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When you run the format command in Command Prompt to format a drive on your Windows 11 or Windows 10 computer, the format operation may fail or be unable to complete and output the message Bad sectors were encountered during the format. In this post, we outline steps you can take to remove these bad sectors on the drive and get the storage device to normal working condition, and if need be recover data on the drive.

You will receive the following similar output when the error occurs on your system.

1075200000 bad sectors were encountered during the format. These sectors cannot be guaranteed to have been cleaned.

Format failed.

For some affected PC users, after the initial format failed, and they tried again, the command prompt reported the drive format as RAW. In this case, refer to the guide on how to fix the RAW partition in Windows 11/10.

Now, before we get right to the task at hand, here’s a quick primer!

A sector is a subdivision of a track (a circular path on the surface of a disk) on your hard disk that stores a fixed amount of data. A bad sector is a sector that appears to be defective and won’t respond to read or write operations. There are two types of bad sectors viz:

Logical Bad Sector (Soft Bad Sectors)

Physical Bad Sector (Hard Bad Sectors)

Logical bad sectors are generally caused by software errors like a sudden shutdown of your computer and virus attacks. In most cases, if the operating system finds the error-correcting code doesn’t match the contents of a drive sector when reading data from the sector, the sector will be marked as bad. That notwithstanding, logical bad sectors can be repaired using inbuilt tools that ship with the Windows OS. On the other hand, the physical bad sectors are caused by physical damage to the hard disk itself. This type of bad sector cannot be repaired using the conventional disk repair tools native to the OS or provided by the HDD/SSD hardware manufacturer.

Apart from the obvious output stating bad sectors were encountered, the following are general signs or symptoms of bad sectors in an SD card or USB flash drive, or HDD/SSD:

Can’t read from the source file or disk.

The location is not available.

Unable to complete the format.

A disk read error has occurred.

SD card shows empty or 0 bytes.

SD card is not recognized by the camera, smartphone, or computer.

You are unable to read or write an SD card.

Computer asks to format the SD memory card to access it.

The following are reasons why your drive may develop bad sectors:

Virus infection in the storage media or the computer itself.

The drive is old and has completed its read/write cycles.

The same drive (in the case of external drives) is used in multiple devices.

Improper insertion and ejection of the drive from the computer.

Removing the SD card without turning off the smartphone or camera.

Sudden power failure or system shutdown while transferring files or viewing SD card or drive data.

Low-quality SD card.

Physical damage, dust, or moisture on the SD card.

Read: Scan drive for errors notification keeps appearing in Windows

Bad sectors were encountered during the format; How to remove them?

If you receive an output with the message Bad sectors were encountered during the format when a drive format operation fails on your Windows 11/10 system, you can apply our suggestions described below to remove the bad sectors present on the drive and restore the drive health to ensure data integrity is maintained on the drive so as not to suffer data loss now or in the foreseeable future.


Format the drive on another computer

Replace drive

Let’s see these suggestions in detail. Before you attempt any repair on the drive, for preventive purposes to avoid data loss, assuming the drive contains important data that you do not have a backup copy, you can use a free data recovery software like the MiniTool Power Data Recovery to attempt recovery of files/data residing on the drive.


You can check the hard disk for errors, health, and bad sectors in Windows 11/10 via the graphical interface or the command-line version by following these steps:

Press the Windows key + R to invoke the Run dialog.

In the Run dialog box, type cmd and then press CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER to open Command Prompt in elevated mode.

In the command prompt window, type the command below and hit Enter.

chkdsk g: /x /f /r


/f switch tells CHKDSK to fix any errors detected.

/r switch Identifies Bad Sectors and attempts recovery and restores readable information.

/x switch forces the drive to be unmounted before the process starts.

g: represents the letter for the drive you want to check for errors.

You will receive the following message:

CHKDSK cannot run because the volume is in use by another process. Would you like to schedule this volume to be checked the next time the system restarts? (Y/N).

