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Bottlenecking is a natural result of an unbalanced PC build. When you build your own, or at least pick the parts, you might feel tempted to grab whatever you can afford. Or just the most expensive one out there – that’s usually not the best approach. Finding the right balance between parts, especially CPU and GPU, is the key to having a powerful PC that keeps up as games and software evolve.

That might mean waiting a little to be able to afford a slightly pricier part that fits better. Or actually selecting a cheaper alternative that works better in your setup. If you make the wrong choice, you end up with a bottleneck.

The quite descriptive term refers to when a certain element of your PC hardware – usually CPU or GPU – is unable to keep up with the performance of other parts. A computer can only perform as well as its weakest part. So pairing a powerful CPU with a weak GPU means it won’t be able to work at capacity as it’ll be limited by the GPU.

Why Is It a Problem?

When you put money into a PC, one part slowing down the rest of the system essentially means wasting the money you invested in the parts that are being slowed down. In some cases, it can also lead to increased wear and tear on the bottleneck part since it might cause it to overheat if it’s forced to run at capacity all the time. Depending on the part, a bottleneck can outright prevent you from playing certain games or running certain programs – or it might just make them sluggish and slow. Either way, it’s best to avoid them or fix them as soon as possible.

What Are Common Bottlenecks?

The most common two bottleneck points are CPU and GPU. Both are relatively pricey parts that can be particularly expensive to upgrade – and therefore, they are often replaced one at a time, preventing the improved part from reaching its potential. Technically, any part can be a bottleneck, at least in some tasks – here are some of the most common ones.


The CPU is the heart of the computer. It controls basically everything that happens and performs the vast majority of the computer’s processing. There are two factors in CPU performance, core count and processing power. Both can cause bottlenecks but in slightly different scenarios.

CPU Core Count

The CPU core count is the number of processing cores a CPU has, and each of these cores can run a separate process simultaneously. This has overall performance benefits, but some programs benefit more than others. Some programs have logic that can be neatly divided into multiple processes. Each process can then be run on a separate CPU core simultaneously. This can provide a performance boost of up to two times running on a single CPU core.

A lot of software, especially older software, can only run on one process on one core at a time. Even in this case, though, there can be some performance increase, as two or more of these programs can be run at once, depending on the number of cores.

CPU Processing Power

Processing power is typically measured with the clock rate through other factors like the IPC. A clock rate is simply how many processor cycles the CPU can complete per second. It is typically measured in GHz (pronounced gigahertz), with typical values between 2 and 5GHz, or between two and five billion cycles per second.

Raw processing power can sometimes be a bottleneck as single processes may not complete fast enough, leaving other parts waiting. This is especially the case when the CPU doesn’t get enough cooling. If this happens, it automatically slows itself down to reduce the heat it produces, thus preventing any damage to your hardware and slowing down any tasks it is running, increasing the chance of your CPU bottlenecking something else.


GPUs are generally limited by power or by heat. Like CPUs, cooling is important, so make sure that you’ve also got good airflow to keep your GPU cool so it can run fast.


If you think storage capacity will be a bottleneck issue, you’ll probably want to use HDDs. However, if you need to read or write data quicker, you’ll want an SSD. A combination of both can work well, so you can store infrequently needed data on a cheap HDD and files you’ll need more often on a fast SSD.

At least in gaming, a slow hard drive often causes things like slow loading times. It can also cause your computer to be slow at booting up. This doesn’t really affect your performance in-game as the hard drive isn’t used so much then and isn’t a bottleneck. Still, while reading a lot of data from a slow hard drive, it can be a bottleneck.


The display is rarely a bottleneck, but that’s not to say it can’t be. If you want to visualize a lot of data at once, you will be limited by the screen’s resolution. You can display more detailed images or graphs on higher resolution screens. It may even be helpful to get a second screen.

In gaming specifically, not just resolution but also the refresh rate of the screen can also be a bottleneck. Standard monitors display 60 frames per second. However, if you’ve got a powerful enough graphics card compared to the graphical requirements of the game you’re playing, you may be able to produce more frames than that, potentially substantially more. All of that data and processing power go to waste if your monitor can’t show that many frames per second. Then again, some people may be happy with 60 frames per second and want to get a higher resolution monitor instead.


The motherboard is basically the spine of your computer. Everything attaches to it and communicates through it. Budget motherboards cut features to reduce costs. These are obvious and easy enough to work around in some cases, such as a lack of integrated Wi-Fi. Unfortunately, you also often don’t get the latest feature sets. This can, for example, force your expensive PCIe5 SSD to operate at PCIe3 speeds. In that case, cutting potential SSD performance by three quarters. You need to make sure your motherboard is compatible with all your parts. However, you also don’t want to spend too much on a motherboard that has features you don’t want or need, as you may be able to better spend that money elsewhere.

With motherboards, the bottleneck isn’t a direct performance of the motherboard. But more if it can enable optimum performance of the rest of your components.

Power supply

Computers need power, and all of this comes through the PSU. It’s important to determine how much power your computer will draw when under load. Then ensure that your PSU can provide more than that, ideally by 20-30%. There are online calculators where you can enter your components and estimate the total power draw. This is followed by recommendations for PSU power capacities.

Realistically, most standard computers will be fine with a 650W PSU. Gaming computers often have high-performance GPUs under heavy load combined with a mid to high CPU and can need more like 850W. You can need even more if you’re running particularly high-end gear and overclocking it. Generally, however, you shouldn’t need a 1600W power supply. That will just be overkill, and the money can be better spent elsewhere.

Realistically, a PSU doesn’t affect performance unless it can’t provide enough power, in which case your computer will likely crash. Again, aim for 20-30% more than you need, and you should be fine.

How Can You Fix/Avoid It?

By definition, it is worth noting that if any part is running at 100,% you have a bottleneck, as that part is then holding back other parts. This is generally bad but may not be avoidable, especially if you already have the best-performing version of the relevant part. For example, video games require a huge GPU processing power and comparatively little CPU processing power. A flagship GPU will run 100% in most computers with even mid-tier modern components. This is simply a limitation of what is currently possible with graphics hardware and the imbalance of processing requirements in games.


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Everything You Should Know About Youtube: Private Vs Unlisted

Everything You Should Know About YouTube: Private vs Unlisted

Having said that, there are times when you (as a video uploader) don’t want the whole YouTube family to watch your video. There can be various reasons that can be categorized in different sections and you want a particular section of viewers to watch the same video. In those cases, you can use the customization settings to make the video available to people as YouTube Private or Unlisted. Yeah!!

YouTube Video Types & YouTube Platform

Everyone is using the same platform (YouTube), yet, many of them are getting reviews in millions & others are in thousands. Obviously, the time, content, video quality, & supporting things matter, however, the video-type-leveraging also plays a vital role that can boost your business (if you are into business). These video types can be as simple as Public to as specific as Private that limits your viewers & let you control your audience.

