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Definition of Rolling Forecast

The organization uses the rolling forecast as a financial model and management tool to forecast the plan over a certain period, from monthly to semi-annually. It enables them to adapt to the dynamic business environment by adjusting their business plans and targets according to market trends.


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Steps for Rolling Forecast

Step 1: The first step is to identify the business goals or objectives because the organization’s decisions, as per the rolling forecast theory, impact various individuals, such as investors, who depend on the clarity of goals and objectives.

Step 2: After gaining clarity about goals and objectives, the next step involves identifying the business and industry environment to determine the time limit for the rolling forecast.

Step 3: If the business and industry environments are closely aligned, the rolling forecast time limit can be set quarterly or semi-annually. However, suppose the business environment is unable to adapt or is less responsive to the industry environment. In that case, the rolling forecast time limit may also need to be set at a monthly interval.

Step 4: After deciding the time limit for the forecast, the next step is to determine whether to conduct the forecast on the surface or in-depth. It depends upon the nature of the industry and the nature of changes in the business environment.

Step 5: Decide the team involved in the forecast: The team involved in it plays an important role in a business environment. So, the team must be competent enough to recognize opportunities from the market conditions, even in the worst cases.

Step 6: Deciding on key elements for a rolling forecast is necessary to grow faster, as the changing environment does not affect all budget elements.

Step 7: Assessment of outcomes: Assessment of outcomes due to the rolling forecast and what if the analysis is necessary to implement the rolling forecast.

Step 8: Compare actual performance to the rolling forecast: Tracking actual performance and expected performance is a must for management to decide whether a rolling forecast is to be implemented.

Example of Rolling Forecast

ABC Ltd. made the annual forecast cash budget for the financial year 2023-2024, Which is shown as under:

Cash Receipts

 Cash Payments

Mar-20 7,500.00                                –

Apr-20 5,000.00                   3,500.00

May-20 4,000.00                   1,700.00

Jun-20 4,500.00                   5,600.00

Jul-20                    3,800.00                   2,500.00

Aug-20 4,900.00                   4,200.00

Sep-20 3,400.00                   3,900.00

Oct-20 5,200.00                   5,500.00

Nov-20 6,200.00                   4,700.00

Dec-20 5,800.00                   6,200.00

Jan-21 6,400.00                   4,300.00

Feb-21 5,900.00                   4,700.00

Mar-21 7,100.00                   8,100.00

69,700.00                 54,900.00

The organization does a Rolling Forecast of the monthly cash budget as cash is the liquid asset required for business operations. Due to the country’s sudden lockdown, the organization cannot receive the receipts from March onwards, and the cash cycle is expected to be delayed by two months. However, the organization will make 50% of the payments in the month due, and the balance will be 50% after two months. For example, out of the $ 7,500 receivables in March, $ 5,000 was received, and the balance will be receivable after two months. Therefore, draw the Rolling Forecasts of the cash budget for the month from Mar 2023 to Sept 2023.


 Amount ($)

 Cash Receipts

 Cash Payments

Mar-20                    5,000.00                                –

Apr-20                                 –                   1,750.00

May-20                    2,500.00                       850.00

Jun-20                    5,000.00                   4,550.00

Jul-20                    4,000.00                   2,100.00

Aug-20                    4,500.00                   4,900.00

Sep-20                    3,800.00                   3,200.00

Why are Rolling Forecasts Valuable?

It is valuable because of the following reasons:

It enhances the organization’s performance by prioritizing continuous and future planning.

The organization can cope with the changing business environment and the competition in the industry.

With Rolling forecasts, the chances of heavy loss are less as the organization may act as per the changing environment.

With the changing environment in business, it is necessary to do a periodical analysis of the industry demand and response, which helps in strategic planning.

Benefits of Rolling Forecast

It helps manage the business risk as it adapts to changing industry conditions.

With the rolling forecast, implementation of the financial planning gets better as the business will start planning as per the changing business environment.

The company can identify the areas that need more attention if a rolling forecast is implemented, and accordingly, it can devote more time to improvement in that area.

It helps the organization to respond more quickly to the continuously changing business environment.

As the organization continuously changes the budgets per changing business environment, the long-term financial planning, budgets, and objectives also need to change, which may create a hurdle in achieving the long-term objectives and goals.

Creating rolling forecasts at particular intervals requires more time; hence, it is time-consuming.

As the business environment continuously changes, the organization will always face variances, and the rolling forecast budget cannot be made as perfect and accurate.