Tap the Y key on the keyboard and then reboot your computer to let CHKDSK check and fix the errors on the computer’s hard drive. Alternatively, you can use CHKDSK alternative disk error-checking software to repair bad sectors.

Read: DiskPart error, Data error cyclic redundancy check

2] Format the drive on another computer

As reported by some affected PC users, for some weird reason, they were able to resolve the issue at hand and complete the drive format operation without bad sectors by formatting the storage media on another computer. Provided you were able to recover the partition on the storage media using a free Partition Recovery software like TestDisk, you can follow the steps below to format the drive as NTFS.

Insert the USB flash drive into the USB port.

Open Device Manager.

Find Disk Drives and expand them.

Exit Device Manager.

Next, open File Explorer.

In the Format dialog box, select NTFS in the File system field.

Once done, your USB drive should now be formatted as NTFS for your Windows system.

Read: Diskpart has encountered an error, The media is write protected

3] Replace the drive

Although, if you want to continue using a hard disk with physical bad sectors (not recommended) which is technically unrepairable, what you can do is use some third-party tool to block these sectors on the hard disk and prevent the system and programs from attempting to write to these identified bad sectors. You can run the S.M.A.R.T. Test to detect and report various indicators of drive reliability with the intent of anticipating imminent hardware failures. Nevertheless, it’s best recommended to get a replacement healthy drive.

Read: Fix Hard Drive Error Code 2000-0146 on Windows computer

I hope this post helps you!

Now read: Invalid media or Track 0 bad – disk unusable

Can formatting fix bad sectors?

Technically, bad sectors can’t be repaired, so formatting a drive with bad sectors won’t repair the sectors. However, formatting should identify the bad sectors and prevent data from being written on them. But keep in mind though that if you do have bad sectors, it may be that the hard drive is about to fail.

Read: Windows is stuck on Repairing disk errors, This might take an hour to complete

Does CHKDSK remove bad sectors?

Typically, PC users will encounter bad sectors in two forms which are soft bad sectors, which occur when data is written badly, and the hard bad sectors which occur because of physical damage to the disk. CHKDSK attempts to fix these problems by repairing soft bad sectors and marking hard bad sectors, so they won’t be used again.

Read next: The disk does not have enough space to replace bad clusters.

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Commencement Student Speaker: Seniors’ Relationships Were Strengthened During The Pandemic

Commencement Student Speaker: Seniors’ Relationships Were Strengthened during the Pandemic Sumner Jones (Questrom’23) to address the Class of 2023 Sunday

“The committee was drawn to Sumner’s authenticity, relatability and sincere gratitude for those who make this university a special place for everyone,” says Jason Campbell-Foster, associate provost and dean of students.

Commencement 2023

Commencement Student Speaker: Seniors’ Relationships Were Strengthened during the Pandemic Sumner Jones (Questrom’23) to address the Class of 2023 Sunday

Sumner Jones has jumped at many opportunities during his four years at BU. He has fixed rock structures on 14,000-foot peaks in Colorado, worked on a farm in rural Kenya, camped out of his car for an entire summer, and served as an RA at Warren Towers. After running a 100-mile marathon last February, he immediately hunted for his next challenge.

Sore and tired in bed after the race, and unable to do much beyond scrolling on his phone, Jones (Questrom’23) noticed an email from the Dean of Students office inviting graduating seniors to submit a potential Commencement address touching on what their BU education has meant to them and what the future might hold for the Class of 2023.

So he started writing. And a few weeks later, he learned he had been selected as this year’s student speaker by a committee of faculty members and administrators who reviewed 30 submissions. 

“If an opportunity presents itself, I always feel that it’s at least worth giving it a try to do my best,” Jones says. “Giving a speech to all of BU seemed like a pretty amazing and challenging thing at the same time.”

On Sunday, Jones will address the approximately 4,150 Class of 2023 graduates and 20,000 guests gathered on Nickerson Field for BU’s 150th Commencement. 

