrier between a site and a user.
A site must go through the engine to get to the user and the user has to go through the engine to get to the site.
Luckily, data provided by search engines can be a gold mine for search audience research.
So how do we, as SEO professionals, break down that barrier and truly understand our users’ needs to better reach and connect with our target audiences?
That’s what we are going to uncover by exploring the following topics:
The secrets that live in search queries.
Search intent and how to leverage it.
On-site behavior analysis.
So, let’s start with the only way to get through that barrier: search queries.The Secrets That Live in Search Queries
Let’s jump in with the foundational element of building our search audiences: understanding what users are searching for, or our “landscape queries.”
Understanding users’ search queries in a given category, or “landscape,” begins with finding patterns within a large set of landscape queries.
Query patterns can illuminate trends, uncover search behavior nuances, and gauge opportunity in a given category.
From those patterns we can further categorize our queries into buckets of interests specific to our target users.
With enough data, this categorization helps us create detailed topics and subtopics that we know interest our searchers.
As we learn from our search data, we can start to form “keyword insights.”
Keyword insights are more than just buckets of related keywords; they are the motivations behind the searches.
Our long-tail queries illuminate critical user needs and pain-points they may be experiencing in any given query landscape.
These critical user needs and pain-points can be translated into “key questions” that users need to answer prior to making a purchase decision or moving further down the funnel.
In other words, by evaluating landscape query patterns, we are in a sense able to use organic search market research to form consumer insights.
Here is an example of consumer insights derived from query patters in the pet food landscape:
Query Pattern Sample
Keyword Insight: Dog preferences are purchase or product switch motivators for target users.
User Need: Customer’s dog has stopped eating their current food, broke out in a rash, or simply is not satisfied with their current diet and are looking to switch immediately.
Actionable Solution: Provide success stories from the “Sensitive Stomach” customer review base. Showing common issues and possible fixes within ingredient lists can also help users problem solve. That way, shoppers can feel confident that they don’t have to experience the same scenario again.
Consideration: Has brand helped others with this problem?Key Takeaway
The search industry can use keyword insights to understand the varying needs and pain-points of a user in the landscape, topic areas that will resonate most, build valuable consumer insights, and shape “key questions” that need to be answered in the path to conversion.Search Intent & How to Leverage It
This brings us to our second key factor in building our search audience profiles: aligning intent and messaging.
Understanding the intent behind the query informs where in the funnel our searcher may be.
Intents commonly applied to queries include informational, navigational, and transactional, but intent breakdowns certainly can (and should) be customized to include mixed intents or account for industry nuances.
Building an intent-driven funnel allows us to take our strategy one step further, and we can begin to align the keywords and messaging that might resonate most to any given category or landing page.
By evaluating each page and keyword’s intent, we can select target keywords and on-page content that better aligns with users’ expectations and converts them down the funnel at a higher rate.
When our data provides the areas of interest (topics and sub-topics), needs, expected experience, and intent, we have all we need to start gleaning true search behavior insights.Key Takeaway
Search intent can be used to evaluate funnel placement and messaging that might resonate most.
This information transforms our query data from buckets of interest, topic areas, and “key questions” into a searcher’s decision-making process on their path to decision/conversion.On-Site Behavior Analysis
Hopefully, you’re beginning to see how much of a powerhouse query data really is.
Evaluating on-site behavior and engagement metrics can add another layer to our understanding of the user and problem areas impeding their conversion path.
A user will hit multiple “content touchpoints” in their conversion path both in search and on the website.
Each content touchpoint should service the need of the user and be aligned with what we know about their current funnel placement and key questions at that moment.
By better servicing each content touchpoint, we can better satisfy users’ needs and move them down the funnel more quickly.
Analysis of user engagement metrics (e.g., bounce rates, user page flow, pages per visit, etc.) allows us to understand where friction exists in a user’s journey on the website.
For example, a high organic bounce rate may indicate a landing page’s experience doesn’t align with the intent of the user’s search query.
Or, user page flow metrics show users demonstrating unexpected exit patterns or exiting quickly without ever navigating to lower funnel pages.
