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Potential customers are already looking for businesses like yours on Facebook. A smart Facebook marketing strategy is the only way to connect with them.

Facebook marketing isn’t optional. Facebook is the most used social platform in the world, pulling in 2.29 billion daily active users.

It’s not all vacation pics and humblebrags either. For 53.2% of internet users ages 16-24, social media is their primary source of brand research. And, 66% of all Facebook users check out a local business Page at least once a week.

Truth time: You need to be on Facebook.

The answers to all your questions are ahead, plus a step-by-step process to start your Facebook marketing journey off right.

Bonus: Download a free guide that teaches you how to turn Facebook traffic into sales in four simple steps using Hootsuite.

Facebook marketing tactics can include:

For those working with a limited or zero budget: You can do Facebook marketing completely for free.

Let’s start at the beginning: Your business’ Facebook Page. Whether you only do this and share organic content, or follow the rest of the tips in this article, you need to have a Page.

Create a Facebook Business Page

1. Sign in to Facebook with your personal account. Your personal information won’t show on your Page, but you can also create a new Facebook account with a work email address if you prefer.

3. To create your Page, enter:

a. Name: Your business name

b. Category: Start typing to see the available options. For example, “retail” or “restaurant.”

c. Description: A sentence or two describing what your business does. You can edit this later.

Get verified on Facebook (optional)

You don’t need it, but it helps. How do you get that little blue checkmark like the cool brands?

Verified Pages mean Facebook has checked to ensure the person or brand is who they say they are. It communicates trust (which is important since 72% of people say they distrust Facebook).

Technically, getting verified is as simple as filling out a form. But really, Facebook only verifies profiles and Pages belonging to businesses or well-known public figures.

It can be difficult to get a personal profile verified, but it’s quite easy for businesses of all sizes, especially if you have a physical location. The key is ensuring your proof of identity links are independent, non-promotional content from high-quality sources.

Check out our complete Facebook verification guide for more tips.

Now you can start an automated campaign, create your own campaign from scratch, or promote (“boost”) existing Page content.

1. Define your audience

Before you do anything, you must first define who your ideal potential customer is and what they want on Facebook. Then, create a marketing and content strategy around that.

Every article about social media marketing says this.

…Because it’s true.

At minimum, you need to define your target audience by answering the following:

What age range do they fall in?

Where do they live?

What types of jobs or job responsibilities do they have? (Most relevant for B2B brands.)

What problem do they have with [your industry/product]? (And how are you the solution?)

How and when do they use Facebook? (At work, home, doom scrolling before bed?)

Not sure where to start? If you already have followers on your Facebook Page, check out Audience Insights inside Meta Business Suite to see the demographics of your existing audience.


Meta’s Insights area offers more than basic info, including:

Education attainment

Relationship status


Interests and hobbies

Languages spoken

Facebook usage statistics

Past purchase activity

Does your data line up with the customers you want to attract? Perfect, keep up the good work. Not so much? Adjust your content strategy accordingly and watch your Insights to see what works for shifting your audience to the one you want.

Ready to dig deep? Here’s how to get all the nerdy info you want from Facebook Audience Insights.

2. Define your goals

Why do you want followers? What do you want them to do? For most companies, the answer is, “Buy something.”

But it’s not always about money. Other common goals for a Facebook Page are to:

Build brand awareness

Improve customer service

Maintain a consistent brand image across social media

Bring in traffic to a physical location

Your Facebook marketing goals will depend on your overall marketing strategy. (Need a refresh? We’ve got a free marketing plan template for ya.)

3. Plan your content strategy

No need to overcomplicate this. Your content strategy is:

What you’ll post

When you’ll post it

What to post

Will you share behind-the-scenes glimpses of your process? Will you post exclusive discounts? Will you stick to business, or include some fun and games?

Let your imagination run wild with ideas— Ha! Just kidding. You’re gonna post what your audience wants, right? From all that research you did in step 1, right?

Creativity is encouraged, though. Blend what you know about your target audience with what you think will perform well. (Psst—we’ve researched all the best social media trends so you don’t have to.)

Think of your Facebook content strategy like buckets. Each bucket is a topic.

For example:

Industry news

Company news

Tuesday Tips, where you share a short tutorial for your software


New products and promotions

You get the idea. And you know what makes everything, including creativity, more fun? Rules!

A few classic social media content strategy rules to consider:

The rule of thirds: One third of your content is your ideas/stories, one third is direct interaction with your audience, and the last third is promotional content.

The 80/20 rule: 80% of your content should inform, entertain, and educate, and the remaining 20% can be promotional.

When to post it

Once you’ve decided what to post, deciding when to post it is the last puzzle piece.

As mentioned earlier, Facebook Audience Insights can help here, although our research has found the best times to post on Facebook are between 8:00AM to 12:00PM on Tuesdays and Thursdays.

Not so fast. That’s a massive generalization. Like everything else in your strategy, experiment! Try different times and see when you get the most engagement.