It is a management tool for changing the financial budgets per changes in the business environment. As the business environment is dynamic, the organization must cope with surviving in the long run. So it helps the organization in increasing efficiency and financial planning. But simultaneously, as the environment changes continuously, so does the rolling forecast, which consumes more time and creates hurdles in achieving the organization’s long-term financial and other goals.

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Steps To Avoid Eoferror In Python With Examples

Introduction to Python EOFError

EOFError in python is one of the exceptions handling errors, and it is raised in scenarios such as interruption of the input() function in both python version 2.7 and python version 3.6 and other versions after version 3.6 or when the input() function reaches the unexpected end of the file in python version 2.7, that is the functions do not read any date before the end of input is encountered. And the methods such as the read() method must return a string that is empty when the end of the file is encountered, and this EOFError in python is inherited from the Exception class, which in turn is inherited from BaseException class.


EOFError: EOF when reading a line

Working of EOFError in Python

Below is the working of EOFError:

1. BaseException class is the base class of the Exception class which in turn inherits the EOFError class.

2. EOFError is not an error technically, but it is an exception. When the in-built functions such as the input() function or read() function return a string that is empty without reading any data, then the EOFError exception is raised.

3. This exception is raised when our program is trying to obtain something and do modifications to it, but when it fails to read any data and returns a string that is empty, the EOFError exception is raised.


Below is the example of Python EOFError:

Example #1

Python program to demonstrate EOFError with an error message in the program.


#EOFError program #try and except blocks are used to catch the exception try: while True: #input is assigned to a string variable check check = raw_input('The input provided by the user is being read which is:') #the data assigned to the string variable is read print 'READ:', check #EOFError exception is caught and the appropriate message is displayed except EOFError as x: print x


Explanation: In the above program, try and except blocks are used to catch the exception. A while block is used within a try block, which is evaluated to true, and as long as the condition is true, the data provided by the user is read, and it is displayed using a print statement, and if the data cannot be read with an empty string being returned, then the except block raises an exception with the message which is shown in the output.

Example #2

Python program to demonstrate EOFError with an error message in the program.


#EOFError program #try and except blocks are used to catch the exception try: while True: #input is assigned to a string variable check check = raw_input('The input provided by the user is being read which is:') #the data assigned to the string variable is read print 'Hello', check #EOFError exception is caught and the appropriate message is displayed except EOFError as x: print x


Explanation: In the above program, try and except blocks are used to catch the exception. A while block is used within a try block, which is evaluated to true, and as long as the condition is true, the data provided by the user is read and it is displayed using a print statement, and if the data cannot be read with an empty string being returned, then the except block raises an exception with the message which is shown in the output.

Steps to Avoid EOFError in Python

If End of file Error or EOFError happens without reading any data using the input() function, an EOFError exception will be raised. In order to avoid this exception being raised, we can try the following options which are:

Before sending the End of File exception, try to input something like CTRL + Z or CTRL + D or an empty string which the below example can demonstrate:


#try and except blocks are used to catch the exception try: data = raw_input ("Do you want to continue?: ") except EOFError: print ("Error: No input or End Of File is reached!") data = "" print data


Explanation: In the above program, try and except blocks are used to avoid the EOFError exception by using an empty string that will not print the End Of File error message and rather print the custom message provided by is which is shown in the program and the same is printed in the output as well. The output of the program is shown in the snapshot above.

If the EOFError exception must be processed, try and catch block can be used.


In this tutorial, we understand the concept of EOFError in Python through definition, the syntax of EOFError in Python, working of EOFError in Python through programming examples and their outputs, and the steps to avoid EOFError in Python.

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Chatgpt For Coding: User Guide With Examples

ChatGPT can be used in all aspects of coding such as:

Writing code snippets

Generating boilerplate code

Debugging code

Adding documentation

Generating unit tests

This article gives you specific examples for each of these tasks and more.

Keep in mind that ChatGPT isn’t meant to replace your work as a developer. Instead, it acts as an additional tool in your toolkit similar to the way IntelliSense, autocomplete, and other developer tools do.

If you want a general introduction to the AI tool, start with these articles:

Here, we’ll jump straight into practical examples using it for coding. Let’s start with code snippets.

ChatGPT can help you with code snippets by generating specific examples based on your requests. You can simply ask it to write code for a particular algorithm or a function in your preferred programming language.

It’s important to be as specific and clear as possible in your prompts as the AI model works best with explicit instructions.

For example, if you want to generate a Python function to add two numbers, you could use a prompt like this:

Write a Python function that takes two integers as inputs and returns their sum.

ChatGTP responds by providing a complete function and an example of how to use it. Here is the code snippet we received with the prompt:

ChatGPT can also help in completing your partial code snippets. If you’ve started writing a piece of code but are unsure about the correct syntax, the AI tool can provide suggestions based on its understanding of code syntax and structure.