When asked to give a teaser for his speech, Jones pauses for a moment. “I think it’s about how we have had our relationships tested to a great degree throughout undergrad, especially with a pandemic,” he says. “The speech is about how we will deal with the next challenge to our relationships, which is graduation.”

Earlier this month, Jones rehearsed in the George Sherman Union’s conference auditorium with Jason Campbell-Foster, associate provost and dean of students, and Danielle Staub, director of operations & strategic initiatives for the dean of students’ office. Campbell-Foster gave Jones some tips for delivering a speech in front of a big crowd. 

Leading up to Sunday’s ceremony, Jones has been practicing as frequently as 10 times a day, but Campbell-Foster gave him strict instructions to halt all rehearsals after noon this Saturday. Once the other semantics were out of the way (don’t talk over your words, slow down, keep going if you screw up), the hyping began. It’s OK to feel nervous, Campbell-Foster assured Jones. But then adrenaline sets in.

“People are clapping for you, they’re paying attention, and you see the beach ball they aren’t supposed to have bopping around,” Campbell-Foster said. “You just start to realize that it’s nice. You were chosen from a group of people, so just lean into it. You’re delivering the message to your parents and your peers. Let those be the only people you need to worry about. Everyone else is just there for the ride. What you have written will resonate.” 

While at BU, Jones studied business administration and management at the Questrom School of Business. Surprisingly, he paired his major with a minor in Italian Renaissance art history.

“To be honest, I took [art history] as a Hub credit freshman year, but after that first semester, I fell in love with it,” Jones says. “It became a nice balance to the business classes, to be able to come in and watch beautiful paintings in a slideshow for an hour or two every week. I wanted to do it to ultimately become more well-rounded.”

As a student, the business major started to become interested in medicine and studied surgical site infections as an intern at orthopedic labs at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Mass General. “Being in Questrom helped form this very specific interest at the intersection of business and medicine,” Jones says. “And some of the programs out there at med schools that combine an MD with an MBA are very attractive. So one day in the future, I’d like to connect medicine and business somehow.” After graduation, he plans to enroll in a premedical postbaccalaureate program at Bryn Mawr as preparation for that journey. 

When asked to reflect on his BU experience, Jones says his favorite part about his four years here has been the people he has met who carry “diverse experiences, which you might not get in other parts of the country,” he says. “It’s truly a very special place where you can hear people’s stories, learn from their strengths, and improve yourself.”

Explore Related Topics:

Who Were The Tribal People?


With the change in administration and authority, the socio-economic condition of people changed, but their social status was the same as the caste system was dominant in the medieval age. People in certain caste were obliged to follow certain occupations. The class hierarchy grew further in the Delhi sultanate and during the Mughal empire. The section of society which did not follow such social hierarchies was the tribes. They did not follow the caste system and social rituals as prescribed by Brahmans.

They had their own culture and they were not divided into multiple unequal classes. Tribes are a group of people, who are bounded by kinship and linked with a common legendary ancestor. Tribes are considered indigenous as they have been residing here for thousands of years and following the same customs and livelihood. Many tribes practised agriculture for their livelihood; some were hunter-gatherers and often did both agriculture and hunting jointly.

Who Were The Tribals?

Tribals were scattered throughout the sub-continent and they even ruled some areas. Punjab was ruled by the Khokhar tribe in the 13th century, later the Gakkhars became dominant. The Gakkhar chief was made a Mansabdar in Akbar’s court. Before the Mughals, Arghuns and Langahs were the dominant tribes in Multan and Sindh area. Another dominant tribe in the Northwest was Baloch, this community is still present. Balochs were a strong community and they were further divided into clans. Gaddis were the shepherd tribe in the western Himalayas. In the northeastern region of India, the Nagas, Ahoms and many other tribes were dominant.

Naga Tribe

Zubanthung, CC BY-SA 4.0 , via Wikimedia Commons

Chero Chiefdoms emerged in the 12th century in present-day Bihar. Cheros came with conflict with the Mughals and during the time of Akbar, they were defeated by Raja Mansingh in 1591, and a heavy sum was taken from them. In Aurangzeb’s time, they also had conflicts and many Chero fortresses were captured by the Mughals. Santhals and Mundas were other dominant tribes living in these areas.