It’s easy to stay on track with Hootsuite Planner. Everyone on your team can see upcoming posts, collaborate on drafts, and identify any gaps before you reach an oh-crap-I-need-a-post-right-now content emergency.

The best part? Hootsuite’s powerful analytics will tell you when the best times to post are, based on your personalized data.

Check out how it all works:

4. Optimize your Page

Whether you’ve just set up your Facebook business Page or had one for awhile, make sure you have:

A profile photo—your logo works great—and a cover photo. (Check our social media image size guide for current specs.)

A call to action button, such as Book Now.

Contact information, including URL, phone number, and an email address.

A detailed about section.

A pinned post with your latest promotion, offer, or FAQ.

An accurate business category. (Ours is “Internet company.”)

If you have a physical business location, also ensure you’ve added a street address.

If you’re an ecommerce business, use Commerce Manager to display your products in the new Facebook Shop tab. Not sure how? Here’s how to set up a Facebook Shop.

5. Try other Facebook tools

Groups require a lot of moderation and attention to be successful, but they can earn powerful results.

2. Drive engagement with Hootsuite Inbox

See how much time you’ll save:

3. Try Facebook Marketplace for local sales

While you may think of Marketplace as simply the modern day replacement for Craigslist, it’s actually a powerful business sales channel, too.

It’s free to create listings, making it a must-try for local businesses. If you sell nationally, consider promoting your shop website, too.

6. Install Meta Pixel (formerly Facebook Pixel)

To install Meta Pixel:

But are you ready?

I’d argue you should have these things first:

At least 100 Page Likes (followers)

Meta Pixel set up

Clear Facebook marketing goals

At least 20 Page posts (ideally more)

Multiple creative assets for each ad

An A/B testing strategy

The easy way: Boost a post

“Boosting” a post is Facebook lingo for taking a regular Page post and turning it into an ad.

Ready to hit turbo mode? Here’s how to boost a Facebook post the right way.

The full monty: Create your first Facebook ad campaign

It’s worth it. The combination of organic and paid Facebook content is the secret sauce to achieving all your social media ✨dreams. ✨

When you should consider it: You want to build focused momentum for a product launch, event, or other promotion.

Paid campaigns can work with budgets of all sizes, but spend time honing your targeting skills first. Experimenting with boosted posts can help dial this in.

You know when you see an ad and think wow, I’m the target market! Like finding out A&W has kids-size meals at 5:30pm on a hot summer Sunday when I know my soul will leave my body if I turn the oven on.

That’s how you want your ad’s viewers to feel: “This is for me.”


Consider hiring an agency or freelance consultant to help plan your first campaign. You’ll learn a lot and optimize your chances of success.

1. Text

Plain Jane. All type and no hype. The OG.

Text posts don’t include links, so they’re not meant to drive traffic, but they can be surprisingly good at growing your Page audience. Text posts have the highest average engagement rate at 0.13%.


However, these posts can easily get lost in the algorithm. For text posts under 130 characters, you can choose a colorful background to help them stand out.

Keep text posts short: Communicate something quickly to your audience, or ask them a question.

Or, be super relatable and funny.

2. Photo

Photo posts are second only to text posts for engagement, with an average engagement rate of 0.11%. A photo post can be any type of image, including a photo, infographic, or other artwork. You can add as many photos as you want to each post, but for 10 or more, consider creating an album instead.

Every type of business can make impactful photo posts:

Show off your latest collection or share the process of making your products.

Bring your audience into your office or workshop.

Wow them with data visualizations to make your point.

Better yet, feature your customers’ photos for a unique perspective on your products and engage your audience, too.

Limited photography budget? Check out these free stock photo sites.

3. Video

Video communicates the way nothing else can. It’s the next best thing to having your audience right in front of you.

Stuck for ideas? Here are a few types of videos to share:

Explainer videos

Demo videos

Interviews with industry experts, or your own team

Behind-the-scenes sneak peeks

Event coverage

Products, either informally or a formal commercial shoot

Webinar recordings

MojoGrip is a go-to resource for aviation fans. They know their audience is just as passionate about aircraft as they are, so this “How It’s Made” video was a big hit.

Posted by MojoGrip on Wednesday, December 15, 2023

Wondering what successful social media videos have in common? Check our tips for creating viral social videos.

4. Live video

Using live video successfully is all about holding your audience’s attention.

Q&As are one of the most effective live video formats for B2B companies. For both B2B and B2C, try demo videos showing how to use your product, especially to show off lesser-known use cases or “hacks.”

Lenovo managed to engage their audience and show off a new product’s capabilities with this Live. Viewers voted on ways to try to destroy the laptop and Lenovo carried them out live to prove the computer’s toughness.

Not wondering what to talk about, just how to do it? We’ve got a Facebook live guide for newbies.

5. Links

Links = anything directing to an external source, like your website. Link posts can contain any type of media, too.

Creating one is easy: All you need is a caption of your own, then paste in any link and Facebook will pull in an image, title, and meta description from the website. Or, you can manually add your own.