If you are running a business, there are plenty of questions that go through your mind while posting videos on YouTube. Should I make this public so my friends can also see the video along with the clients? Do I need to make a separate video for clients or share a webinar with them? Do I want my family to see these videos or just the people I’m working with?

So many questions yet you need to find ways to meet all the expectations and publish your videos as well. And the simplest & approachable way is, publishing your videos as Private or Unlisted so you will have full control over the viewers.

What Do You Mean By YouTube Private vs Unlisted? YouTube Private

As the name suggests, YouTube Private is all about keeping your video visible to a certain number of people (50 in total)    . That too, you will need to invite so choose the people wisely before sending the invitation for the video visibility. This goes without say but the YouTube Private videos don’t get listed under video recommendations & search results.

Additionally, it’s not a chain system where the invitees can send the invite link to other people so they can watch the video. Even after saying so, the invitee sends the link to another person, he/she won’t be able to watch it unless they have got the direct link from the uploader.

Also Read: How to Use YouTube in Picture-in-Picture Mode

YouTube Unlisted

Apart from the YouTube Private, another video type YouTube offers is Unlisted that is somewhere between the Private & Public category. Any YouTube video that comes under the YouTube Unlisted video category can’t be seen in video suggestions or search results. However, whoever has the link to the video can watch as well as share the video easily.

That means, in Youtube Unlisted videos, it can work like a chain system where viewers can watch & share the video link to other users as well.


Last but not the least, the Public video category is another section of videos YouTube offers to its uploaders. If you are going ahead with Public type while publishing the video, sky’s the limit for you. You have the whole YouTube world to view your video and more viewers or subscribers is the key to the right direction, we believe. Setting the video’s category Public will bring your video in Google Search results (if someone types in the right keywords). With the right kind of strategic decisions, the Public video category can profit you in many ways.

Difference Between YouTube Private & Unlisted

Now that we have got an idea about the YouTube video types, we can take the decision accordingly while publishing videos. Having said that, the above explanation is just an intro to what the video type means. If you are planning to stay on YouTube for a long time & we believe that you do, knowing about them in depth is a necessity. So here we will be talking about the differences between both types of videos, YouTube Private & YouTube Unlisted.

Also Read: YouTube Loading Slow: Here’s How to Fix

Advantages of Creating a Video, “YouTube Private”

1. Own Video Library

Obviously, if you are sharing your personal videos to a limited number of people, those are close to you. And since you have all the control over those videos, soon it will become your own video library. Please know that those videos can be anything from secret project to comic books or art because YouTube doesn’t limit you to not put specific content videos unless they are compromising ones. So whenever you feel like watching them, go to your account and they are easily accessible to you, your own video library.

2. Organization Info Store

3. Video Sharing With Loved Ones

4. Storage Space Saving

Advantages of Creating a Video, “YouTube Unlisted”

1. Portfolio Sharing With Possibly-Future-Employers

Without a doubt, everyone of us would agree that the Unlisted YouTube category is a gift for users. More than 70% of people are doing jobs in the whole world & they don’t want the current employer to know that they are looking for other options. YouTube Unlisted can help you put in your portfolio in front of prospective employers and your current employer wouldn’t have a slightest idea about it. Isn’t this cool!!

2. Feedback Sharing For Co-Workers

Feedbacks are a very important aspect of running a business (no matter small or big) & it needs to be kept away from people you wouldn’t want to get access to. In case you have a running business where the employee strength is more than 50 people or simply a section you want to share the feedback with, go with Unlisted YouTube videos.

3. YouTube Page Redesigning

Not everyone is too happy with the video he/she made in the starting phase of posting videos on YouTube. So in case you want to untie yourself from those old videos that are embarrassing for you now, the Unlisted YouTube feature is for you. Plus, there are possibilities that the video has been shared or embedded by any of the users and it can be accessed again. So in those cases, if you switch to Unlisted YouTube video, the video visibility will be gone hence no access. Voila!!

Limitations of YouTube Unlisted Videos

Not every feature, app or software is perfect because users have their own expectations & manufacturers cannot amend accordingly. With YouTube Unlisted, one of the limitations is if your video is on playlist, it might appear publicly. Another limitation is a bit riskier because the unlisted YouTube videos get shared on other websites as there is a dedicated website for YouTube Unlisted videos altogether.

How to Change The YouTube Video Privacy Settings

Now that we have learnt about the video types that one can publish on YouTube, it’s important to know how to do so. You need to start the process by logging into the YouTube account & tap on the “Video & +” sign nearby the account profile picture.

Post doing so, choose the Upload Video option from the list & on the same page, you will see the list of making it either Public, Unlisted, or Private.

Choose your appropriate video type accordingly and go ahead with uploading the video on YouTube.

Wrapping Up:

Privacy protection is very important while you are on the internet & one loose end can give you nightmares. From Facebook to Instagram & YouTube, every one of those platforms are popular among users, however, while creating & uploading content, you need to be extra careful. For example, if you want to upload videos on YouTube & control your viewers, set the video privacy settings accordingly.

From YouTube Private to Unlisted YouTube & Public categories define your YouTube family so be careful while doing so.

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Ankit Agarwal

Minecraft Tick: Everything You Need To Know

You might already be aware that time works in a different manner in video games as compared to the real world. Usually, this change only affects the day-night cycle and not your gameplay. But as expected, things are quite different in the world of Minecraft. Here, everything in the game is defined and connected to the Minecraft tick. From the growth of crops to the functioning of your Minecraft farms, every tick in this game matters. So, let’s not waste another tick and explore everything you need to know about all Minecraft ticks.

Minecraft Ticks: Explained (2024)

Due to an assortment of moveable components, Minecraft has a variety of ticks. We have covered them all in separate sections that you can explore freely using the table below. But first, let’s explain what exactly do we mean by a tick in video games.

What is a Tick in Video Games?

All video games are made up of loops and repeated processes. The entities spawn and then their AI sends them a signal to do a set of pre-recorded tasks or stay stationary. To maintain this mechanic, the time in video games runs in a series of repeated actions, and each loop of such actions is known as a tick. Furthermore, the number of ticks in a single second is known as the TPS (ticks per second) or tick rate of that game.

In some ways, TPS is similar to the FPS of a game. The game’s FPS is the number of frames rendered on your screen within a second, and meanwhile, TPS shows the number of logic loops the game completes each second. Games with AI-based enemies and a lower number of players use a low 20 TPS to function. Meanwhile, competitive shooters like Valorant run on a rate of up to 128 TPS.

Types of Ticks in Minecraft

Primarily, there are three types of ticks supported in Minecraft:

Game Ticks

Redstone Ticks

Chunk Ticks

What is a Minecraft Game Tick?