How Nomad Peoples Lived?

The Banjaras were the most famous and dominant Nomad Tribes of Medieval India. They move with their Caravan which was called Tanda. Sultan Alauddin Khalji used them to transport grains to the city market and in Jhangir’s time, they were assigned the duty to supply food grains to the Mughal army in the military campaigns.

Many pastoral tribes sold animals such as horses and cattle to prosperous peoples. they often sold the animal products like wool. Different castes of peddlers moved from village to village, selling ropes, straw mats, reeds and coarse sacks.

John Hill, CC BY-SA 4.0 , via Wikimedia Commons

Conclusion FAQs

Q1. What was the main occupation of tribes in India?

Ans. Tribes in India were mostly pastoral. They used to do agriculture in forest clearings and had cattle. Some tribes like bhils, were Hunter and gatherers.

Q3. How the Banjaras were important to the economy?

Ans. The Bnjaras plate an important role in the economy. They transported food grains to the towns. They also worked for the Mughals, as they supplied the food grains to the Mughal army during conflict.

Q4. What were the basic features of tribal society?

Ans. The basic features of tribal societies were −

They did not followed the Brahmanical rituals and practices.

No class division.

Members were united by Kinship.

Q5. How do Rajputs set an example for tribal people?

Ans. Rajput clan became one of the most dominant classes and they had ancestral linkage with tribal clans like Hunas, Chandelas, Chalukyas and other communities.

How To Remove Apps From The Microsoft Store Library

Microsoft Store is a built-in online platform for Windows users to download and install a variety of apps, games, movies, and books on their PC. With the help of this service, installing apps on your computer is risk-free and safer than installing them from untrusted sources. Additionally, Microsoft Store has a lot of features but also some downsides. The lack of an option to remove or uninstall apps from the Microsoft Store Library section is one complaint many users have made about Microsoft Store.

Any App Store should be able to manage connected devices’ installed apps and display a list of those apps. For Microsoft Store, the list of applications you have downloaded from the store and installed on your computer is displayed, but you cannot uninstall installed applications directly from the Store. Despite how rudimentary the capability is, Microsoft Store lacks a menu for uninstalling apps, in contrast to other app stores like Google Play Store and Apple App Store. However, you can use a workaround to hide or remove the unused app from the Microsoft Store.

Hide or Remove apps from the Microsoft Store Library

Since removing programs directly from the Microsoft Store is impossible, as we have already mentioned, you must use other means to remove an app from your computer if you installed it through the Microsoft Store and decide it is no longer necessary. Likewise, even after uninstalling such an app, Windows keeps it in the Library section of the Microsoft Store. You can prevent your app library from becoming overrun with uninstalled apps, by following these two steps:

Uninstall the Microsoft Store app via Settings

Use the “Show installed products only” option in your Microsoft Store Library

1] Uninstall the Microsoft Store app via Settings

There are several methods you can use to uninstall unused applications from your Windows computer, as the Microsoft Store doesn’t have an option built-in to allow you to remove apps directly from it

You can, hence, uninstall the Microsoft Store app using the Windows Settings as described below:

Press Windows + I to open Settings on your computer.

On the App list, navigate to the app you want to uninstall and tap on the three-dot icon in front of it.

2] Use the “Show installed products only” option in your Microsoft Store Library

As we have mentioned several times, Windows keeps the Windows Store apps you’ve uninstalled from your computer in the Library section of the Store. However, the Windows Store Library section also has a menu to show installed products only, and you can use this to hide all uninstalled apps you don’t want in the Library

To do this:

At the right-hand side of the resulting page, just above your app list, tap on the Sort and filter menu

After this, you should only see installed apps in the Microsoft Store.

Read: Microsoft Store is not opening after reset

Is it possible to remove apps directly from Windows Store Library?