6. Facebook Stories

Facebook Stories offer a familiar vertical format and options for adding links, stickers, text, and more. You can use either an image or video. Images show for 5 seconds and videos can be up to 20 seconds per Story. All Facebook Stories disappear after 24 hours.

For best results, keep text and graphics minimal and use the space to let your photo or video speak for itself.


And by the way,

7. Pinned post

You can set an existing post on your Facebook Page as a “pinned post,” which means it will always be at the top of your Page.

This is helpful for a welcome message, links to important pages or customer support contacts, or anything you’re promoting right now. You can change your pinned post anytime.


8. Specialty post types

These are great for specific cases, but you’ll use them less frequently.

Facebook Group posts

Running a members-only Facebook Group in addition to your business Page can be a lot of work. But if building a community is one of your goals, a Facebook Group is a perfect way to achieve that, thanks to its 1.8 billion active monthly users.

Posting in a Group is the same as posting to your Page, except it’s only visible to members. Think it would be a good fit? We’ve got step by step instructions, plus recommended settings, for creating a Facebook Group for business.

Hello Fresh runs their #FreshFam Group for customers to share photos and feedback of the recipes they made. It’s linked to their business Page under the Community tab.



Fundraising on Facebook for a charity, or your own foundation, is an excellent way to grow your audience while making a positive impact.

Fundraisers show your values and connect people to your brand’s purpose. It puts your money where your mouth is. Bonus points: You can opt to match all donations (up to a limit of your choice).

And of course, make your new fundraiser your pinned post to maximize views, like the Humane Society of the United States:


However, only verified Facebook business Pages for public figures, brands, or charities can create fundraisers.

There’s a workaround if you’re not verified yet, though. Create a fundraiser with a personal Facebook user profile, then share it on your business Page.


Creating an event post has 6 unique benefits:

It’s featured in a separate tab on your Page (“Events”).

It’s listed in Facebook’s Events section, so people can discover you even if they don’t Like or follow your business Page. Over 35 million people use Facebook to find events near them every day.

People can RSVP for both in-person or online events, so you can plan attendance.

You can have multiple hosts, and it’s listed on all host Pages, so it’s easy to work with partners or influencers to promote it.


With Hootsuite, you can manage all of your Facebook marketing activities from one place. We hate marketing cliches, but it really is your, excuse us, one-stop shop for all things Facebook marketing.

Use Hootsuite to:

Identify the best times to post (when your unique audience is active online and most likely to engage with your content)

Review your performance and easily generate comprehensive reports

Boost posts

Easily track what people are saying about you online

Manage your Facebook Pages alongside all your other social profiles on Instagram, TikTok, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, and LinkedIn.

Start your free 30-day trial

Leverage AI to save money and provide top-notch customer service 24/7. Facebook Messenger chatbots can act as an interactive FAQ, as well as connect your customers to live agents for more complex requests. And, they can even suggest and sell products right from Messenger.

Ecommerce retailer Bestseller’s chatbot, powered by Heyday, automated up to 90% of their simple customer conversations in both English and French.

But more importantly, its smart programming understood Quebecois French terms—a rare and important feature for the Quebec-based company. They’d already found the generic French translations used by other apps unsuitable.


User-generated content is awesome for 2 reasons:

People are 2.4 times more likely to view it

You don’t have to create it

Chute simplifies the often-daunting task of finding relevant content based on topic, location, or more. Save what you find into an organized content library you can access from Hootsuite Composer.

It also makes it easy to properly obtain usage rights and permission for legal compliance.

Reviews are one of the most important aspects of your Facebook business Page (and elsewhere). Reputology tracks incoming reviews and allows you to respond inside Hootsuite.

You can filter by location, type of ad, and keywords.

Get ideas for your next campaign, identify trending phrases or graphics, and check up on what your competitors are doing.


Get Started

Grow your Facebook presence faster with Hootsuite. Schedule all your social posts and track their performance in one dashboard.

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How To Defrag Windows 10 In 2023 (A Complete Guide)

Windows 10 is the most popular desktop OS in the world right now and Microsoft is continuing to improve it. However, there is a growing perception among users that Windows is not on par with other operating systems and the performance deteriorates over time. It’s true to some extent as it does have some underlying issues like disk fragmentation, BSOD, and various other Windows-specific problems. In this article, I will discuss the problem of fragmentation and share some easy steps to defrag Windows 10 to make it faster. So without wasting any time, let’s first briefly understand what exactly defragmentation is.

What is Defragmentation?

To understand defragmentation, we need to begin with fragmentation first. In simple terms, fragmentation is a process of spreading data across different sectors of the hard disk. It usually happens when there is no contiguous block of memory available to store a file. In such situations, the file is split into several data chunks and spread across different blocks of the hard drive. And defragmentation is, you guessed it right, a process to bring the scattered pieces of data at one place.

Fragmentation is not much of a problem if you have an ample amount of free storage on your PC. However, when there is a space constraint, it becomes harder for the hard drive to allocate data in contiguous blocks. The problem becomes worse when files are moved, deleted or modified from the hard drive over a long period of time.

