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Introduction to Laravel Middleware

When a user wishes to use your application and there is an HTTP request from the user’s side, middleware provides the amenities to authenticate the request. It filters the HTTP requests that come to your application and redirects the user to the particular login page from where the user can proceed using the app after authenticating one’s identity. Besides authentication several other important tasks also can be performed by additional middleware in Laravel. There are CORS middleware and logging middleware which perform their respective duties other than authentication. Every of the middleware is registered and saved in the directory – app/Http/Middleware.

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What is Laravel Middleware?

Laravel Middleware is primarily a bridge between the request and the response. The user who wishes to get access to the application and the processes in it has to make sure that the request is created for the appropriate response from the application and Middleware deliberates this response for the benefit of the user who has put across a request. Ideally the programming done enables the middleware to direct the user to the login page to add in the login credentials and this is a highly important security concern to avoid unauthorized people from accessing the data that is supposed to be made available to only those who can log in. Laravel Middleware depending upon the request that comes in directs the user either to the Login page or the Home page.

Laravel Middleware is created and registered and then it is attached to a route. In this way it is got ready to function according to the need. Middleware is an essential component of the Laravel framework as it plays an important role in security for the data and the safety of the content in the application. The filtering of HTTP requests which is an important task is specifically the main function of middleware. The benefit that Laravel provides is that one can easily customize a middleware according to the need of the application that is getting made in the Laravel framework. The process of coordination between the request and the response is a task and middleware has all the capacity to handle it and you can be assured that no errors would emerge in its functioning regularly. The syntax that is used for the creation of middleware is as follows:

How does Laravel Middleware work?

Middlewares are used in different circumstances like:

Service call’s rate-limiting.

If you are building an API, then allowing the confirmation of the API key incoming route request.

The language alteration or change depending upon the local language in dominance.

The confirmation of whether the middleware will function before or after the request is dependent upon the middleware settings arranged by the user in a command. The two types of middleware provided by Laravel are:

Global Middleware

Route Middleware

When there is an HTTP request, Global middleware starts responding to the requests. You can keep a record of all the global middleware components in the class app/Http/Kernel.php. When you add a key along with the middleware, it can be routed to the desired specific location/route. All the entries are stored in the $routeMiddleware section. When you add a custom made middleware, you also need to add a key of your choice to get in enabled.

There is a possibility of passing parameters to middlewares too. When there are several attributes in your application like employees, administrator, owner, customer, client, etc. and there is a need to get different modules executed depending upon the several roles of the person who wants access, different parameters can be passed accordingly to the middlewares.

There are sometimes middlewares that start functioning after the response is sent by the user to the request that comes. The terminate method is the actual method which is used by Laravel for the same. After the response is sent to the browser, the terminate method activates the terminable middlewares automatically.

The following example helps to understand it better:


<? Php Namespace IlluminateSessionMiddleware; Use Closure; Class SessionBegin { Public function handle ($request, Closure $next) { Return $next ($request); } Public function terminate ($request, $response) { } } Example to Implement Laravel Middleware Example #1

In the command, the terminal runs this command.


php artisan make:middleware Admin Example #2

A middleware class will be generated with this command which will look like this


NamespaceAppHttpMiddleware; UseClosure; ClassAdmin { /** * Handle an incoming request. * * @param IlluminateHttpRequest $request * @param Closure $next * @return mixed */ Publicfunctionhandle ($request, Closure $next) { Return $next ($request); } }

This will be available in the folder app/Http/Middleware.

Example #3


@var array */ Protected $routeMiddleware = [ ]; Example #4

Updating the middleware is another important task. It is important that in this case no one other than the administrator gets access so it needs to be updated to be protected.

The handle () method helps us in actualizing this task. This is what you need to add inside the handle request:


Publicfunctionhandle ($request, Closure $next) { Return $next ($request); } }

The unauthorized person will hereby be sent back to the home page as directed by the user in the coding above.


In conclusion we can say that Laravel middleware is an important feature provided by Laravel for the users who can use it to handle the exchange of information in the process of requests and responses that the application needs to take command over. It is a security feature that gives limited access if any random person tries to seek information or data from the application.