No, the Microsoft Store does not offer a feature that enables users to disable apps from within it. Therefore, if you have any unwanted apps on your Windows Store, you must first uninstall them using one of the techniques we have covered in this article and then use the method we have also covered in this article to hide them from your Windows Store Library.

Why does the Windows Store keep uninstalled apps in the Library section?

Any app you have downloaded from the Microsoft Store is kept in the Library section of the Store after you uninstall it, most likely so users who might be interested in the app in the future can quickly reinstall it. However, this is not ideal for all situations or users, thus, Microsoft may try to address this in the future by introducing an option that enables users to hide or remove apps from their Windows Store Library. In the interim, you can make use of the method we outlined for hiding uninstalled programs from the Windows Store Library.

How To Remove, Hide The User Account Picture On The Windows 10 Sign

If you have ever wondered if it’s possible to remove your profile picture from the Windows 10 sign-in screen, wonder no more! Because the answer is yes! Although the process isn’t the most simple one, it is possible to do and can be done in under five minutes. 

How to Enable Floating Search on Windows 10. (Independent Search Window)

Windows has had a lot of features come and go over the years but one thing has always remained the same. The account sign-in screen. If you’ve been using Windows for a considerable amount of time and have progressed through the versions, you’ll know exactly what we mean but probably haven’t given it a second thought until now.

Surprisingly it is possible to remove account pictures from the Windows 10 sign-in screen, though isn’t an officially supported option. Instead, removing account images from the Windows 10 sign-in screen relies on a sneaky little trick that achieves this using a transparent image file and a small tweak in the registry. 

If it sounds a little too complicated don’t give up just yet, as the instructions shown below will guide you seamlessly through the process. The instructions shown below should also work on most versions of Windows 10 including 1803 and 1903 (the most recent) 

Related: How to Change the Download Speed of Windows 10 Updates. (Customise Windows 10 Update Bandwidth in Mbps.)

Can You Hide Profile Pictures From the Windows 10 Sign-in Screen? (Stop Profile Pictures Showing on the Windows 10 Sign-in Screen)

To begin, the first thing you need to do is download the transparent png file from here, then extract it into your desired location (anywhere will do). If you try to extract the file and it vanishes or comes up with an error, you’ll need to make an exception in your antivirus program. If you are using Windows Defender check out our guide here. 

Next open File Explorer and go to the following folder: C:ProgramDataMicrosoftUser Account Pictures and rename the user-192.png from .PNG to .BAK. This will make sure you have a backup should you ever wish to revert back.

Now, copy and paste the chúng tôi file you extracted earlier into the same location: 

C:ProgramDataMicrosoftUser Account Pictures

Once that’s done, all you have to do is Reset profile pictures (account pictures) to their default. If you don’t know how to, follow the instructions shown below.

Reset User Account Images to Defaults.

To apply the default user picture for all users on Windows 10 open the registry editor by searching regedit from the start menu, then selecting it when it appears. Next, navigate to the following location using the left-hand pane.


Note: Even if you are running 64-bit Windows, you still need to use a 32-bit DWORD.

Using The Right File Format For Storing Data

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon


We are living in an era of data. Every day we generate thousands of terabytes creating thousands and thousands of machine learning and deep learning models day by day to find solutions to modern problems. These problems include future sales prediction, fraudulent activity detection, the presence of diseases in patients, and so on. The accuracy and efficiency of these models highly depend on the data we feed to these models. As we are reaching closer to the era of Artificial Intelligence, the hunger for data for these models is increasing too, to achieve outstanding performance. A deep analysis is done on data and so it is important to structure and maintain the data properly in appropriate ways so that it could be accessed and modified easily.

In this article, we will be going to learn about different file formats. We will learn about how the same data can be stored in different file formats and which file format should be preferred for a specific application. We will also learn about row and columnar ways of storing data, how they two are different from each other and what could be the reason behind choosing one over the other.

Propriety vs Free file formats

A propriety file format is a specific file format that is owned and used by the company. Reading and editing in these file formats require propriety software. This is to ensure that the users cannot read, modify or copy the source code and resell it as their own product.