In such cases, the data is spread across different sectors of the hard drive. It essentially means, the hard drive takes a long time to access the scattered data bringing the read/write speed and overall performance down. So we should defrag Windows 10 periodically so that chunks of files are kept closer to each other. And as a result, it will speed up your Windows PC.

Should You Defrag Windows 10?

It will open the Defragmentation window. Here, you can check the details of the last defragmentation under the “Last run” label. If Windows 10 is defragmenting the hard disk according to the schedule then you don’t need to do anything.

Keep in mind, you must not defrag Windows 10 if you are using a solid state drive(SSD) laptop. SSD is built on a different technology than mechanical HDD. SSDs have limited read/write count and regular defragmentation will further decrease its lifespan. So you should absolutely NOT defrag Windows 10 if you are using an SSD. To find out the type of memory storage, open the Run window again by pressing Windows and R key. After that, type dfrgui and hit enter. Here, under the “Media type” label, you will find the required information.

Having said that, if you are not happy with the scheduled defragmentation or want to manually defrag Windows 10 then move to the next section to learn about the steps in detail.

Defragging Windows 10 in 2023

If you want to manually defrag Windows 10 then here are the three different ways to do it. You can choose any of them based on what you find convenient. So without wasting any time, here we go.

1. Defrag Windows 10 with the Inbuilt Tool

As we already know there is an inbuilt tool to defragment Windows 10. Here, we will learn how to manually analyze the hard disk and then defragment it. You can also configure various settings related to defragmentation. Here are the steps to do it.

1. Open the Run window by pressing Windows and R keyboard shortcut. Here, type dfrgui and hit enter.

3. Windows will start the defragmentation process. Do note that the time to complete the process will depend on how long you have been using your PC. You will get a better idea of the degree of fragmentation under the “Current Status” label. The lower it is, the better.

2. O&O Defrag

Install O&O Defrag (Free, Premium version at one-time purchase of $29.95)

3. Other Third-party Defragmenters

There are a few modes available on Auslogics Disk Defrag which I found interesting. Among many other things, you can run the defragmenter stealthily in the background without slowing down your PC. If you are using a hard disk without much space, this mode can help you combat fragmentation in real-time. So to sum up, if you want to defrag Windows 10 without any fuss, both the utilities are pretty good and you can choose either of them.

Install Defraggler (Free, Premium version at one-time purchase of $24.95)

Defrag Windows 10 and Speed Up Your PC

As we went through the article, we can see that fragmentation is no longer an issue on Windows 10 since automatic defragmentation has become a part of the OS. Still, if you want to manually defragment Windows 10 then you can very well go ahead and do it. Also, you can use O&O Defrag if you want to dive deeper into the sectors of the hard disk. If your PC is still slow after the defrag, you might have a differnt problem. In such a case, you should try to reset your Windows 10 device and set it up from scratch. But before you do that, remember to create a backup so you don’t lose your data.

A Complete Guide To Vmware Benefits

Introduction to VMware

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

This software helps us in various domains like security, storage, networking, etc. VMware provides us with various software and products that can be used for different benefits; here, we will see the various benefits of using that product and software for better understanding and usage.

Various VMware Benefits

As we already know, VMware has many benefits, which can be understood by the various product it provides, which adds great help to security networking, storage, and many more areas.

1. Provides virtual desktop infrastructure

One of the benefits of using this is we can use the desktop from anywhere we want. From this, we do not require a full desktop setup in the workplace; we can use VMware Horizon, which allows us to manage and run the Windows desktop from VMware Cloud or AWS. This removes a lot of things for us, like we do not require to manage and set up the full desktop at the workplace. Also, it helps reduce the monitoring and managing of user security and centralizes management. We can use this with two more VMware products, Dynamic Environment Manager and App Volumes, which help us in application delivery and managing the Windows desktop.

2. Provide personal desktop

VMware created this as their first product, enabling users to run or manage virtual machines directly on a single Linux, Windows, or laptop. Using this, we can have a virtual machine inside the physical machine, which can run without causing any issues; in short, it can run parallel or simultaneously. If we talk about virtual machines, they have operating systems such as Linux or Windows. With this, we can even run Windows on the Linux machine and vice versa without worrying about the installed operating system on the machine. The product name VM Workstation enables us to run the virtual machine in the machine; for Mac computers, we have VM Fusion.

3. Provide storage and availability 4. Provide disaster recovery management

VMware benefits also include disaster recovery; for this, it provides us with the Site Recovery Manager, which helps us create the recovery plan, which will be executed automatically in the case of failure. The NSX further integrates with this system to maintain and preserve the security and network on the migrated VMs.