For example, if you started writing a Python function to sort a list but got stuck, you could input your incomplete code and ask ChatGPT for help.

Here is a sample prompt:

Complete this piece of Python code:

def sort_list(my_list):

    # sort the list in ascending order

ChatGPT suggests a complete version with an explanation of the code that it has provided.

Boilerplate code refers to sections of code that have to be included in many places with little to no alteration. Some examples include:

Setting up a Flask web server in Python

Main method declaration in a Java application

Initial setup code in an HTML file

The structure of the code tends to stay the same across different projects. Using ChatGPT can speed up the setup process for new projects or features.

The boilerplate code includes the essential structure, any necessary dependencies, and basic functions. This frees you to focus on building your application’s core functionality.

Here is an example prompt:

Provide boilerplate code for setting up a Flask web server in Python.

The AI tool can be used to enhance and optimize existing code. The tool can propose improvements such as extracting repeated code into functions or simplifying complex boolean expressions.

It can also help identify parts of your code that could be made more efficient. This could be recommending a more suitable data structure or identifying redundant code that can be removed.

When you supply the piece of code to ChatGPT, tell the tool that you want it refactored with a phrase such as “Refactor this Python function: …”

When you’re having problems with your code, you can provide ChatGPT with the malfunctioning code and a description of the issue. The AI tool will attempt to identify and correct the problem.

For example, suppose you have a Python script that should sort a list in descending order but is generating an error message instead. You can provide the details in a prompt like this:

This Python script should create a list and sort it in descending order:

my_list = [5, 2, 3, 1, 4]


It produces this error:

AttributeError: ‘list’ object has no attribute ‘sort_descending’

Please debug the script.

ChatGPT provides an explanation of the error in plainer language. It then provides a sample corrected script, as you can see in this picture:

ChatGPT can be utilized as a valuable tool in the software testing process. Its ability to understand and generate code makes it particularly suited to helping developers write test cases and unit tests, saving time while ensuring that your software is robust and reliable.

Writing unit tests with ChatGPT can be as simple as providing a description of the behavior you’re testing. Based on your description, ChatGPT will use its training data and knowledge of coding practices to generate an appropriate unit test.

Suppose you have a function in Python that calculates the area of a rectangle and you want to generate a test for it. Here is a sample prompt:

Write a unit test for a Python function called calculate_area that takes two parameters, width and height. The test should verify that the function correctly calculates the area of a rectangle.

ChatGPT provides a detailed unit test. You can also ask for a suite of unit tests for your application.

Code porting means adapting software from one environment to another. This often involves translating code from one programming language to another. Unfortunately, this task can be time-consuming and prone to error.

ChatGPT can be a useful tool during this process. For instance, if you have a Python function that you need to translate into JavaScript, you can provide the function to ChatGPT and ask it to perform the translation.

Here is a sample prompt:

Translate this Python code into Javascript:

def add_two_numbers(a, b):

    return a + b

This picture shows the generated JavaScript function.

Later in this article, you’ll learn about some general limitations that ChatGPT has when assisting with coding tasks.

Code translating brings some specific problems. Programming languages have different features, and not all of them translate well with each other.

For example, translating Python’s dynamic typing and list comprehensions to JavaScript could lead to more verbose and less idiomatic code.

Similarly, translating class-based object-oriented features to JavaScript might require significant restructuring.

Many programmers find writing documentation to be the least enjoyable part of the job.

def add_two_numbers(a, b):

    return a + b

ChatGPT can also assist in writing external documentation, such as

README files


API documentation

You can provide it with a description of your software or its individual components, and it can generate detailed, human-readable explanations and instructions.

To help get you started with incorporating ChatGPT into your development tasks, here are four specific use cases:

Converting plain text to CSV

Generating filler text

Writing SQL queries

Using Power Automate to Integrate ChatGPT

ChatGPT can help in transforming plain text data into a CSV format using regular expressions (regex). This can be particularly useful when dealing with raw or unstructured text data that needs to be transformed for data analysis or machine learning tasks.

First, you’ll need to identify the patterns in your plain text data that can be captured using regex. ChatGPT can suggest suitable regex patterns based on the format of your text data.

Once the patterns are identified, you can use ChatGPT to help generate the code needed to apply these regex patterns to your data. This code can match patterns in the text and group data accordingly.

After the regex is applied, ChatGPT can assist in writing the code to format the grouped data into a CSV file. This involves creating a CSV file and writing the extracted data to it.