A tick in Minecraft is the time that it takes an in-game loop to finish. This loop applies to a variety of things in the game, ranging from mob spawns to the spreading of fire. Every Minecraft activity takes a set number of ticks to start, expand, and finish. One Minecraft tick usually lasts for 0.05 seconds (50 milliseconds) in the real world.

With that logic, a day-night cycle in Minecraft lasts for 24000 ticks or 20 minutes. This same tick also affects the activity speed of Minecraft mobs, the growth of plants, and even the functioning of Redstone components. It also regulates mob behavior, entity spawning, positions of entities, and players’ health and hunger bars.

Use the table below to understand how long is an in-game day in Minecraft in terms of ticks:

Game TicksTime of Day in Minecraft1Day 1 Sunrise (when you create the world)1000Daytime6000Noon12000Sunset13000Nighttime18000Midnight24000Day 2 Sunrise / Day 1 Ends

What is a Lagged Tick and Why Does it Happen

Redstone components sending an excessive amount of signals and block updates.

Too many mobs spawning at one spot and their AI putting a load on your system.

Hoppers and Allays that are constantly in search of items.

You can reduce the lag in ticks by turning off unnecessary Redstone components and killing off unwanted mobs. Alternatively, you can use mods like Optifine in Minecraft to reduce the pressure on your computer.

How to Check Your Minecraft Game Tick

You can check your current ticks per second (TPS) only on the Minecraft Java edition and not the Bedrock version. To do so, you only have to press the Alt + F3 keys simultaneously.

The game will then bring up a debug screen overlay that displays the game’s TPS in the bottom right corner, along with other details. Please note that the default TPS is 20, and your computer must be under some kind of graphical pressure if it is any lower than that.

What is a Redstone Tick in Minecraft?

As we have seen in various Minecraft farm builds, another common tick in-game is the Redstone tick. Each Redstone tick in Minecraft is equal to two game ticks. So, a Redstone tick takes 0.1 seconds to complete a loop. This tick only works in reference to your Redstone signals and doesn’t affect other entities in-game. Because of Redstone mechanics, you can’t make the Redstone tick run any faster than its default speed. But you can delay it with the help of a Redstone repeater.

What is a Chunk Tick in Minecraft?

All chunk ticks in Minecraft follow the default 20 TPS, but they only apply to chunks around the player. Each chunk in Minecraft consists of a 16 x 16 x 256 area, where 256 is the world height and 16 are horizontal (length and breadth) dimensions.

On Minecraft Java edition, the chunk area that’s within a 128 blocks range from the player gets updated with each tick, and also any chunk that has a loading entity ticking. That means every chunk that has active players or all active entities and components will be updated with every tick. Meanwhile, in the Bedrock edition, all the loaded chunk areas are updated with every game tick.

Though, your chunk settings can affect the above-mentioned circumstances. In any case, whenever a chuck gets ticked, other than updating the entities, the game can also choose some random blocks to be updated.

Random Tick and Random Tick Speed

A Functioning Pumpkin Farm at a High Random Tick Speed

The chunk tick that updates random blocks in every chunk is known as a Random Tick. In the Java edition, this tick chooses three random blocks in every chunk, but it only focuses on one single block in the Bedrock edition. And the number of blocks that get updated with every tick is known as the Random Tick Speed of that Minecraft world.

Crops might grow and drop as items

Spread of mushrooms, grass, vines, and mycelium.

Spread and burn out of the fire

Leaves might decay to drop saplings and apples

Saplings, cacti, sugar cane, kelp, bamboo, budding amethyst chorus, flowers, and sweet berry bushes might grow

Farmland may gain or lose hydration

Mud can turn into clay

Copper blocks and their variants can change the oxidation stage

Turtle eggs can change their state

Redstone ore might stop shining

Campfires can release smoke

As the name reveals, random ticks in Minecraft are very unpredictable. There is no way to examine which block is going to get updated with the next tick. However, some blocks can even demand a tick update systematically.

What is a Scheduled Tick

As per Minecraft Wiki, you can schedule a maximum number of 65,536 ticks with every game tick. But, on the Bedrock edition, the number comes down to 100 scheduled ticks because they are limited to nearby chunks.

How to Change Tick Speed in Minecraft

If you want to make your game world update faster or slower than usual, then you can change the random tick speed in Minecraft. Doing so will change the number of blocks that get updated every single second. To change the tick speed in Minecraft, use the following command:

Here, you need to replace X with the random tick speed you want the game to run at. If you want to dig deeper, we already have a dedicated guide that covers how to change tick speed in Minecraft. You can use it to learn a variety of ways the tick speed can be changed and utilized to make your in-game life simpler.

Frequently Asked Questions

How long are 100 ticks in Minecraft?

Every tick in Minecraft lasts 50 milliseconds (0.05 seconds). That means 1 second equals 20 ticks. So, 100 ticks would be equal to 5 seconds in Minecraft.

Is a higher tick rate better in Minecraft?

What is a good tick speed?

The default tick speed, which is 20 ticks per second, is considered the best tick speed for most Minecraft servers and single-player worlds.

Minecraft Tick Types and Mechanics Detailed

What Is Chat Gpt? – Everything You Need To Know

The crazy progress artificial intelligence (AI) has made lately has caused a stir in pretty much every industry you can think of. One AI superstar is ChatGPT, an AI chatbot that’s so cutting-edge, it’s practically doing linguistic backflips!

This article will explore the origins of ChatGPT, its underlying technology, its real-world applications, and the ethical considerations surrounding its use, as well as speculate on the future developments and improvements that lie ahead for this remarkable AI innovation.

Let’s go!

The foundation of ChatGPT is the GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) architecture, and the acronym highlights the key characteristics of this AI model:

Generative: GPT models are capable of generating new content based on the patterns and context they have learned from the training data. They can create human-like text that is contextually relevant and coherent.

Pre-trained: The models are pre-trained on vast amounts of text data from diverse sources, allowing them to learn a wide range of linguistic patterns, grammar, facts, and context. This pre-training process forms the foundation for their ability to generate high-quality text.

Transformer: GPT models are built on the Transformer architecture, a neural network model designed for natural language processing tasks. The Transformer architecture employs self-attention mechanisms and parallel processing to efficiently handle large-scale language tasks and generate contextually accurate text.

As an AI-powered natural language processing tool, ChatGPT is capable of understanding and generating text based on the prompts you give it. It has a wide range of applications, from answering your questions to helping you draft content, translate languages, and more.

Open AI used human AI trainers to fine tune the language models and utilized human feedback and reinforcement learning techniques to ensure a best-in-class experience for us all. So, you can expect Chat GPT to provide timely, accurate, and contextually relevant responses to whatever question you ask it. Well, most of the time anyway.