Free file formats on the other hand are open source and can be read using open-source software. Data present in these file formats can be read, changed, modified by users, and can be used for their own purpose using simple tools and libraries. We will be going to cover only open file formats in this article.

We start with one of the most common and favorite file formats for storing textual data of all time that is CSV.

CSV (Comma Separated Values)

CSV is one of the most common file formats for storing textual data. These files can be opened using a wide variety of programs including Notepad. The reason behind using this format over others is its ability to store complex data in a simple and readable way. Moreover, CSV files offer more security as compared to file formats like JSON. In python, it is easy to read these types of files using a special library called Pandas.

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)–

It is a standard format for storing textual data based on JavaScript object index. It is basically used for transmitting data in web applications. Unlike CSV, JSON allows you to create a hierarchical structure of your data. JSON allows data to be stored in many data types including strings, arrays, booleans, integers, etc.

JSON formats are easy to integrate with APIs and can store a huge amount of data efficiently. They provide scalability and support to relational data.

import pandas as pd # Reading json file using pandas file_json = pd.read_json("file.json")#replace file with actual file name # printing the top 5 entries present in the csv file print(file_json.head()) XML (Extensible Markup Language)

This file format has a structure similar to HTML and it is used to store data and transfer data without being dependent on software and hardware tools. XML language is Java compatible and any application that is capable of processing it can use your information, whatever the platform is.

import pandas as pd # Reading a xml file using pandas file_xml = pd.read_xml("file.xml")#replace file with actual file name # printing the top 5 entries present in the csv file print(file_xml.head())

Note: Pandas read_xml function is available in the latest pandas version 1.3.0 So you might have to upgrade pandas. You can do that with the below command

pip3 install --upgrade pandas YAML ( YAML Ain’t Markup Language) –

YAML is a data serialization language that is mainly used for human interaction. It is a superset of JSON which means it includes all the features of JSON and more. Unlike other file formats, YAML uses indentation as part of its formatting like python. The benefits of using YAML over other file formats are:

Files are portable and transferable between different programming languages.

Expressive and extensive format

Files support a Unicode set of characters

import pyyaml from yaml.loader import SafeLoader # Open and load the file with open('Sample.yaml') as file: data = yaml.load(file, Loader=SafeLoader) print(data) Parquet

Parquet is a binary file format that allows you to store data in a columnar fashion. Data inside parquet files are similar to RDBMS style tables but instead of accessing one row at a time, we are accessing one column at a time. This is beneficial when we are dealing with millions and billions of records having a very little number of attributes.

import pyarrow.parquet as pq # Read the table using pyarrow table = pq.read_table('example.parquet') # Convert the table to pandas dataframe table = table.to_pandas() # print the table print(table.head()) Row vs columnar file formats

Most of the files we use in our daily life are present in row file formats where we are searching each record before moving to the next. Data present in these formats are easy to read and modify as compared to columnar formats like parquet. But when we are dealing with a huge number of records, simple operations like searching and deletion cost a considerable amount of time. To deal with the problem,  we use columnar file formats

Why use columnar file formats Data compression techniques

Gzip – This file format is used for data and file compression. It is based on DEFLATE algorithm which is based on Huffman and LZ77 coding. This is a lossless way of compression. The amazing thing is that it allows multiple files to be compressed as a single archive. It provides a better compression ratio than other compression formats at the cost of a slower speed. It is the best for storing data that don’t need to be modified frequently.

Snappy – These file formats provide faster compression but fail to provide a better compression ratio than Gzip. However, this compression format can be best suitable to compress data that require frequent modification.


There are various file formats available for storing data and creating your own datasets. But choosing one depend upon the requirements and the type of data. To choose a format that is best suitable for your application, you should at least be aware of the available options. Other than that, you should be aware of your priorities like data security, size of data, speed of operations, etc. For example, if data security is the highest priority it is better to use CSV files over JSON, or maybe choosing propriety file format could be the best option.

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