ChatGPT can be an invaluable tool for generating placeholder or filler content. Whether it’s for web design, app development, or document formatting, ChatGPT can provide contextually appropriate, human-like text.

Unlike generic Lorem Ipsum, ChatGPT can generate text on a specific subject, making it ideal for realistic mock-ups or prototypes.

For data testing, ChatGPT can generate structured data according to the specified format. This can be useful for testing database queries or data processing pipelines.

Here is a sample prompt:

Generate test data of five rows of comma-delimited lists of four animals.

Here is what is generated with this prompt:

When you use ChatGPT to help with SQL, you can focus more time on higher-level tasks such as designing complex reports.

Our tutorial on using ChatGPT to write SQL queries will get you up to speed!

This video will show you how to integrate ChatGPT with Microsoft Outlook using Power Automate:

Now that you’ve learned the extensive ways that the AI tool can help, you may be wondering: can ChatGPT replace programmers?

Despite the impressive capabilities of ChatGPT, it’s not infallible. The code it generates should be reviewed and tested before being used in a production environment.

For example, it may generate code with errors or bugs due to its reliance on pre-existing knowledge and input prompt quality.

Even harder to spot is when the generated code runs successfully but produces wrong results. The accuracy of the generated code depends on the complexity of the requirements and the clarity of the description.

The quality and extent of ChatGPT’s coding capabilities also depend heavily on the training data it has been exposed to. If the model comes across tasks it hasn’t encountered during training, it could generate inadequate or incorrect code.

Here are our 3 best tips to mitigate these limitations:

Be specific about your desired programming language, framework, or library.

Familiarize yourself with ChatGPT’s known capabilities and limitations.

Combine ChatGPT’s output with your own expertise in coding.

You’ve learned how to use ChatGPT to assist in your daily programming tasks. The ability of the AI tool to understand prompts and generate meaningful, context-aware code has made it an excellent assistant for developers.

Explanation, And Methods With Different Outputs

Introduction to Kafka Partition

Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others


As such, there is no specific syntax available for the Kafka Partition. Generally, we are using the Kafka partition value while creating a new topic or defining the number of partitions on the Kafka commands.

Note 1) While working with the Kafka Partition. We are using the core Kafka commands and Kafka Partition command for the troubleshooting front.

2) At the time of Kafka Partition configuration, we are using the CLI method. But generally, we are using the UI tool only.

How Kafka Partition Works?

The Kafka Partition is useful to define the destination partition of the message. Internally the Kafka partition will work on the key bases i.e. the null key and the hash key. If it sets the null key, then the messages or data will store at any partition or the specific hash key provided then the data will move on to the specific partition. Majorly the Kafka partition is deal with parallelism. If we are increasing the number of partitions, it will also increase the parallel process also.

Below is the list of properties and its value that we can use in the Kafka partition.

Sr No Property Value Description


In the Kafka partition, we need to define the broker id by the non-negative integer id. The broker’s name will include the combination of the hostname as well as the port name. We have used single or multiple brokers as per the requirement.

2 log.dirs /tmp/kafka-logs It will be a single or multiple Kafka data store location. While creating the new partition, it will be placed in the directory.

3 port 6667 On the 6667 port no, the server will accept the client connections.

4 zookeeper.connect null We need to specify the zookeeper connection in the form of the hostname and the port i.e. 2181. We need to define the multiple zookeeper hostname and ports in the same partition command. Zookeeper is very important while communicating with the Kafka environment. It is the primary thing to communicate with the Kafka environment.

5 message.max.bytes 1000000 With the help of the Kafka partition command, we can also define the maximum size of a message. The same count of messages that the server will receive. It is very important that the same property is in sync with the maximum fetch value with the consumer front.

6 3

7 8

8 4 It will help to manage the various background processes like file deletion. Generally, we are not changing the same value.

9 queued.max.requests 500

10 null It will help to define the property as the hostname of the Kafka broker. If we have set the same property, then it will only bind with the same address. If the same value will not set, then it will bind with all the present interfaces and will publish on the zookeeper.

11 null It will help to connect with the multiple Kafka components like the consumers, producers, brokers, etc. As per the configuration, we can define the value like hostname or the ip address. In some cases, we can find it like with the port number.

12 advertised.port null The chúng tôi value will give out to the consumers, producers, and brokers. It will help to establish the connections. We can define the value in different forms as well.

13 socket.send.buffer.bytes 100 * 1024 It is also known as the SO_SNDBUFF buffer. It will prefer for server socket connections.

14 socket.receive.buffer.bytes 100 * 1024 It is also known as the SO_RCVBUFF buffer. It will prefer for server socket connections.