Now that you know what ChatGPT is, we’re going to take a look at its history and development.

The history of ChatGPT starts in 2023, when OpenAI first introduced its GPT language model. This model was capable of generating human-like responses to questions and conversations, inspiring the creation of ChatGPT.

The GPT series began with GPT-1, which was a promising but limited language model. Its successor, GPT-2, was released in February 2023 and demonstrated significant improvements in language understanding and generation capabilities.

However, it was GPT-3, which was released in June 2023, that truly revolutionized the generative AI landscape with its unprecedented power and performance.

Over time, OpenAI fine-tuned GPT-3 to create GPT-3.5, which is an upgraded iteration and the version of ChatGPT that is available for free on the OpenAI website.

OpenAI officially launched ChatGPT in November 2023 and it was an instant hit. Building upon the success of GPT-3.5, OpenAI introduced GPT-4, an iteration that brought notable enhancements in ChatGPT’s performance, scalability, and overall capabilities.

Throughout its growth, ChatGPT has benefited from strengthened deep-learning architectures, so let’s take a look at some of the key features of the technology in the next section.

In this section, we’ll discuss these key features, highlighting their importance and the impact they have on how ChatGPT responds as well as its capabilities.

One of ChatGPT’s key components is its ability to understand human language thanks to its underlying large language model. The model’s deep understanding of grammar, syntax, and semantics allows it to produce quality text that closely resembles human-generated content.

ChatGPT can retain context from previous conversations to provide more relevant and coherent responses. However, GPT models, in general, have a limited context window that determines how much text they can process and retain at once.

Contextual awareness is what enables the model to perform better in a back-and-forth conversation and maintain consistency in its responses.

Another significant feature of Chat GPT is its expansive knowledge base. The AI chatbot has been trained on a massive dataset containing text from numerous sources, so it can generate responses on a variety of subjects.

You can engage with ChatGPT on topics that include:

Science and technology: Physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, computer science, engineering, and more.

Arts and humanities: Literature, history, philosophy, visual arts, music, and performing arts.

Social sciences: Psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, economics, and education.

Mathematics and statistics: Algebra, calculus, geometry, probability, and statistical analysis.

Medicine and healthcare: Anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, medical conditions, treatments, and healthcare systems.

Business and finance: Management, marketing, accounting, finance, economics, and entrepreneurship.

Law and politics: Legal systems, international relations, political theory, public policy, and human rights.

Pop culture and entertainment: Movies, television, music, sports, celebrities, and popular trends.

Everyday life: Travel, food, hobbies, DIY, relationships, and personal development.

Environment and geography: Climate change, ecosystems, natural resources, physical geography, and human geography.

Note: While ChatGPT has knowledge on a wide range of topics, the accuracy and depth of its understanding may vary depending on the subject and the complexity of the question or task.

ChatGPT’s architecture and training methodologies allow it to scale well and make it suitable for many applications and industries. The model can be fine-tuned for specific tasks, enhancing its performance and adaptability to various use cases.

While it’s hard to provide exact numbers for how far ChatGPT can scale and adapt due to the many factors involved, such as computational resources, infrastructure, and app requirements, we can make estimates based on the model’s size and training data:

Model size: ChatGPT is built on GPT-4 architecture, and although the exact size of GPT-4 is not publicly disclosed, GPT-3.5, its predecessor, had 175 billion parameters. It is safe to assume that GPT-4 has an even larger number of parameters, allowing it to capture more complex language patterns and provide better performance.

Training data: ChatGPT is trained on massive datasets containing terabytes of text data sourced from diverse domains, such as websites, books, articles, and more. This enables the model to have a vast knowledge base that spans numerous subjects and fields.

Computational resources: Training ChatGPT on such large datasets requires significant computational power. The model is typically trained using high-performance GPUs or TPUs, which are capable of handling the complex mathematical operations involved in training deep learning models.

Fine-tuning: Adapting ChatGPT for specialized work often requires additional training and reinforcement learning on custom datasets that might range in size from thousands to millions of examples, depending on the task and desired performance.

When it comes to scaling ChatGPT for user interactions, the numbers will primarily depend on the infrastructure and optimizations made for deployment.

Theoretically, it should be possible to serve millions of users with the right hardware and software setup, but the exact numbers will vary based on the specific use case and the resources available.

ChatGPT’s key features have contributed to its remarkable success and growing popularity. They not only enable ChatGPT to deliver impressive performance but also make it a powerful tool for transforming the way we interact with technology and opening up new possibilities for AI-driven solutions across various domains.

In the next section, we’re going to take a look at some of those solutions as we cover some real-world applications of ChatGPT.

In this section, we’ll explore some applications of ChatGPT. The potential applications are quite vast, but we’ll focus on five main areas.

With ChatGPT, you can create high-quality and engaging content for your blog, website, or social media accounts. It can assist with drafting news articles, creating headlines, crafting marketing copy, and even generating topic ideas.

By incorporating keywords and adjusting the output based on your preferences, you can produce content that aligns with your brand and target audience.

By using the ChatGPT API, businesses can create AI chatbots, virtual assistants, and helpdesks capable of human-like conversations.

The model can be applied to translate text between languages with impressive accuracy, aiding in language learning, communication, and information sharing.

It’s use in this domain is so promising that the language learning platform Duolingo has announced the launch of Duolingo Max, a new subscription tier that uses GPT-4 to give personalized answers and enable learning roleplay.

ChatGPT can be integrated into video games or interactive experiences like Dungeons & Dragons to create dynamic and engaging dialogues or narratives.

It can generate story ideas, develop characters, or even create entire fictional worlds, assisting writers and game developers.

The model can be used as a tutoring tool, providing explanations, answering questions, or offering feedback on various subjects.

Its potential applications in this domain are vast and it could benefit both students and educators in various ways, such as:

Personalized learning: ChatGPT can help create tailored learning experiences by adapting to the individual needs, interests, and skill levels of students. It can recommend learning resources, provide supplementary materials, or suggest activities that align with students’ learning objectives and styles.

Subject-specific tutoring: The model’s extensive domain knowledge allows it to assist students across a wide range of subjects, such as mathematics, science, history, and language arts. It can provide explanations, answer questions, or offer guidance on specific topics, helping students to better understand and retain information.

Homework assistance and feedback: ChatGPT can support students in completing their homework by providing hints, step-by-step solutions, or constructive feedback on their work. It can also help with proofreading, identifying errors, and suggesting improvements in students’ written assignments.

Study aid and exam preparation: The model can generate quizzes, practice questions, or flashcards to help students review and reinforce their understanding of course material. It can also guide students in creating effective study plans and offer test-taking strategies to enhance their exam performance.