Once we’ve identified a clear point of friction, we can address it by re-evaluating the page experience.
Does the content and messaging align with the intent and motivations behind the organic query that brought them there?
Are we answering the user’s key questions (and are our answers trustworthy)?
Can we improve the linking on the page to present the user with more/better options to continue their decision making?
Regularly asking these questions can ease friction and improve conversion.Key Takeaway
On-site behavior analysis is the identification of pivotal on-site user patterns that highlight areas of friction or failure to meet a user’s needs.
Improving or adding content touchpoints that satisfy the identified user needs can reduce friction and improve conversion rate.
Address friction by evaluating messaging, site structure, linking, and content touchpoints on a page to ensure they meet the needs of your audience given their intent and funnel placement.Build Your Audience
Any good strategist knows there is never a one-size-fits-all approach to content.
But, there are processes that help us create great strategies.
Search audience development is no different.
Just as our key data points build on one another to help us develop user insights, we can stack these user insights to build out a robust picture of our different search audiences.Breaking Down the Search Engine Barrier
The web is becoming more personalized, so our organic search strategies should, too.
We may not always have reliable demographic data, but we have ample amounts of data that show us what’s most important to our users to shape search audience profiles.
By better understanding these audiences, we can:
Create more effective content.
Resonate better with users.
Ultimately, drive stronger performance.
All screenshots taken by author, March 2023
There’s an elevator in the Brown University Biomed building (hopefully fixed by now) that I’ve heard called “the elevator to hell,” not because of destination but because there is a bent blade in the overhead fan. The elevator is typical of older models, a box 2 meters by 2 meters by 3 meters with requisite buzzing fluorescent, making it a perfect resonator for low-frequency sounds. As soon as the doors close, you don’t really hear anything different, but you can feel your ears (and body, if you’re not wearing a coat) pulsing about four times per second. Even going only two floors can leave you pretty nauseated. The fan isn’t particularly powerful, but the damage to one of the blades just happens to change the air flow at a rate that is matched by the dimensions of the car. This is the basis of what is called vibroacoustic syndrome—the effect of infrasonic output not on your hearing but on the various fluid-filled parts of your body.
People don’t usually think of infrasound as sound at all. You can hear very low-frequency sounds at levels above 88–100 dB down to a few cycles per second, but you can’t get any tonal information out of it below about 20Hz—it mostly just feels like beating pressure waves. And like any other sound, if presented at levels above 140 dB, it is going to cause pain. But the primary effects of infrasound are not on your ears but on the rest of your body.
Because infrasound can affect people’s whole bodies, it has been under serious investigation by military and research organizations since the 1950s, largely the Navy and NASA, to figure out the effects of low-frequency vibration on people stuck on large, noisy ships with huge throbbing motors or on top of rockets launching into space. As with seemingly any bit of military research, it is the subject of speculation and devious rumors. Among the most infamous developers of infrasonic weapons was a Russian-born French researcher named Vladimir Gavreau. According to popular media at the time (and far too many current under-fact-checked web pages), Gavreau started to investigate reports of nausea in his lab that supposedly disappeared once a ventilator fan was disabled. He then launched into a series of experiments on the effects of infrasound on human subjects, with results (as reported in the press) ranging from subjects needing to be saved in the nick of time from an infrasonic “envelope of death” that damaged their internal organs to people having their organs “converted to jelly” by exposure to an infrasonic whistle.
By the time 166 dB is reached, people start noticing problems breathing.
Supposedly Gavreau had patented these, and they were the basis of secret government programs into infrasonic weapons. These would definitely qualify as acoustic weapons if you believe easily accessible web references. However, when I started digging deeper, I found that while Gavreau did exist and did do acoustic research, he had actually only written a few minor papers in the 1960s that describe human exposure to low-frequency (not infrasonic) sound, and none of the supposed patents existed. Subsequent and contemporary papers in infrasonic research that cite his work at all do so in the context of pointing out the problems of letting the press get hold of com- plex work. My personal theory is that the reason that his work survived even in the annals of conspiracy is that “Vladimir Gavreau” is just such a great moniker for a mad scientist that he had to be up to something.