15 socket.request.max.bytes 100 * 1024 * 1024 The socket.request.max.bytes value will help to define the request size that the server will allow.


In the Kafka environment, we can create a topic to store the messages. As per the Kafka broker availability, we can define the multiple partitions in the Kafka topic.

The cluster Kafka broker port is “6667”.

Zookeeper port will be “2181”

The single Kafka broker port is “9092”

On TLS or SSL Kafka environment, the port will be “9093”.

Command :

./ --create --zookeeper --replication-factor 1 --partitions 3 --topic elearning_kafka

Explanation :

As per the above command, we have created the “elearning_kafka” Kafka topic with the partition value 3. In screenshot 1 (B), we have seen the 3 partition is available in the “elearning_kafka” topic.

Screenshot 1 (A)

Screenshot 1 (B)


We have seen the uncut concept of “Kafka Partition” with the proper example, explanation, and methods with different outputs. As per the requirement, we can create multiple partitions in the topic. It will increase the parallelism of the get-and-put operation.

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7 Simple Steps For How To Use Canva (With Tutorial!)

Have you ever discovered something that you were so excited about you wanted to share it with the world? Maybe your new favorite show, a great book you recently finished, or if you’re like me: A marketing tool that makes your life So. Much. Easier.

Me, thinking of sharing this with you.

Here’s a little story: About eight years ago, one of my coworkers told me about this new tool she found called Canva. It allowed you to make really cool images for free. As a social media manager, this was the holy grail. I was always looking for ways to make custom images for my clients. And this tool was not only easy to use, but it made my meager design skills look pretty good. My clients were thrilled. My social media posts looked great. I was hooked.

It’s been almost a decade, and my love for Canva has only grown. I use Canva every day for the blog posts you see on LocaliQ and for our social media posts. I’m a Canva enthusiast. And I’m here to help you become one, too. Allow me to introduce you to this simple guide for how to use Canva.

Canva guide table of contents

In this guide to Canva, I’m sharing:

Here we go!

What is Canva?

Canva is an online graphic design tool built for beginners for both business and personal use. Canva’s mission is to “empower everyone in the world to design anything and publish anywhere.” And they live up to it—letting you easily create shareable images from your desktop or from the app.

Launched in 2013, Canva has continued adding helpful features, sharing options, and even integrations to make getting your designs where they need to go—and in the format they need to be in—extremely easy.

With Canva, you can create designs for your business like:

Social media posts




Business cards


The list goes on and on.


Why use Canva for your business

So you might be wondering why you would want to use Canva for your business. Here are some of the top reasons.

1. It’s free

You can also download these assets for free in a number of file formats.

2. It’s (pretty) easy to use

Canva was built to be easy for the average person to use. And it really is once you understand how to use it (which we’ll detail with step-by-step instructions in this post!)

Like any marketing tool, practice makes perfect. And after playing around for a little bit within Canva, you can easily get a handle on the elements it offers for your designs.

3. You can create images fast

There are times when it’s best to work with a graphic designer. For instance, you want to invest in high-quality and well-designed images for your website and printed materials like menus. But there are times when you might need a quick event poster or social media post right away, and it’s something you could make if you had the right tool. This is that tool.

It once took me six hours to create a brochure, so I would have loved 1,243 brochure templates at my fingertips.

4. It’s versatile

As I mentioned, Canva gives you the opportunity to create a lot of different types of designs. This versatility is helpful when looking for a marketing tool to help with your design needs. You don’t have to worry about skipping around to different programs or problems with file compatibility—you know you can make pretty much anything you need with Canva (on desktop or on the app!).

5. It’s collaborative

Canva isn’t just easy for one person to use—it’s easy for teams to use, too. You can share your designs so others on your team can edit. Or if you created a design you love, you can share it as a template so others on your team can use it for their own creations. This is helpful if you have multiple employees helping with social media or asset creation.

6. It’s great for social media

How to use Canva: Step-by-step

Now to the fun part: How to use Canva! I’ll walk through the steps for creating a new image from start to finish. And I even created a helpful little tutorial video for you to show you the steps in real time.

1. Create a Canva account (if you don’t have one)

The first step is super simple—it’s just creating a Canva account (unless you have one—in that case, you can sign in).

Technically, you can use Canva without creating an account, but we suggest creating one because it will save all your designs in one place and allow you to log in from different browsers or the app to continue editing and creating your designs.

2. Choose your design type (or determine your custom size)

Choose from a suggested templated size (such as Instagram post, Facebook cover photo, and more)

Create your own custom dimensions

Upload a file or photo to begin editing

Choose the option that works best for the design you’re hoping to create to get started.