ChatGPT can also assist teachers by generating lesson plans, quizzes, or study materials tailored to individual students’ needs.

These five use cases give a glimpse of the potential of this transformative technology. However, ChatGPT isn’t without limitations. In the next section, we’ll take a look at some of those limitations and challenges.

Want to hear about the future of AI in data? Check out the video below.

While ChatGPT is an impressive language model with numerous applications, it is not without its limitations and challenges.

Understanding these drawbacks is essential for managing expectations and identifying areas where the model could be improved.

In this section, we will discuss the limitations ChatGPT has, shedding light on its potential shortcomings and the hurdles it faces in certain scenarios.

ChatGPT’s context window restricts its ability to process and retain context from very long text passages or multi-turn conversations.

This can lead to a loss of coherence and relevance in responses when the context exceeds its capacity.

The model’s training data goes up to September 2023, which means ChatGPT’s responses may not have the latest information on some subjects.

Its knowledge base is also limited by the text data it has been trained on, which may not cover every topic or domain comprehensively.

ChatGPT relies solely on its pre-existing knowledge from its training data, which means it cannot verify facts, access real-time information, perform live research, or report on current events.

This limitation can lead to inaccuracies, false positives, false negatives, or outdated information in its responses, making it less reliable for tasks that require up-to-date or fact-checked information.

This is an area where Bing Chat shines because Bing, unlike ChatGPT, includes search engine results. If you’re using ChatGPT to come up with facts, make sure you cross-check the information provided.

AI-written text is sometimes overly verbose, generic, or repetitive, which can reduce the quality and effectiveness of its outputs.

This can be particularly problematic in situations where concise or domain-specific answers are required.

ChatGPT may struggle with common sense reasoning or understanding implicit knowledge that humans find intuitive.

This can lead to incorrect or nonsensical answers or plausible-sounding but incorrect responses, even when the model appears to be generating coherent text.

ChatGPT has remarkable capabilities in natural language understanding, but as an end user, you should recognize its many limitations so you can make better-informed decisions when using the language model.

Beyond its limitations, it’s also important to think of some ethical considerations and potential risks of the technology, which is what we’re to cover in the next section.

As with any powerful technology, the use of ChatGPT brings about ethical considerations and potential risks that need to be addressed to ensure responsible and safe usage.

In this section, we will explore the ethical concerns associated with a dangerously strong AI and outline the challenges and responsibilities of its users and developers.

It is crucial for developers to continuously improve the model’s training process to reduce bias and promote fairness in AI-generated content.

ChatGPT writes plausible-sounding text with limited knowledge, and that raises concerns about its potential use in spreading false information, misinformation, propaganda, or deepfake content.

Developers and users must work together to implement safeguards and promote transparency to counteract these risks.

ChatGPT relies on large datasets for training, which may contain sensitive or personal information, raising concerns about data privacy and security.

It’s important that OpenAI collects data that is anonymized and implements robust security measures to help protect end-user privacy and maintain trust in artificial intelligence systems.

The widespread adoption of ChatGPT may lead to an overreliance on AI-generated content, potentially undermining human creativity and critical thinking.

It may become crucial to establish clear guidelines for responsible AI use and maintain a balance between human and AI-generated content.

In particular, determining accountability in cases of AI-generated content causing harm or legal disputes could be challenging, which highlights the need for clear regulations and ethical guidelines.

The adoption of ChatGPT and similar AI technologies may have significant economic implications. It could replace human workers in certain industries or lead to the centralization of AI resources by large corporations.

Addressing these concerns requires collaboration between stakeholders, including governments, businesses, and communities, to ensure that the benefits of artificial intelligence are distributed equitably and its potential negative impacts are mitigated.

The good news is OpenAI has considered these concerns and has published a charter laying out its mission and goal to ensure the continued development of artificial intelligence systems will benefit all of humanity.

With that in mind, let’s take a look at the future of Chat GPT and what you can expect in the coming years.

Despite its current limitations and challenges, ChatGPT holds great potential for future developments and improvements that could further enhance its capabilities and address its shortcomings.

In this section, we will explore some of the anticipated new features and potential areas of improvement for Chat GPT, offering insights into the exciting possibilities that lie ahead for language models.

OpenAI researchers are working on enhancing Chat GPT’s ability to understand and retain context from long text passages and back-and-forth conversations, which will help improve its coherence and the relevance of its responses.

Future iterations of Chat GPT may incorporate better common sense reasoning capabilities, enabling the model to handle implicit knowledge and intuitive understanding more effectively.

This would result in more accurate and meaningful responses with less follow-up questions, even in situations that require an understanding of human experiences or tacit knowledge.

Developers plan to continue to focus on reducing bias and promoting fairness in ChatGPT’s outputs by refining the training process, data curation, and model evaluation.

These efforts will help ensure that AI-generated content is more representative, inclusive, and less prone to perpetuating harmful stereotypes or discrimination.

Future developments in AI language models may include the ability to access real-time information or perform live research, allowing ChatGPT to provide more accurate and up-to-date responses.

Integrating fact-checking capabilities could also enhance the reliability and trustworthiness of the information generated by the model.

Advances in transfer learning and fine-tuning techniques will enable ChatGPT to be more easily adapted to specific tasks, domains, or industries, further expanding its range of applications.

Improved customization options will allow users to tailor the model’s behavior more effectively, ensuring that AI-generated content aligns with their unique requirements and preferences.

The future of ChatGPT is full of promise, with anticipated developments and improvements set to overcome current limitations and enable AI language models like ChatGPT to become even more versatile, powerful, and effective tools for a wide range of applications.

By continuing to invest in research and development, the AI community can unlock the full potential of language models and drive the next wave of innovation in natural language processing and beyond!

As you now know, ChatGPT is a cutting-edge language model built on the GPT-4 architecture that has demonstrated remarkable capabilities in natural language understanding and generation.

Its wide range of uses, from content generation and customer support to education and tutoring, showcases the transformative potential of AI systems and generative AI tools in our daily lives.

Also, addressing the ethical considerations and potential risks, including discrimination, misinformation, privacy, and economic impact, is essential to ensure the responsible and safe use of AI technology.

The future of ChatGPT is bright, with ongoing research and development paving the way for improvements in context understanding, common sense reasoning, bias reduction, real-time information access, and adaptability.

By continuing to innovate and address the challenges faced by AI language models, humanity could harness the power of ChatGPT and its successors to revolutionize the way we communicate, work, learn, and interact with the digital world!

GPT stands for Generative Pre-trained Transformer. It refers to the architecture ChatGPT uses to understand the context and relationships between words in a sentence, leading to more coherent and contextually relevant language generation.

ChatGPT learns from a huge amount of text found in places like websites, books, and articles. This helps it understand how language works, including grammar and context, and learn about many different subjects. Thanks to this training, ChatGPT can create text that sounds like it was written by a person, making it a helpful tool in many areas and jobs.