Conspiracy theories aside, the characteristics of infrasound do lend it certain possibilities as a weapon. The low frequency of infrasonic sound and its corresponding long wavelength makes it much more capable of bending around or penetrating your body, creating an oscillating pressure system. Depending on the frequency, different parts of your body will resonate, which can have very unusual non-auditory effects. For example, one of the ones that occur at relatively safe sound levels (Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (not my usual fare) called “Ghosts in the Machine,” in which they describe how they got to the root of stories of a “haunted” laboratory. People in the lab had described seeing “ghostly” gray shapes that disappeared when they turned to face them. Upon examining the area, it turned out that a fan was resonating the room at 18.98Hz, almost exactly the resonant frequency of the human eyeball. When the fan was turned off, so did all stories of ghostly apparitions.
You would have to use a 240 dB source to get the head to resonate destructively. At that point it would be faster to just hit the person over the head.
Almost any part of your body, based on its volume and makeup, will vibrate at specific frequencies with enough power. Human eyeballs are fluid-filled ovoids, lungs are gas-filled membranes, and the human abdomen contains a variety of liquid-, solid-, and gas-filled pockets. All of these structures have limits to how much they can stretch when subjected to force, so if you provide enough power behind a vibration, they will stretch and shrink in time with the low-frequency vibrations of the air molecules around them. Since we don’t hear infrasonic frequencies very well, we are often unaware of exactly how loud the sounds are. At 130 dB, the inner ear will start undergoing direct pressure distortions unrelated to normal hearing, which can affect your ability to understand speech. At about 150 dB, people start complaining about nausea and whole body vibrations, usually in the chest and abdomen. By the time 166 dB is reached, people start noticing problems breathing, as the low-frequency pulses start impacting the lungs, reaching a critical point at about 177 dB, when infrasound from 0.5 to 8Hz can actually drive sonically induced artificial respiration at an abnormal rhythm. In addition, vibrations through a substrate such as the ground can be passed throughout your body via your skeleton, which in turn can cause your whole body to vibrate at 4–8Hz vertically and 1–2Hz side to side. The effects of this type of whole-body vibration can cause many problems, ranging from bone and joint damage with short exposure to nausea and visual damage with chronic exposure. The commonality of infrasonic vibration, especially in the realm of heavy equipment operation, has led federal and international health and safety organizations to create guidelines to limit people’s exposure to this type of infrasonic stimulus.
I’ve always wanted to be able to run around blowing holes in things and chasing away supervillains.
Sorry to be a spoilsport about sonic weapons. I’ve always wanted to be able to wire up a couple of speakers in my basement lab and run around blowing holes in things and chasing away supervillains, but most sonic weapons are more hype than hyper. Devices such as the LRAD exist and make effective deterrents, but even these have pronounced limitations. A handheld sonic disruptor will have to wait for some major breakthroughs in power source and transducer technologies. But the uses of sound in the future probably hold more interesting promise than the ability to destroy things.
* You can get a similar visual display, called phosphenes, by rubbing your eyes in a dark room.
Excerpted with permission from The Universal Sense: How Hearing Shapes the Mind by Seth S. Horowitz, Ph.D (Bloomsbury USA, 2012). Horowitz is a neuroscientist and former research professor at Brown University. He is the cofounder of NeuroPop, the first sound design and consulting firm to use neurosensory and psychophysical algorithms in music, sound design, and sonic branding. He is married to sound artist China Blue and lives in Warwick, RI. Buy The Universal Sense for $15 here.
What is Matlab?
It is abbreviated as Matrix-based language, has been designed for computer scientists and engineers. Matlab provides great solutions in computational mathematics.