3. Look through pre-made templates

One of the biggest benefits of Canva is that you have a library of design templates at your fingertips—even when you create a design using custom dimensions. This makes creating new designs simple, and you can easily edit the template to align with your brand identity.

You can find templates on the left-hand side of your page. You can scroll through the options or search for some templates that meet your needs, such as:





And more

Canva also has grouped its templates into suggested buckets to make finding the right one easier for you.

(Speaking of winter Instagram posts, we created winter Instagram captions with curated Canva templates.) 

4. Choose a template–or decide to design from scratch

If there aren’t any templates you’re interested in, you can also start your design from scratch. For beginners, I suggest choosing a template that has some elements you like so you can get a feel for your options. Remember, you can edit anything in the design, including font, all colors, shapes, and more.

5. Add or edit design elements

Now that you’ve chosen a template (or decided to start from scratch), it’s time to add or edit your design elements. I personally like to get my design to a good place before adding or editing my text.

You’ll want to get really familiar with the editing pane at the top of your page—this is where you will be able to choose the types of edits and changes you want to make.

Here are the controls you have available for design elements:

Color: This is where you’ll choose the color of the element or your background. You can choose from a color wheel or add in the specific HEX code (this is especially useful for your brand colors!).

Edit Image: If you have any type of image in your design, such as for the background or in a frame, you can edit the image by removing the background (a very helpful feature!), adjusting the brightness, contrast, or saturation, adding a filter, adding a color tone, and more.

Crop: You can crop your image or design element.

Flip: You can flip your image or design element either horizontally or vertically.

Animate: This is a cool feature that allows you to add some movement to your design. If you use this feature, you’ll need to download your design as an MP4 Video or a GIF.

Position: This lets you choose whether an image is behind or in front of other design elements. You can also align elements to the page or to other elements within your design. This is helpful when you have textboxes or want to make sure your designs are spaced evenly.

Copy style: This allows you to apply a style or format to a specific element. It applies to color, font, image filter, and more. This can help you easily match your design elements for cohesion.

Transparency: This allows you to adjust the transparency of your specific design element or image.

Link: You can add hyperlinks to your designs—this might be useful if you’re creating a PDF or a presentation.

Lock: This allows you to lock specific elements of your design so they can’t be moved or changed.

Copy: This lets you make a copy of a specific element.

Group/Ungroup: If you select multiple elements, you’ll also get the option to group or ungroup items. This will let you move or resize them together.

How to change or edit an element

How to replace or add an image

How to add a new element

For my example, I’ll add another image. To do this, I’ll scroll to “Frames” and choose one that I like.

6. Add or edit text

Now that your design is in a good place, it’s time to edit your text.

You have even more options for editing when it comes to your text. In addition to the options we already covered for editing a design element (which you have for editing a text element), you also have:

Font: You can change the font of your text. Canva has pre-loaded a good amount of free fonts, and you can even upload your own font if you have a premium subscription.

Font size: You can specify the font size in the box or you can drag and stretch your text box to make the font larger.

Font styles: You can choose from Bold, Italic, Underline, and Uppercase (meaning all your letters will be uppercased) for font styles.

Alignment: You can choose from left-justified, centered, and right-justified.

Lists: You can add bullets or numbered lists.

Spacing: You can make the letter and line spacing closer or further.

Effects: You can choose from specific text effects such as Shadow, Neon, Hollow, and more.

As you can see, there are plenty of options available to personalize your designs!

How to edit text

For example, I’m going to edit the text in my design to a quote from my customer along with her name and title and then change the font and colors to align with my brand.

How to add new text

After you’ve added the new text to your design, you can make edits or changes.

7. Download your Canva creation

Once your design elements and text elements have been edited, changed, and added, it’s time to give your design a final look before you export it! (But, don’t worry—you can make changes after downloading).

Downloading your design is really easy:

Choose your file type. You can choose from PNG, JPG, PDF Standard, PDF Print, SVG (for premium subscribers), MP4 Video, and GIF.

If you have more than one page in your design, choose the pages you want to export. If you export more than one page, it will export as a zipped/compressed file.

And, voila!

Canva tutorial video

Here’s the video I promised. In this Canva tutorial, I’ll walk through how to create an Instagram quote image in less than five minutes.

Canva has also created a library of tutorials you can check out for more in-depth how-tos.

Canva features for businesses to try

Now that you’ve got the basics down, let’s talk a little bit about some of the cool features you can expect from Canva for your business.