ChatGPT is used for various tasks that involve language, such as article writing, customer support, and language learning. Its ability to understand and create text that sounds like it’s written by a person makes it a valuable tool in many fields, including education, business, and entertainment. ChatGPT helps users save time, improve communication, and generate creative content in a wide range of applications.

ChatGPT stands out because of its ability to generate human-like responses across a wide range of topics. It showcases impressive language understanding and can produce high quality relevant responses. Also, its fine-tuning process, which involves human feedback, enhances its safety and usefulness, making it a valuable tool with many uses.

Everything You Need To Know About Iphone Os 4

After making the crowd go WOW for a few minutes, Steve-o, loyal to himself, started the presentation about iPhone OS 4.

Here is everything you need to know about iPhone OS 4 (all images are compliments of gdgt):

iPhone OS 4, will come with many many new features. With over 1,500 new APIs for devs, chances are there will be a little something for everyone.

Although iPhone OS 4 will come with hundreds of new features, the presentation was focused on 7 of them.

1. Multitasking

This is a given one that I had predicted since last year (hey no applause for me here, please hehe). As steve Jobs said, “We weren’t the first to this party, but we’re going to be the best”, and I believe him.

Dudes from Pandora and Skype came up on stage and demo’d their apps in action, running in the background. If you’ve seen Backgrounder and Proswitcher, you won’t be amazed by that. I guess the real asset of Apple’s new multitasking is that it’s been developed to not feel sluggish or drain the battery, which you might have experienced with apps like Proswitcher.

Apple will be providing seven multitasking services:


Push notifications

Local notifications

Task completion

Fast app switching

2. Folders

Very much inspired from the jailbreak app Categories, Folders will give people the ability to organize their apps better.

Apple added a beautiful UI that allows you to drag and drop your apps in folders. The folder name is automatically created but can of course be edited. Up to OS 3.X, you were able to have 180 apps on your iPhone over 11 pages. If you replace every one of those with a folder, you’re now going to be able to see 2,160 apps!

3. Enhanced Mail

This is another big one that I’ve wanted to see for a while: the unified inbox.

You can now have all your emails from different accounts come in one unified inbox. Obviously, you can still switch to a specific inbox if you wish too. Additionally, iPhone OS 4 allows you to add multiple Exchange accounts (no more hack needed).

Finally, Apple added the ability to sort your emails by thread, pretty much like Gmail does.

4. iBooks

This is one I really don’t care about. I guess many people do though, and that’s yet another opportunity for Apple to sell you something (ebooks).

Not much was said about iBooks. Basically they brought it from the iPad. Nothing exciting…

5. Enterprise Features

A bunch of features for companies that no one except businesses really care about. My favorite is wireless app distribution which allows a company to wirelessly distribute an application anywhere in the world with their own servers.

6. Game Center

Again, nothing really groundbreaking here. Apple added a social gaming network that does automatic matchmaking, find others with a similar ability and match them against you.

7. iAd

This is the big fish of the day. While you probably won’t give a damn about iAd, let me tell you this: iAd is the reason why I bought a crap load of Apple stocks…


One thing I forgot to add in there is that you’ll now be able able to add custom backgrounds to your home screen. That’s not really the theming many of us expected, but that’s a start.

Apple will be releasing a developer preview of iPhone OS 4 today at chúng tôi

iPhone OS 4 will be release to the rest of us this summer for the iPhone 3GS and iPod Touch 3G. They will run pretty much everything. The iPhone 3G and iPod Touch 2G will run many of these new features, but not everything (ie. multitasking) because the hardware just can’t do it. iphone OS 4 won’t be released until this fall for the iPad.

All in all, I’m not impressed by this presentation as I expected much more from iPhone OS 4 but let’s not forget this is just a developer presentation and there is still a few months until the launch of the next iPhone. Like the teaser said, this was just a sneak peek at the future of iPhone OS. Something tells me there is much more to come in the next few months.

Thanks to gdgt for the amazing live blogging and for the images.

Seo Guide To Angular: Everything You Need To Know

Hi there. Technical SEO here. I started working with Angular in 2024 with an ecommerce site redesign. I’ve broken a lot but fixed more.

If you’re new to SEO for JavaScript or need additional information on concepts referenced here, Rachel Costello’s Understanding JavaScript Fundamentals: Your Cheat Sheet is a great resource to have on hand.

Most importantly: don’t panic. You don’t need to be an expert on every piece of technology mentioned.

Your ability to get stakeholder buy-in and communicate with developers will likely be your greatest strength. We’ll provide additional resources to help.

Let’s Start with the Basics

Websites are made of code. Code is written in languages. Three languages comprise the majority of websites.

HTML creates content. CSS makes the layout, design, and visual effects.

These two languages can craft an aesthetically appealing, functional, flat pages – but mostly they’re boring.

Enter JavaScript (JS), a web version of programming code.

With JavaScript, websites can personalize interactive user experiences. People go to engaging sites. JS makes engaging sites.

Angular Is an Evolution of JavaScript

Angular is a way of scaling up JS to build sites. With Angular, a dozen lines of flat HTML sent from your server unfurl and execute personalized interactive user experiences.

Nearly 1 million sites are built with it. Adoption rates are growing rapidly.

If you haven’t worked on an Angular or other JavaScript framework, you probably will soon.

For a Search Engine to Understand Angular Sites, They Have to Render JavaScript

For search engines to experience Angular content, they need to execute JavaScript. Many search engines can’t render JavaScript.

Don’t panic.

If your market is primarily dominated by Baidu, Yandex, Naver, or another non-rendering search engine, skip ahead to rendering section.

Googlebot <3s JavaScript

No – really. They love it because humans love rich interactive experiences!

… and because 95% of sites use it.

Indexing JS-generated content is good business when your model is reliant on being the most trusted index of web content.

That’s doesn’t mean it’s been a historically perfect relationship. SEO professionals have languished over Googlebot’s capabilities and commitment to crawl JS.

The lack of clarity led to warnings that Angular could kill your SEO.

At I/O 2023, the Webmaster team spoke openly about the issues Google encountered when indexing Angular and other JS content. Some SEO pros were mad, others were angry, some were… unreasonably excited?

I stand by that excitement. Search was represented. (The prior year, I encountered a few confused responses to the presence of SEO people at a developer’s conference. Arrow to the technical SEO heart.)

Developers were excited.

Then John Mueller and Tom Greenaway took the stage to tackle a major misconception in the search community: how search works.

Crawl, Index, Rank – Easy as One, Three, Four!

Until Google’s 2023 developer conference, SEO professionals worked with the basic premise that Googlebot’s process worked in three steps: crawl, index, and rank.