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It can be used for –
Create models and application
Matlab finds a great use case in machine learning and deep learning as they deal with n-dimensional space which can be represented and analyzed in the matrix form only. Apart from this other technologies using this are control system design, image processing, and computational finance.Matlab Commands
Matlab provides the commands that are used while the user has to interact with the application using the command line interface. Here we will see how to use those commands with the help of examplesBasic Commands
1. Clear – This command removes variables from the memory
3. Clc – This command clears the command window
4. Global – This command declares a variable as global
5. Help – If you need to search for any help just write the keyword at command window and it displays your available options
6. Who – This command lists the current variable
7. Type – This command displays the contents of a file.
8. Pwd – This command displays the current directory.
9. Date – This command displays the current date
10. What – This command lists all the Matlab files in the current directory
So if you would clearly observe the example 5 presented above, you can see that the statements hold true and in the last example we called clear command first and thereafter we looked for a type of x and y which now came to be undefined but was not so in example 4.
Note that these examples have been presented with octave that is open source and equivalent platform to Matlab and uses the same command set.Intermediate Matlab Commands
Below are the intermediate commands which are as follows:1. Mathematical Functions
Here we are exploring plot command which is being used to plot the sinusoidal wave curve with time, where time is ranging from 1 to 30 and is increasing in intervals of 0.01.2. Array related Commands
Cat– It is used to concatenate two arrays, the first argument it takes is a dimension of the array to be created like whether it is 1D,2D or n-dimensional array and thereafter that n-number of arrays are passed as arguments, those are to be concatenated as shown in the snapshot
Length – Computes the number of elements in the array
Min, max – These commands return the max and min elements present in the arrays.3. Matrix Related Commands
Eye – This creates an identity matrix
Ones – This creates the array of ones
Zeros – This creates the array of zeros4. Matrix Arithmetic Command
Dot- This command generates the dot product of two matrices, note that the columns and rows of matrix decide the resulting matrix creation
Cross – Synonymously this creates the cross product, helpful in vector operations when represented in the matrix form5. Matrix Commands For linear equation related operations
Rank – This command provides the result to an important mathematical parameter of matrices called rank which is the quantification of the lowest order of non-zero determinant carrying sub-matrix in the parent matrix
Det – Determinant of the matrix is calculated using this command.
Inv – Execution of this command provides us the inverse of a matrix.6. Timing related commands
Cputime – Calculates the CPU time in seconds7. String Related commands
Findstr – Finds occurrences start index of a String in a phrase.
Strcmp – This command is used to compare two strings, returns 1 if the match is correct else it returns 0.Advanced Matlab Commands
Let’s take a look at some of the Advanced commands which are as given below:-1. Contour
Whenever you are dealing in control system designs in engineering, the Nyquist plot contours, etc give you a mark of the stability in the system, we can customize the style of the plot in the Matlab (like the color and line type, etc).2. Polynomial related commands
Poly2sym(vector) – This command converts a vector of coefficients into the corresponding symbolic polynomial (from highest to lowest power).
poly2sym(vector, ‘v’) – This command converts a vector of coefficients into the corresponding symbolic polynomial inv (from highest to lowest power).3. Commands for Equation solving
syms x1 x2…xn; solve(eq1,eq2,…,eqn, x1, x2,…,xn) – This command solves the simultaneous n number of equations and the solutions against those are assigned to variables ranging from x1,x2 to xn.4. Commands for solving the Linear System of Equations
X = linsolve (A, B) – Let us suppose that we need to find a solution against the given equation
This can be solved in accordance with the attached imageTips and Tricks to Use commands
A programmer shall be aware of use cases like when does Matlab do in-place calculations.
Use flexible indexing when dealing with tables
Write Matlab functions with flexible calling Syntax
We are supposed to design a function with given syntax
% findArea(… ‘shape’,shape)
so here, by use of inputParser, you can specify which input arguments are required (width), which are optional (height), and which are optional name-value pairs (‘shape’). inputParser also lets you confirm that each input is valid
As inputParser is a MATLAB object. Make sure to first create an object and then call functions to add the various input arguments.Conclusion
MATLAB is a platform for scientific calculation and high-level programming which uses an interactive environment to perform complex calculations more efficiently than with traditional languages, such as C and C++.
Has supporting modules for multiple operations, has integration with Simulink which can be used for simulating the electronic control systems, do the complex computations related to numerical methods, digital signal processing, image processing, and video processing.Recommended Articles
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