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Complete Guide To Sql Row_Number

Introduction to SQL ROW_NUMBER

Syntax and Parameters:

The basic syntax for writing the ROW_NUMBER function in SQL is as follows :

ROW_NUMBER() OVER( [PARTITION BY partition_expression] )

The parameters used in the above syntax are as follows :

partition_expression: The column or expression on the basis of which the entire dataset has to be divided. If you do not specify anything, by default, the entire result set is considered as a single window or partition.

order_expression: The column or expression on the basis of which the rows in the partition set are ordered or sorted in a particular ascending or descending order.

Examples of SQL ROW_NUMBER

In order to illustrate ROW_NUMBER() function in great detail, let us create a table called “yearly_sales”.It contains details pertaining to sales made by a salesperson in a particular year. We can use the following code snippet to create the table.

CREATE TABLE public.yearly_sales ( year smallint NOT NULL, salesperson character varying(255) COLLATE pg_catalog."default" NOT NULL, store_state character varying(255) COLLATE pg_catalog."default" NOT NULL, sale_amount numeric NOT NULL );

We can use the following code snippet to insert values.

INSERT INTO public.yearly_sales( year, salesperson, store_state, sale_amount) VALUES (2023,'Radhika Singh','DL',18000), (2023,' Kate Dave','DL',12000), (2023,'Kate Dave','DL',13260), (2023,'Radhika Singh','DL',11200), (2023,'Radhika Singh','KA',18000), (2023,'Kate Dave','MH',14300), (2023,'Kate Dave','MH',15100), (2023,'Greg Morocco','NY',17200), (2023,'Greg Morocco','NY',12350);

After the above-mentioned insertion operations, the data in the “yearly_sales” table looks something as shown below :

SELECT * FROM yearly_sales;

Now we are all set to try a few examples based on the newly created “yearly_sales” table.

Example #1

SQL query to illustrate the use of ROW_NUMBER() function to assign a sequential number to each row in the result set.

SELECT year, salesperson, sale_amount, store_state, ROW_NUMBER () OVER (ORDER BY year) FROM yearly_sales;

In this example, since we have not created any partition, the entire result set by default is considered as a single partition. We can see in the data output that the row_number() function has sequentially assigned a unique integer number to each row in the partition, starting from 1 and ending at 9.

Example #2

Use of ROW_NUMBER() function to assign a row number to each row in a partition created by year in the result set.

SELECT year, salesperson, sale_amount, store_state, ROW_NUMBER () OVER (PARTITION BY year ORDER BY sale_amount DESC) FROM yearly_sales;

We can observe in the image that the ROW_NUMBER() function first created partitions by year (2023,2023, and 2023) and then uniquely numbered each row starting from 1 within each partition.

Example #3

(the salesperson who made sales of the maximum amount) during the years 2023, 2023, and 2023.

WITH CTE AS ( SELECT year, salesperson, sale_amount, store_state, ROW_NUMBER () OVER (PARTITION BY year ORDER BY sale_amount DESC) as row_number FROM yearly_sales ) SELECT year, salesperson FROM CTE WHERE row_number = 1;

In this example, we have created a CTE to illustrate the same. In the next example, we will use a subquery to illustrate the same further.

Example #4

SQL query to illustrate the use of the ROW_NUMBER() function to perform pagination of a huge result set.

SELECT * FROM (SELECT year, salesperson, sale_amount, store_state, ROW_NUMBER () OVER (ORDER BY year DESC) as row_number FROM yearly_sales ) t WHERE row_number BETWEEN 4 AND 8 ORDER BY sale_amount;

Many times, we might have to create dashboards or web applications where we cannot show the entire result set on a single page.

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A Complete Guide To Vmware Benefits

Introduction to VMware

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

This software helps us in various domains like security, storage, networking, etc. VMware provides us with various software and products that can be used for different benefits; here, we will see the various benefits of using that product and software for better understanding and usage.

Various VMware Benefits

As we already know, VMware has many benefits, which can be understood by the various product it provides, which adds great help to security networking, storage, and many more areas.

1. Provides virtual desktop infrastructure

One of the benefits of using this is we can use the desktop from anywhere we want. From this, we do not require a full desktop setup in the workplace; we can use VMware Horizon, which allows us to manage and run the Windows desktop from VMware Cloud or AWS. This removes a lot of things for us, like we do not require to manage and set up the full desktop at the workplace. Also, it helps reduce the monitoring and managing of user security and centralizes management. We can use this with two more VMware products, Dynamic Environment Manager and App Volumes, which help us in application delivery and managing the Windows desktop.