Even until April 2023, Google’s own resources reflected a simple three-step process.

Lurking in this simplified process is a motley assortment of hidden assumptions:

Googlebot renders JS as it crawls.

Indexing is based on rendered content.

These actions occur simultaneously in a single sequence.

Googlebot is magic and does all the things instantly!

Here’s the problem. We overlooked rendering.

Rendering is the process where the scripts called in the initial HTML parse are fetched and executed.

We call the output of the initial HTML parse and JavaScript the DOM (document object model).

If a site uses JavaScript, the HTML will be different from the DOM.

Initial HTML (Before JavaScript executes)

DOM (After JavaScript Executes)

The two views of a single page can be very different. The initial HTML was just 16 lines. After JavaScript executed, the DOM is full of rich content.

Two Waves of Indexing

Because of the three-step process assumptions and their impact on organic performance, the Google webmaster team clarified that there are two phases of indexing.

The first wave indexes a page based only the initial HTML (a.k.a., view page source).

The second indexes based on the DOM.

Googlebot Wants to Love JavaScript but They Sometimes Need Your Help Understanding It

JavaScript is the most expensive resource on your site.

1MB of script can take 5 seconds on 3G connection. 1.5MB page can cost $0.19 USD to load. (No, really. Test your pages at What Does My Site Cost?)

To Googlebot, that cost comes as CPU to execute the script. With so much JavaScript on the web, a literal queue has formed for Googlebot’s rendering engine.

This means JavaScript generated content is discovered by Googlebot only once the resources become available.

Googlebot’s Tech Debt Made SEO for Angular Difficult

Part of digital life is working with what you have. Often we take easy solutions we can act on now instead of the better approach that would take longer.

The culmination of these shortcuts is tech debt. Often, tech debt has to be cleaned up before large changes can be implemented.

One of the big blockers to Google understanding much of the web’s rich content was its web rendering service (WRS). One of the core components of the web crawler was using a version of Chrome released in 2024. (If you think it isn’t that big of a deal, find your old phone – the one you upgraded from six months ago – and use that for the next hour.)

For SEO professionals and developers, this meant shoving code bases full of polyfill to retrofit ES6 functionalities to ES5. If you’re unfamiliar with these, congratulations! You’ve chosen a golden age to start optimizing Angular sites!

Googlebot’s Revving New Rendering Engine

Search Console Developer Advocate Martin Splitt took the stage with rendering Engineer Zoe Clifford earlier this month at Google I/O to announce that Googlebot is evergreen.

The web crawler is using V8 as its rendering and WebAssembly engine. As of May 2023, it’s running Chrome 74 and will continue to update with a week or so of new versions are released.

The massive upgrade to our beloved web crawler can now render over 1,000 new features. You can test your features compatibility with Can I Use.

Expect a Delay for Rendered Content to Be Indexed

Googlers have hinted that the future of Googlebot will combine crawling and rendering. We’re not there yet. Crawling and rendering are still separate processes.

There is still a delay…but more than 1000 new features are supported now!

— Martin Splitt @ 🇨🇭🏡 (@g33konaut) May 7, 2023

Now that Googlebot can better handle Angular, let’s talk about how you can conquer it.

Optimizing Crawling for Angular Know Your Version

The version of Angular you’re working on will have a major impact in your ability to optimize – or at least set expectations.

Version 1 is referred to as AngularJS.

For v2, the framework was re-written entirely. This is why everything after v1 is referred to with the blanket term Angular (i.e., the JS was cut).

Version matters (since Angular programs are not backward-compatible), so ask the team you’re working with which version is being used.

Give Each Asset Has a Unique URL

Angular is frequently used as part of a Single Page Application (SPA).

Single page applications allow content on the page to be updated without making a page request back to the server.

Requests for new content are populated using Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) calls. No new page load can mean that the URL visible in the browser doesn’t represent the content on screen.

This is an SEO problem because search engines want to index content that consistently exists at a known address. If your content only tends to exist at the URI, it also tends not to rank.

A tiny piece of code known as pushState() updates the URL as new content is requested.

Google offers a Codelab for optimizing Single Page Applications (SPAs) in search.

Track Analytics for Single Page Applications with Virtual Pageviews

The Google Analytics crew has thorough documentation on virtual pageviews for SPAs, which involves adding a manual tag to send information to your tracking server, when new content is loaded.

Get Your Content Discovered in First Wave Indexing by Server-Side Rendering Your Hero Elements

Search engines are looking to match pages to an intent.

Does this page useful in answering a transactional, information, or local intent?

If my query has a transactional intent, then elements like product name, price, and availability are critical to answering my intent.

This content is known as your hero elements.

By server-side rendering these, you can tell Google what intent your page matches in the first wave of indexing – without waiting for JavaScript to render.

In addition to these on hero elements, use SSR for:

Structured data (Sam Vloeberghs create a useful tutorial)

Page title

Meta Description



Date Annotations

Don’t Contradict Yourself Between the HTML & DOM

The basics of SEO teach us simplicity.

Pages get one title. One meta description. One set of robots directives.

With Angular, you could send different meta data and directives in the HTML than DOM.

Our bot friends run on code doing things in a set order. If you place a noindex directive in the HTML, Googlebot won’t execute the script to find the index tag in the DOM because you told it not to render the DOM.

Don’t Split Structured Data Markup Between HTML & DOM

With Angular, you could render chúng tôi markup in either the HTML (preferable) or DOM.

Either will work but it very important that the complete markup is in a single location – either the HTML or DOM.

If you split the two by rendering part of the markup in HTML and populating attributes DOM, the separate components are seen as different sets of markups.

Neither of them will be complete. Structured data markup is either valid or not. There’s no “partial.” Maximum effort.

Slow or Blocked Resources Can Make Content Undiscoverable

Slow or blocked resources won’t be considered in how your content is discovered. Slow resources will show as temporarily unavailable.

A request for a script needs to be completed in ~4s. Blocked resources will be denoted as such in the tool output.

Support Paginated Loading for Infinite Scroll

Pagination on mobile can be frustrating.

You don’t have to choose between ease of use and Googlebot crawling. Instead, use History API checkpoints – URLs that would allow a user (or bot) to return back to the same place.

According to Google:

If you are implementing an infinite scroll experience, make sure to support paginated loading. Paginated loading is important for users because it allows them to share and re-engage with your content. It also allows Google to show a link to a specific point in the content, rather than the top of an infinite scrolling page.

To support paginated loading, provide a unique link to each section that users can share and load directly. We recommend using the History API to update the URL when the content is loaded dynamically.

Learn more with Google’s fresh Lazy Loading developer documentation.

Don’t Wait on Permissions, Events, or Interactions to Display Content

Using onscroll events to lazy load?