Pre-made social media templates

In my opinion, Canva’s pre-made social media templates are what make it such a great free marketing tool for growing businesses. The ability to get perfectly-sized social media images with some designs that are pretty much good to go is a busy business owner’s dream!

I curated some free social media templates I love for you here:

Canva also has pre-made video editing templates so you can create social media videos in a flash!

Canva presentations

If you don’t want to use Powerpoint or just want to spice up your presentations, Canva has some really great presentation templates to help you out. You would follow the same process to make edits and changes to the design elements and text, and you can export as a PDF to present through your pages. Or you can present directly through Canva.

This is also a helpful feature if you’re trying to collaborate with other team members or want an easy way to access or share your presentations on the go.

Canva logo maker

Another feature small businesses love, especially, is the Canva logo maker. Canva has created some pre-made logo templates you can choose from and personalize. This is a great feature if you’re starting a new business or looking for inspiration before working with a professional designer to create your logo.

We put together tips and Canva templates to help you design a small business logo here.

Sticker creator

Another cool feature Canva added is the ability to design your own custom stickers you can then print (or have printed directly through Canva). Branded stickers add a nice touch to packaging or customizing boxes, bags, or other items. Plus, stickers are very cost-effective.

But you don’t have to stop at branded stickers. You can also use the Canva sticker templates to create fun stickers that add a little flair to your business–and make your customers happy!

Background remover (premium feature)

This is a cool feature because it can elevate your images super fast without having to learn Photoshop. You can use this to make nice quote images or to crop out noisy backgrounds of your images. This feature is only available for premium subscribers.

To remove a background in Canva, you:

Add your image to the design

Brand kit (premium feature)

One feature that I personally love is the brand kit option from Canva. With the brand kit, you can upload your logos, colors, and fonts so they’re easily and readily available to you and those on your team.

This helps you keep all your designs cohesive, which is a big benefit for your business. And it makes it easier for you and your team so you don’t have to keep adding your HEX colors to every new design.

Go forth and create with Canva

Now that you know how to use Canva, it’s time to make some creations of your own! Canva is a valuable free marketing tool to add to your arsenal that can help you craft winning social media posts, stellar presentations, and more—all while keeping your brand identity clear and cohesive.

If you love free tools like Canva, you might also love our free website grader! Find out how your website stacks up and get actionable tips for improvement. 

Stephanie Heitman

Stephanie is the Associate Director of Content for LocaliQ and WordStream. She has over 10 years of experience in content and social media marketing and loves writing about all things digital marketing. When she’s not researching the latest and greatest marketing news and updates, she’s probably watching reality TV with her husband, reading, or playing with her two pups.

Other posts by Stephanie Heitman

Polymorphism In Python With Examples

What is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism can be defined as a condition that occurs in many different forms. It is a concept in Python programming wherein an object defined in Python can be used in different ways. It allows the programmer to define multiple methods in a derived class, and it has the same name as present in the parent class. Such scenarios support method overloading in Python.

In this Python Polymorphism tutorial, you will learn:

Polymorphism in Operators

An operator in Python helps perform mathematical and several other programming tasks. For example, the ‘+’ operator helps in performing addition between two integer types in Python, and in the same way, the same operator helps in concatenating strings in Python programming.

Let us take an example of + (plus) operator in Python to display an application of Polymorphism in Python as shown below:

Python Code:

p = 55 q = 77 r = 9.5 g1 = "Guru" g2 = "99!" print("the sum of two numbers",p + q) print("the data type of result is",type(p + q)) print("The sum of two numbers",q + r) print("the data type of result is", type (q + r)) print("The concatenated string is", g1 + g2) print("The data type of two strings",type(g1 + g2))


the sum of two numbers 132 The sum of the two numbers 86.5 The concatenated string is Guru99!

The above example can also be regarded as the example of operator overloading.

Polymorphism in user-defined methods

A user-defined method in the Python programming language are methods that the user creates, and it is declared using the keyword def with the function name.

Polymorphism in the Python programming language is achieved through method overloading and overriding. Python defines methods with def keyword and with the same name in both child and parent class.

Let us take the following example as shown below: –

Python Code:

from math import pi class square: def __init__(self, length): self.l = length def perimeter(self): return 4 * (self.l) def area(self): return self.l * self.l class Circle: def __init__(self, radius): self.r = radius def perimeter(self): return 2 * pi * self.r def area(self): return pi * self.r * * 2 # Initialize the classes sqr = square(10) c1 = Circle(4) print("Perimeter computed for square: ", sqr.perimeter()) print("Area computed for square: ", sqr.area()) print("Perimeter computed for Circle: ", c1.perimeter()) print("Area computed for Circle: ", c1.area())


Perimeter computed for square:  40 Area computed for square:  100 Perimeter computed for Circle:  25.132741228718345 Area computed for Circle:  50.26548245743669

In the above code, there are two user-defined methods, perimeter and area, defined in circle and square classes.