2. Provide personal desktop

VMware created this as their first product, enabling users to run or manage virtual machines directly on a single Linux, Windows, or laptop. Using this, we can have a virtual machine inside the physical machine, which can run without causing any issues; in short, it can run parallel or simultaneously. If we talk about virtual machines, they have operating systems such as Linux or Windows. With this, we can even run Windows on the Linux machine and vice versa without worrying about the installed operating system on the machine. The product name VM Workstation enables us to run the virtual machine in the machine; for Mac computers, we have VM Fusion.

3. Provide storage and availability 4. Provide disaster recovery management

VMware benefits also include disaster recovery; for this, it provides us with the Site Recovery Manager, which helps us create the recovery plan, which will be executed automatically in the case of failure. The NSX further integrates with this system to maintain and preserve the security and network on the migrated VMs.

5. Provide the cloud infrastructure

For infrastructure, we have one product from VMware which is known as vSphere, which provide the following points:


vSphere Client


vCenter Server

6. Provide us SDDC platform

SDDC manager helps to integrate various software into a single platform, such as VMware NSX, vSphere, vSAN, etc. So for this, we have VMware cloud foundation, which is a software that helps to bundle this mentioned software by the use of the SDDC platform; now we can deploy this bundle on the private cloud or also have the option to run this bundle within as public cloud but as a service. Admin can do all these tasks; admin also has the provision to the application without the need for storage and network.

7. Provide network and security

As seen above are the main benefits of VM, as we have already seen it provides us with many products which can be used for different purposes as per the need, one of the main things about doing things virtually without carrying the setup at the workplace.

Below are the key points that need to be kept in mind while using the VN product; they provide us with many benefits, but we also have some drawbacks that must be focused on.

Also, there is a lack of support, which means we may encounter several bugs while using the VM product.

Not all things are free; the fees are very high for licensing.

Conclusion – VMware Benefits

As we have already seen so many benefits of VM in this article, we have also seen the different products that provide for different purposes; you can understand and start using them by the above explanation; we have many more things in VM.

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Complete Guide To Pl/Sql To_Date

Introduction to PL/SQL to_DATE

PL/SQL to_date function is used to convert the date value specified in any string kind of datatypes such as varchar, varchar2, char, or char2 to the date data type in PL/ SQL, which is in the standard date format as supported in PL/ SQL. When we store the data in a relational database by using the PL/ SQL DBMS, we need to store multiple values, which are of many kinds.

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In this article, we will study the general syntax, usage, and implementation along with certain examples.


We can make the use of to_date function in the following versions of Pl/SQL in oracle –

Oracle 8i, Oracle 11g, Oracle 9i, Oracle 10g, and Oracle 12c.

The syntax of the to_date() function is as shown below –

TO_DATE(source string [, mask or format][, nls_language])

In the above syntax, the arguments that are used are as described below –

Source string – This is any value in the string format that can be a string literal value or column value of a particular table and can be in CHAR, NCHAR, or VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2 datatype.

Mask or format – This is an optional parameter. It is basically used to specify which format of the date is followed by the string value being supplied that follows the conventions as shown in the below table. We can use punctuation marks such as period(.), slash(/), comma(,), colon(:) and hyphen(-).

Element Details

DAY Name of the day of the week in which the current date belongs, which is being controlled by NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE.

DD Day of the month specified in the date.

HH Hour of the day

MONTH Name of the month value for date being supplied

YYYY 4 digit year value

By default, when this format is not specified, then the format for the date source string is considered as DD-MON-YY, for example – 26-JAN-1996. In case if the format or mask value passed in the second parameter is specified as J, which is Julien, then the source string supplied must be an integer value.

Nls_language – It is an expression which can help in specifying the language of month or day value in the source string. This parameter is supplied by using the below format –

NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE = language to be supplied

Return value – The output value being returned by the TO_DATE function is the date value that represents and corresponds to the date which is supplied in the source string.

Examples of PL/SQL to_DATE

Let us firstly consider an example where we will try to convert a particular string value containing the date inside it to the date format such that it will have YYYY as the year value in 4 digits, MM month value in 2 digits, and the DD for the date value of that month.