Googlebot won’t see it. Instead, use Googlebot-friendly Intersection Observer to know when a component is in the viewport.

Use CSS Toggle Visibility for Tap to Load

If your site has valuable context behind accordions, tabs, or other tap-to-load interactions, don’t wait for the area to be exposed to load it.

Load the content in the HTML or DOM and expose it using CSS functionalities.

You’re Never Getting That Permission

If your site asks for permissions, Googlebot will decline. These include geolocation, notifications, push, and many others listed on W3C’s permission registry.

Crawlable Links Have Anchor Tags With Href Attributes

The concept of web crawlers is based on discovering content by following links. Your Angular content needs links with a href attributes to be discovered.

Google does not pick images embedded with CSS styles.

Google’s recommendation is:

Use Inline Styles for Above the Fold Content

Script dependencies for above-the-fold content put your findability at risk. If your content can’t be rendered without waiting for script resources to load, search engines and users will likely experience a delay.

Learn more about how to minimize render blocking CSS at Web Fundamentals.

Render Optimization

Googlebot love isn’t about whether a site uses JavaScript. It’s about how that JavaScript is rendered.

Rendering options and technologies are as bountiful as they are confusing.

Here’s a high-level overview of Angular rendering options. Grab a cup of coffee and sit down with your developers to review the detailed documentation on rendering options.  As always, the devil is in the implementation and your experience may vary.

Client-Side Rendering (CSR)

CSR builds the page in the user’s browser. The initial HTML is an anemic shell. The user can only see and interaction after the main JavaScript bundle is fetched and rendered.

Discoverability rating: 👾

Performance rating: ⭐️

Server-Side Rendering (SSR)

HTML so good, you’ll be Bing proof!

Also known as Universal, SSR builds the page on the server and ships HTML. The method is server intensive and has a high Time to First Byte trade-off so you’ll need to be proactive in monitoring server health.

Discoverability rating: 👾👾👾

Performance rating: ⭐️⭐️

Notable achievement: 🌏 Ideal for non-rendering search engines

Dynamic Rendering

A terribly confusing cloaking (but not cloaking) short-term solution workaround for search engine crawlers. This technique requires having both CSR and SSR renderings available and deciding which to serve based on the user-agent.

Technologies like the open-source pre-rendering tool Rendertron can still be very useful for your business.

Crawlability rating: 👾👾👾

Performance rating: ⭐️

Sustainability rating: ⚰️

If you haven’t already implemented dynamic rendering, this option is likely past its best-by date.


Crawlability rating: 👾👾👾👾

Performance rating: ⭐️⭐️⭐️

Creates HTML at build time and stores it to serve upon request. Improved FCP and no SSR overhead.

Only works for static content – not for content that’s meant to change (think personalization and A/B testing).

Remember kids, your paid pre-rendering service owns you.

Today’s face palm: if you’re using React, don’t use a third party for server side rendering. If they go down or your credit card fails (example below) then your site will tank in the SERPs.

— ˗ˏˋ Jesse Hanley ˎˊ˗ (@jessethanley) August 21, 2023

Hybrid Rendering (Server-Side Rendering with Hydration)

We want the speed of SSR, but the interactivity of CSR. Solution: SSR + Hydration.

Progressive hydration rendering looks to be the way of the future. It allows for component level code splitting.

Sites can postpone rendering components until they’re visible to the user or require interaction. Angular Universal has a built-in hydration solution: ngExpressEngine.

Crawlability rating: 👾👾👾👾

Performance rating: ⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️

Index Coverage Optimization Test With First-Party Tools

A technical SEO nightmare is getting a code release to prod and realizing it doesn’t render. The upgrades to Googlebot should mitigate polyfill and other cumbersome issues.

The best way to find out is to use Google’s tools to test. Search Console URL Inspector provides full rendering with screenshot scroll.

Mobile Friendly Test and Rich Results also return the DOM but won’t have screenshot scroll. You can even test firewalled and locally hosted builds.

Coming Soon: Googlebot User-Agent Updates

Googlebot’s user-agent will remain the same –  for now.

We can expect Search Console tools to migrate to v8 rendering.

We can expect to see Googlebot user-agents to change once the migration is complete.

This will give us better insight into which version of Chrome Googlebot is using.

Cache Scripts Efficiently

Calls to scripts count toward your crawl budget.

If you’re using the same scripts on multiple pages, settings a cache expiry lets Googlebot request the script once and use it on relevant pages. Once the cache expires, Google will request the script again.

Get the most out of your scripts by using versioning. With versioning, you can set a long expiry date on your script. Hey Google, you can use /myscript.js?v=1 for the next year!

When a code release includes a change to that script bundle, my website will update the JavaScript bundle it references. Hey Google, use /myscript.js?v=2 to render this page!

Bundle Versioning Can Mitigate Rendering Issues Post-Release

If a web crawler attempts to render your page but is using an out of date script, the page could be incorrectly rendered.

If your page references the numbered versions to use, the search engine will check to see if that is the current version in the cache. If the versions don’t match, the search engine will request the correct bundle.

If Asynchronous Calls Have Unique Uris, Use X-Robots Noindex Directives

Every time Googlebot requests my webpage, it’s getting 4 URLs back. It’s not very resource efficient.

This is commonly seen during personalization or components that must make a logical check before deciding which content to give back.

Every parameter combination is a unique URL. Googlebot treats unique URLs as unique pages (unless told otherwise).

One AJAX call unchecked could lead to thousands of confusing, low-value pages for search engines to sort through. That picture of Tank, the most handsome cat in the world, really adds to user experience but it’s about context.

AJAX Calls & Index Inflation

These URIs by themselves can muck up your index. A simple pair of parameters on an AJAX URI will breed like bunnies. Each can be unique and indexable.

Your index status will looks like a roller coaster – a stark climbing rise in the number of pages – followed by a gut-churning drop as Googlebot purges pages from their index.

To avoid this, add X-Robots noindex directives to URIs that load content asynchronously to the page. This will create cleaner technical signals and make Googlebot resources spent on understanding my site more effective.

Make a New Developer Ally

Developers are some of the best allies an SEO can have. Google Webmasters recognize this and have created a new web series focused on the code changes needed to make a discoverable site.

Looking for a place to start? Check out Make your Angular web apps discoverable and SEO codelab for developers.

Tuck & Roll, My Friends

In summary, the keys to SEO for Angular are:

Knowing the difference between HTML and DOM.

Delivering content at the right time and place.

Consistent, unique, and crawlable URLs.

Being aware of your script resources’ indexability, size, response time, and caching policies.

This is the part where we work together to get everybody’s site out there alive and well.

The best way to learn Angular is hands-on so if you’re reading this, keep calm and remember the ancient digital proverb:

It’s not yours until you break it.

More Resources:

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