5. Provide the cloud infrastructure

For infrastructure, we have one product from VMware which is known as vSphere, which provide the following points:


vSphere Client


vCenter Server

6. Provide us SDDC platform

SDDC manager helps to integrate various software into a single platform, such as VMware NSX, vSphere, vSAN, etc. So for this, we have VMware cloud foundation, which is a software that helps to bundle this mentioned software by the use of the SDDC platform; now we can deploy this bundle on the private cloud or also have the option to run this bundle within as public cloud but as a service. Admin can do all these tasks; admin also has the provision to the application without the need for storage and network.

7. Provide network and security

As seen above are the main benefits of VM, as we have already seen it provides us with many products which can be used for different purposes as per the need, one of the main things about doing things virtually without carrying the setup at the workplace.

Below are the key points that need to be kept in mind while using the VN product; they provide us with many benefits, but we also have some drawbacks that must be focused on.

Also, there is a lack of support, which means we may encounter several bugs while using the VM product.

Not all things are free; the fees are very high for licensing.

Conclusion – VMware Benefits

As we have already seen so many benefits of VM in this article, we have also seen the different products that provide for different purposes; you can understand and start using them by the above explanation; we have many more things in VM.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to VMware Benefits. Here we discuss the introduction and various VMware benefits for better understanding. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

A Complete Guide To The Jira Versions

Introduction to Jira Versions

Start Your Free Software Development Course

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Different Jira Versions 8.7. X Version

Maintenance of GDPR: This version supports the general data protection policy for the real user of the tool, i.e. the admin has the power to store all data of employees and erase the personal data of employees who left the company.

Support SQL 11: This version Jira tool supports SQL 11 for the database to the server.

Support DataCenter Authentication: This version provides OpenID authentication to the user and supports the datacenter authentication to the JIRA tool user.

8.6. X Version

Handles Version Control: It can handle each modified copy of older version files and copy them into the new Jira instance.

Provide Notification to Outlook:  The company maps the response or notifications into the Outlook mail services in this version. Any task, issue, or work will be transparent to everyone.

Users & Roles Made Easier: In this version, the users and roles section is added reasonably, i.e., adding a resource to a project or assigning a role to the resource will be easier or more noticeable.

Support SQL 10: This version Jira tool supports SQL 10 for the database to the server.

Search by Prefix & Suffix: The search with prefix or suffix name of a task or issue can be possible from this version.

Provides Burnup chart & Edit Sprint: From this version, the Burnup chart (status of task pending) of the task generated, and the team to edit the sprint as per requirement. For this, it keeps the status report.

8.5. X Version

It is one of the stable releases of the Jira tool and an Enterprise edition.

Managed by Mobile App: The team member can manage the tool through authenticated mobile devices from this version.

Support Memory Management: It provides troubleshooting and supporting plugins for JVM garbage collection, i.e., to delete unwanted objects.

Improving Performance: Compared to the previous version, it provides high performance, accessibility, and issue archive.

7.13. X Version

Adopt Java version JDK8: As Oracle stops JDK updates, so Jira 7.13 tool will adopt OpenJDK8. It supports maintenance and security patches.

Improving Performance: As the tool is utilized for performance and regression testing, it showcases a performance improvement compared to the previous version.

7.10. X Version

Produce good GUI: In this version, the Jira tools look and feel changes, i.e., colors, pages, icons, etc., but the navigation remains the same.

History of Projects: This version shows the previous project list to team members to improve the work culture and performance.

Project List Refreshed: The team can refresh the project list or display the ongoing projects, introducing new projects and the project search bar.

Team Workflow: It provides the status report of team workflow by mailing notifications via Outlook or internal conversation through Stride. It shows the full update regarding the project.

7.8. X Version

Support Work Faster: From this version onwards, the quick search option will be added to the Jira tool, so we easily search any project or issue, or task by putting the full name or part of the name in the quick search box. It shows us the most relevant results so the work will be faster.

Add new Language: This version adds the “Dutch” language to the Jira tool.

7.6. X Version

It is also an Enterprise edition of the Jira tool.

Support Java JDK8: When the support from Oracle stops for JDK8, then the Jira tool adopts OpenJDK8 for maintenance and security updates for the tool. It will support both Jira with JDK8 or JRE8.

Introduce Priority: From this version onwards, the JIRA tool introduces the concept of priority to the issue or task, or project. The workflow will move from one level to another, depending on the priority.

Support Live Monitoring: This version of the Jira tool supports the live monitoring of the workflow or status of the project. It is real-time monitoring of the Jira tool to calculate the team’s efficiency.

Support Extra Features: From this version, some features are added to the JIRA tool, like drag and drop, Issue movement between columns, better security, and performance issue.


This article briefly discusses the different versions of the Jira tool with some extreme features. There are so many versions of this tool, but I discuss some Enterprise versions. Now, the modified release of the tool is going on, but in the near future, some enterprise editions will be released with some new features.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Jira Versions. Here we discuss the introduction and the different versions of Jira, respectively. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –

A Complete Guide To The Db2 Version

Introduction to DB2

Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

Later, after 1990, universal database called as UDB which is one of the DB2 server was created after deciding that the product should be able to run on any given authorized operating system such as windows, unix and linux platforms. Here we will see various versions of the DB2 and how it has evolved by adding new functionalities and supporting new programming languages over the period of time.