SELECT TO_DATE('26 Jan 1996',' DD MON YYYY') FROM dual;

The output of the above query statement is as shown below –

If we even do a single mistake in specifying the format or mask-like suppose that we specify only MO instead of MON, then the query statement will become as shown below, and the output will produce an error as shown in its output –

SELELCT TO_DATE('26 Jan 1996','DD MO YYYY') FROM dual;

The output of the above query statement is as shown below, showing an error saying that the format is ending even before finishing the conversion of the string to the date value –

We can also use the TO_DATE function to store the values in the table while inserting them. This is the most frequent place where we make use of the TO_DATE() function. As there might be many situations where we are not sure if the value coming from the application which needs to be stored in a database is in string format or date, we need to convert it into the date format firstly before we insert that value in the column of the table having the datatype mentioned as DATE.

CREATE TABLE writers ( writer_id NUMBER GENERATED BY DEFAULT AS IDENTITY, f_name VARCHAR2 ( 50 ) NOT NULL, l_name VARCHAR2 ( 50 ) NOT NULL, joining_date DATE NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY ( writer_id ) );

The output of the above code is as shown below –

Now, whenever we want to insert the value in the writer’s table then while specifying the value of the joining date column, we should make the use of TO_DATE() function as shown in the below query statement –

INSERT INTO writers(f_name, l_name, joining_date) VALUES ('Mayur','Sachwani', TO_DATE('Jan 03 1994','Mon DD YYYY'));

In the above statement, the use of the TO_DATE function is necessary because the format MON DD YYYY is not supported by the standard oracle date formats. The output of the above code is as shown below –

You can also check the contents of the writer’s table by making the use of the SELECT query statement.


TO_DATE() function is used in PL/ SQL to convert the value of string format date having datatype like CHAR, VARCHAR2, NCHAR, NVARCHAR2 to the standard date format supported by PL/ SQL. We need to specify the format or mask in which we are supplying the source date value if it’s not specified in the default format.

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Complete Beginners Guide To Learn Mysql

MySQL Tutorial and Resources

Mysql is an Open Source Relational Database which supports SQL queries. How data will be stored is decided by Mysql Engine. Mysql provides full flexibility while choosing Mysql engines. In Mysql, there are two most popular engines called MyISAM and INNODB. If we do not want transactional properties and we do not want to use row-level locking, then we can use MyISAM. Data Insertion is faster in INNODB.

Note: Transactional properties mean atomicity; IF you visited ATM and you initiated your transaction, so first you insert ATM, your Password, how much you want to withdraw, and finally, it will return the money. So all the steps are captured if any steps fail, all the steps are considered to fail. And transactions will be rolled back.

Why do we need to learn MySQL?

There are many reasons why we need to learn MySQL; some of the important ones are given below:

Job Options: You can be a good Backend database engineer because MySQL uses sql queries which is common for any Relational Database like Oracle, SqlServer, etc.

Open Source: Since MySQL is an Open source, so you do not have to pay to use MySQL.

MySQL handles better Security: There are many access and roles available, and a MySQL super admin can grand various roles and manage them. Because Super Admin can grant roles with limited roles, users can also perform limited work on the database. It makes our database secure.

MySQL Supports: MySQL supports almost all platforms and operating systems like Windows, Linux, UNIX, macOS, etc, which makes it suitable for any kind of application.

MySQL performance: If we compare MySQL with other Relational Databases like Oracle, Sybase, etc, then we will see MySQL is a little faster with lower features.

MySQL is Scalable: In general, MySQL support upto a 4GM limit. However, this can also be upgraded up to 8TB to meet your needs.

Applications of MySQL

Web applications mostly use MySQL. Because it is open-source and many cloud-based servers like AWS charge much less to deploy MySQL on their server. Many small and medium startups are going with MySQL only. MySQL can also be used for ERP solutions as it provides a Relational database, so managing reports and analyzing data would also be very easy in MySQL.


In the example below, we are creating a Table user in the database. Please go through the example below along with the screen.


This image shows existing databases and selecting user’s database;

In the below image, we are creating a table name user.

In the below image, we display details of the table we created above.


To start with MySQL, we do not require to learn any programming languages. UI tools provide various ways to create, insert and delete. If you have not heard about MySQL Workbench, you should try it. It is a complete UI tool for chúng tôi start with MySQL, We should learn JOINS, insert, select, basics of data stored in the table, and its attributes.

Target Audience

A Web Developer: A web developer is the one who gets the data from the end-user and stores data into MySQL in the required format. He can also fetch the data from MySQL and display it to end-users. Developers should learn more of the syntax of Like JOIN, AGGREGATE, SUM, ORDER BY, GROUP BY, etc commands because to show data to end-user, they need to use all these components.