As shown above, both circle class and square class invoke the same method name displaying the characteristic of Polymorphism to deliver the required output.

Polymorphism in Functions

The built-in functions in Python are designed and made compatible to execute several data types. In Python, Len() is one of the key built-in functions.

It works on several data types: list, tuple, string, and dictionary. The Len () function returns definite information aligned with these many data types.

The following figure shows how Polymorphism can be applied in Python with relation to in-built functions: –

Following program helps in illustrating the application of Polymorphism in Python: –

Python Code:

print ("The length of string Guru99 is ",len("Guru99")) print("The length of list is ",len(["Guru99","Example","Reader"])) print("The length of dictionary is ",len({"Website name":"Guru99","Type":"Education"}))


The length of string Guru99 is 6 The length of the list is 3 The length of the dictionary is 2

In the above example, Len () function of Python performs Polymorphism for string, list, and dictionary data types, respectively.

Polymorphism and Inheritance

Inheritance in Python can be defined as the programming concept wherein a child class defined inherit properties from another base class present in Python.

There are two key Python concepts termed method overriding and method overloading.

In method overloading, Python provides the feature of creating methods that have the same name to perform or execute different functionalities in a given piece of code. It allows to overload methods and uses them to perform different tasks in simpler terms.

In Method overriding, Python overrides the value that shares a similar name in parent and child classes.

Let us take the following example of Polymorphism and inheritance as shown below: –

Python Code:

class baseclass: def __init__(self, name): chúng tôi = name def area1(self): pass def __str__(self): return class rectangle(baseclass): def __init__(self, length, breadth): super().__init__("rectangle") self.length = length self.breadth = breadth def area1(self): return self.length * self.breadth class triangle(baseclass): def __init__(self, height, base): super().__init__("triangle") self.height = height self.base = base def area1(self): return (self.base * self.height) / 2 a = rectangle(90, 80) b = triangle(77, 64) print("The shape is: ", b) print("The area of shape is", b.area1()) print("The shape is:", a) print("The area of shape is", a.area1())


The shape is: a triangle The area of a shape is 2464.0 The shape is: a rectangle The area of a shape is 7200

In above code, the methods have the same name defined as init method and area1 method. The object of class square and rectangle are then used to invoke the two methods to perform different tasks and provide the output of the area of square and rectangle.

Polymorphism with the Class Methods

The Python programming enables programmers to achieve Polymorphism and method overloading with class methods. The different classes in Python can have methods that are declared in the same name across the Python code.

In Python, two different classes can be defined. One would be child class, and it derives attributes from another defined class termed as parent class.

The following example illustrates the concept of Polymorphism with class methods: –

Python Code:

class amazon: def __init__(self, name, price): chúng tôi = name self.price = price def info(self): print("This is product and am class is invoked. The name is {}. This costs {self.price} rupees.") class flipkart: def __init__(self, name, price): chúng tôi = name self.price = price def info(self): print(f "This is product and fli class is invoked. The name is {}. This costs {self.price} rupees.") FLP = flipkart("Iphone", 2.5) AMZ = amazon("Iphone", 4) for product1 in (FLP, AMZ):


This is a product, and fli class is invoked. The name is iPhone, and this costs 2.5 rupees. This is a product, and am class is invoked. The name is iPhone, and this costs 4 rupees.

In the above code, two different classes named as flipkart and amazon use the same method names info and init to provide respective price quotations of the product and further illustrate the concept of Polymorphism in Python.

Difference between Method overloading and compile-time Polymorphism

In compile-time Polymorphism, the compiler of the Python program resolves the call. Compile-time Polymorphism is accomplished through method overloading.

The Python compiler does not resolve the calls during run time for polymorphism. It is also classified as method overriding wherein the same methods carry similar signatures or properties, but they form a part of different classes.


Polymorphism can be defined as a condition that occurs in many different forms.

An operator in Python helps perform mathematical and several other programming tasks.

A user-defined method in the Python programming language are methods that the user creates, and it is declared using the keyword def with the function name.

Polymorphism in Python offers several desirable qualities, such as it promotes the reusability of codes written for different classes and methods.

A child class is a derived class, and it gets its attributes from the parent class.

The Polymorphism is also achieved through run-time method overriding and compile-time method overloading.

Polymorphism in Python is also attained through operator overloading and class methods.

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