Various DB2 Versions

Given below are the various DB2 versions:

Version Code Name

Version 3.4 Code language used to create this platform is Cobweb.

Version 8.1, Version 8.2 Code language used to create this platform is Stinger.

Version 9.1 Code language used to create this platform is Viper.

Version 9.5 Code language used to create this platform is Viper 2.

Version 9.7 Code language used to create this platform is Cobra.

Version 9.8 Code language used to create this platform is PureScale.

Version 10.1 Code language used to create this platform is Galileo.

Version 10.5 Code language used to create this platform is Kepler.

To check the version of DB2 on you LUW machine, you can type the following command on the terminal or console:


SELECT fixpack_num, service_level FROM TABLE (sysproc.env_get_inst_info()) as informationOfInstance


1. Viper 2. Viper 2 3. Cobra

IBM came up with a new version called cobra in the month of June in 2009 which is the codename for DB2 9.7 for LUW which introduced new features of temporary tables, compression of data for database indexes and storage of objects which are very large. Cobra also came up with support of various XML data partitioning techniques like range partitioning, hash partitioning and multidimensional clustering. Because of these features one can easily work with XML in environment of data warehousing.

Many additional functionalities for users working with oracle database were also introduced in DB2 which included PL/ SQL syntax, commonly used syntaxes of SQL, scripting syntax and oracle database’s datatypes. Microsoft SQL server and oracle database users find it very familiar for using DB2 because of the exhibition of behavior of concurrency model.

4. Purescale

IBM launched a new DB2 version release in 2009 in the month of October named DB2 purescale which is the cluster database mainly designed for the non-main frame platforms which is mostly suitable for OLTP transactions that is online transaction processing. The design of the DB2 purescale is based on the DB2 data sharing with parallel sysplex on the main frame platforms. The architecture of DB2 purescale is completely fault-tolerant and has the storage of shared disk. This version of DB2 provides automatic load balancing and complete availability which can be extended upto 128 servers of database.

5. Galileo

IBM introduced to a new version of DB2 in early 2012 which was DB2 10.1 and the code name for this version was Galileo which can be used for windows, Linux and Unix platforms. One of the most promising features that became available was fine-level control over the database in which we can restrict the access on row level and column level. Besides this, Galileo came up with lot many new data management capabilities like multi-temperature management of the data which helps in deciding whether the data is hot or cold which means how often the data is accessed and accordingly we can decide the storage of the data. Another feature of Galileo includes the adaptive compression capability.

6. Kepler

IBM announced a new version of DB2 named Kepler in June 2013 which is the code name for DB2 10.5.

7. Other Versions

IBM launched a new version of DB2 distribution system for hadoop in the month of April 2024 to June 2024 which was named as DB2 LUW 11.1. IBM also relaunched a version of DB2 and dashDB in the middle of 2023 year and named them to DB2. An artificial intelligence enabled DB2 version was released by IBM on June 27 in 2023 which introduced many new performance improvements in query building and execution as well as features which can help in creating the applications which are enabled with AI.

Conclusion – DB2 Version Recommended Articles

This is a guide to DB2 Version. Here we discuss the introduction and the various DB2 versions for the better understanding. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

A Complete Guide On Docker For Beginners

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon


It is not difficult to create a machine learning model that operates on our computers. It is more difficult when you are working with a customer who wants to use the model at scale, that is, a model that can scale and perform on all types of servers all over the world. After you have finished designing your model, it may function smoothly on your laptop or server, but not so well on other platforms, such as when you move it to the production stage or a different server. Many things can go wrong, such as performance issues, the application crashing, or the application not being effectively optimized.

Sometimes it is not the model that is the issue but the requirement to recreate the entire stack. Docker enables you to easily replicate the training and running environment for the machine learning model from any location. Docker allows you to package your code and dependencies into containers that can be transferred to different hosts, regardless of hardware or operating system.

Developers can use Docker to keep track of different versions of a container image, see who produced it with what, and roll back to prior versions. Finally, even if one of your machine learning application services is upgrading, fixing, or down, your machine learning application can continue to run. To update an output message integrated throughout the application, you do not have to update the whole application and disrupt other services.

Image 1

Let’s dig in and start investigating Docker.

What is Docker!

It is a software platform that makes developing, executing, managing, and distributing applications easier. That had accomplished by virtualizing the operating system of the computer it had installed.

Docker’s first edition had launched in 2013.

The GO programming language had used for creating Docker.

Looking at the rich set of functionality Docker has got to offer, it’s been widely accepted by some of the world’s leading organizations and universities, such as Visa, PayPal, Cornell University and Indiana University (just to name a few) to run and manage their applications using Docker.

Now we try to understand the problem, and solution offered by Docker


Let us imagine you want to host three separate Python-based applications on a single server (which could either be a physical or a virtual machine). A different version of Python used by these programs, libraries and dependencies varies from application to application.