A Database Admin: A database admin is the one who creates all the roles on a particular database. For example, if the database name is users, then for this database, he will create various users like user1,user2, and user2. And all these users will be granted different types of roles according to the work they are going to perform in the users’ database.

How To Use Google Bard Ai: A Complete Guide

Google Bard is a chatbot developed by Google that uses natural language processing and machine learning to simulate conversations with humans. It aims to provide helpful responses to questions and assist in various tasks. In this article, we will take a deep dive into Google Bard, how it works, and how to use it effectively.

See More : Google Bard Availability: Your Access to the World’s Knowledge

Google Bard is an AI chatbot developed by Google that uses natural language processing and machine learning to simulate conversations with humans. It can understand natural language and respond appropriately to a wide range of queries. Google Bard has been designed to provide human-like responses, and it can even crack jokes and make small talk.

Google Bard is built on a language model called LaMDA (Language Model for Dialogue Applications), which is specifically designed for dialogue applications. Unlike other chatbots, LaMDA focuses on generating more natural and fluid conversations with users.

Using Google Bard is relatively easy and straightforward. You need to follow these simple steps to start using it:

Sign in with your Google account.

You will be directed to the Google Bard interface, which has a chat window.

Type your prompts or questions in the chat window and wait for the response.

You can also tap the microphone button to speak your question or instruction rather than typing it.

Google Bard is still in the experimental phase, and it is not integrated with Google search yet. However, Google is planning to add AI writing features to Bard in the future.

Google Bard can help you with a wide range of tasks. Here are some of the things that Google Bard can do:

You can ask Google Bard to search the web for you. For example, if you want to know about the weather in your area, you can ask, “What is the weather like today?” Google Bard will then provide you with the latest weather updates for your location.

Google Bard can help you set reminders. For instance, if you have a meeting coming up, you can ask Google Bard to remind you of the meeting ten minutes before the scheduled time.

You can also use Google Bard to make a phone call. For instance, you can say, “Call John,” and Google Bard will initiate a phone call to John.

Google Bard can help you translate languages. For example, if you want to know how to say “hello” in French, you can ask Google Bard to translate it for you.

Google Bard has a great sense of humor and can tell you jokes. For instance, you can ask Google Bard to tell you a joke, and it will provide you with a funny response.

Google Bard can also play games with you. For example, you can ask Google Bard to play a game of tic-tac-toe, and it will initiate the game.

Also Read : Google Bard AI Available in India: Revolutionizing Conversational AI

Google Bard, Bing AI, and ChatGPT are all AI chatbots that aim to provide human-like responses to questions. However, each chatbot performs differently, and the choice of which one to use depends on the user’s needs and preferences.

Bing AI is best for getting information from Microsoft products and services, such as Bing search engine, Microsoft Office Suite, and Microsoft Teams. It can also assist with basic tasks, such as setting reminders and scheduling appointments.

Google Bard, on the other hand, is designed to be a more creative and conversational chatbot. It can generate poetry, music lyrics, and even short stories. It is best used for entertainment and creative purposes.

ChatGPT, the language model that I am based on, is a more general-purpose chatbot that can provide information on a wide range of topics and engage in conversational exchanges with users. It is designed to be more human-like in its responses and can understand context and nuance in language.

Google Bard AI is a user-friendly chatbot developed by Google that uses natural language processing and machine learning to simulate conversations with humans. It is built on a language model called LaMDA, which focuses on generating more natural and fluid conversations with users. Google Bard can perform a wide range of tasks, such as searching the web, setting reminders, making phone calls, translating languages, telling jokes, and playing games. While still in the experimental phase, Google plans to add AI writing features to Bard in the future.

Q. Is Google Bard free?

Yes, Google Bard is completely free and accessible to anyone with a Google account.

Q. Can I use Google Bard on my mobile device?

Yes, you can access Google Bard on any device with a web browser.

Q. What languages does Google Bard support?

Currently, Google Bard only supports English, but Google is working on expanding its language capabilities.

Q. Can Google Bard help me with personal tasks, such as scheduling appointments or making reservations?

At the moment, Google Bard is not integrated with Google search, so it cannot assist with personal tasks. However, it can set reminders and make phone calls.

Q. How does Google Bard compare to other AI chatbots?

Google Bard, Bing AI, and ChatGPT are all AI chatbots that aim to provide human-like responses to questions. However, each chatbot has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of which one to use depends on the user’s needs and preferences.

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