We are unable to host all three applications on the same workstation since various versions of Python can not be installed on the same machine,


Let’s see what we could do if we didn’t use Docker to tackle this problem. In this case, we might solve the problem with the help of three physical machines or by using a single physical computer that is powerful enough to host and run three virtual machines.

Both approaches would help us install various versions of Python, and their associated dependencies, on each of these machines.

Regardless of which solution we chose, the costs of purchasing and maintaining the hardware are substantial.

Let’s look at how Docker might be a viable and cost-effective solution to this issue.

To comprehend this, we must first examine it’s functionality.

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In simple terms, the system with Docker installed and running is referred to as a Docker Host or Host.

As a result, anytime you want to deploy an application on the host, it will build a logical entity to host that application. This logical object is known as a Container or a Docker Container in the Docker nomenclature.

There is no operating system installed or running on a Docker Container. However, a virtual replica of the process table, network interface(s), and file system mount point would be included (s).

It is passed further from the host operating system on which the container is hosted and executing. The kernel of the host’s operating system, on the other hand, is shared by all the containers executing on it.

It allows each container on the same host to be isolated from the others. As a result, it helps numerous containers with varied application requirements and dependencies to run on the same host as long as the operating system requirements are the same.

In other words, rather than virtualizing hardware components, Docker would virtualize the operating system of the host on which it had installed and running.

Pros and Cons of using Docker

Docker allows numerous programs with varied requirements and dependencies to be hosted on the same host as long as they use the same operating system.

Containers are typically a few megabytes in size and occupy relatively little disc space, allowing many applications hosted on the same host.

Robustness, There is no operating system installed on a container. As a result, it uses extremely little memory when compared to a virtual machine (which would have a complete operating system installed and running on it). It cuts the bootup time to only a few seconds, whereas it takes several minutes to start a virtual machine.

Cost is less when it comes to the hardware necessary to run Docker, and it is less demanding.

On the same Docker Host, we can not host applications together that have various operating system needs. Let’s pretend we have four separate programs, three of which require a Linux-based operating system and one of which requires a Windows-based operating system. The three apps that require a Linux-based OS can be on a single Docker Host. The application that requires a Windows-based OS must be on a separate Docker Host.

Docker Core Components

Docker Engine is one of the core components and is responsible for overall functioning.

It is a client-server based application with three main components.


Rest API


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The Server executes the dockerd (Docker Daemon) daemon, which is nothing more than a process. On the Docker platform, it is in charge of creating and managing Docker Images, Containers, Networks, and Volumes.

The REST API defines how applications can interface with server and tell it how to complete their tasks.

The Client is a command-line interface that allows users to communicate with Docker by issuing commands.

Docker Terminologies

Let’s have a look at some of the terms used in the Docker world.

Docker Images and Docker Containers are the two most key items you’ll encounter while working with Docker regularly.

In simple terms, a Docker Image is a template that includes the program, dependencies needed to run it on Docker.

A Docker Container, on the other hand, is a logical entity, as previously indicated. It is a functioning instance of the Docker Image in more technical terms.

Docker Hub

Docker Hub is the official online repository where we can find all of the Docker Images that we can use.

If we like, we can also use Docker Hub to store and distribute our custom images. We could also make them public or private, depending on our needs.

Note: Free users can keep one Docker Image private. More than one requires a paid subscription.


Before we get our hands dirty with Docker, one last thing we need to know is that we need to have it installed.

The official Docker CE installation directions are linked below. These instructions for installing Docker on your PC are straightforward.

Do you wish to skip installation and start practicing Docker? 

If you’re too slow to install Docker or don’t have enough resources on your PC, don’t panic – there’s a solution to your problem.

Play with Docker, an online playground for Docker, is the best place to start. It enables users to immediately practice Docker commands without the need to install anything on their PC. The best part is that it’s easy to use and completely free.

Docker Commands

It’s finally time to get our hands dirty with Docker commands, as we’ve all been waiting for

docker create

The docker create command will be the first command we’ll look at

We can use this command to build a new container.

The following is the syntax for this command:

docker create [options] IMAGE [commands] [arguments]

Please keep in mind that everything placed in square brackets is optional. It holds for all of the instructions presented in this guide.

The following are some examples of how to use this command:

$ docker create fedora 02576e880a2ccbb4ce5c51032ea3b3bb8316e5b626861fc87d28627c810af03

The docker create command in the preceding example would create a new container using the most recent Fedora image.

It will verify if the latest official Fedora image is available on the Docker Host before building the container. If the most recent image isn’t accessible on the Docker Host, the container had initiated using the Fedora image downloaded from the Docker Hub. If the Fedora image is already present on the Docker Host, the container uses that image for creation.

Docker results in the container ID on successful creation of the container. The container ID returned by Docker is in the above example.

A container ID had assigned to each container. When executing various activities on the container, such as starting, stopping, resuming, and so on, we refer to it by its container ID.

Let’s look at another example of the docker create command, this time with parameters and command supplied to it.

$ docker create -t -i ubuntu bash 30986b73dc0022dbba81648d9e35e6e866b4356f026e75660460c3474f1ca005

The docker create command in the preceding example builds a container using the Ubuntu image (if the image isn’t available on the Docker Host, it will download the most recent image from the Docker Hub before building the container).

The -t and -i options tell Docker to assign a terminal to the container so that the user can interact with it. It also tells Docker to run the bash command every time the container starts.

docker ps

The docker ps command is the next we’ll look at

We can use the docker ps command to see all the containers currently executing on the Docker Host.

$ docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES30986b73dc00 ubuntu "bash" 45 minutes ago Up About a minute elated_franklin

It only shows the containers that are running on the Docker Host right now.

To view the containers created on this Docker host, regardless of their current condition, whether it is running or not, you must use the -a option, which lists all containers created on this Docker Host.

$ docker ps -a CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES30986b73dc00 ubuntu “bash” About an hour ago Up 29 minutes elated_franklin02576e880a2c fedora “/bin/bash” About an hour ago Created hungry_sinoussi

Let us understand the above output of the docker ps command.

CONTAINER ID: consists of a unique string with alphanumeric characters connected with each container.

IMAGE: Docker Image used to create the container.

COMMAND: After the start of the container, it runs any application-specific commands.

CREATED: It provides the elapsed time since the creation of the container.

STATUS: It provides the current status of the container.

If the container is running, it will display Up along with time elapsed. (Up About an hour or Up 5 minutes)

If the container is not running, the status will be Exited, with the exit status code enclosed in round brackets and the time expired. (Exited (0) 2 weeks ago or Exited (137) 10 seconds ago,)

PORTS: It provides port mappings described for the container.

NAMES: In addition to the CONTAINER ID, each container had given a unique name. A container can be identified by its container ID or by its unique name. Each container Docker generates and assigns a unique name by default. If you wish to change the container to a unique name, use the  –name option with the docker create or docker run commands.

I hope this helps you better grasp what the docker ps command returns.

docker start

The command helps to start any stopped containers.

docker start [options] CONTAINER ID/NAME [CONTAINER ID/NAME…]

To start the container, you can specify the first unique characters of the container ID or its name.

Below you can look at the example.

$ docker start 30986 $ docker start elated_franklin

docker restart

The command helps to restart any running containers.

docker restart [options] CONTAINER ID/NAME [CONTAINER ID/NAME…]

Similarly, we can restart by specifying the first unique characters of the container ID or its name.

Look at the examples using this command

$ docker restart 30986 $ docker restart elated_franklin

docker stop

The command helps to stop any running containers.

docker stop [options] CONTAINER ID/NAME [CONTAINER ID/NAME…]

It is related to the start command.

You can specify the first unique characters of the container ID or its name to stop the container.

Have a look at the below examples

$ docker stop 30986 $ docker stop elated_franklin

docker run

It first creates the container and then starts it. In summary, it is a combination of the docker create and start commands.

It has a similar syntax to docker create.

docker run [options] IMAGE [commands] [arguments] $ docker run ubuntu 30fa018c72682d78cf168626b5e6138bb3b3ae23015c5ec4bbcc2a088e67520

In the above example, it creates a container using the latest Ubuntu image and starts the container, and immediately stops it. We can not get a chance to interact with it.

To interact with the container, we need to specify the options -it to the docker run command, then we can interact with the container.

$ docker run -it ubuntu

Type exit in the terminal to come out of the container.

docker rm

We use this command to delete a container.

docker rm [options] CONTAINER ID/NAME [CONTAINER ID/NAME...] $ docker rm 30fa elated_franklin

In the above example, we are instructing docker to delete two containers in a single command. We specify the ID for the first and the name for the second container for deletion.

The container should be in a stopped state to delete it.

docker images

The command lists out all docker images present on the docker host.

$ docker images

REPOSITORY: It describes the unique name of the docker image.

TAG: Each image is associated with a unique tag that represents a version of the image.

A tag had represented using a word or set of numbers or alphanumeric characters.

IMAGE: It is a string of alphanumeric characters associated with each image.

CREATED: It provides elapsed time since the image had been created.

SIZE: It provides the size of the image.

docker rmi

This command allows us to remove images from the docker host.

docker rmi [options] IMAGE NAME/ID [IMAGE NAME/ID...] docker rmi mysql

The command removes image mysql from the docker host.

The below command removes the image with ID 94e81 from the docker host.

docker rmi 94e81

The below command removes image ubuntu with tag trusty.

docker rmi ubuntu:trusty

These are some of the basic commands you come across. There are numerous other instructions to explore.

Wind Up

Although containerization has been around for a long time, it has only recently received the attention it deserves. Google, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Intel, Tesla are just a few leading tech businesses with their specialized container engines. They rely significantly on them to develop, run, administer, and distribute their software.

Docker is an extremely powerful containerization engine, and it has a lot to offer when it comes to building, running, managing and distributing your applications efficiently.

You had seen docker at a high level. There is a lot to study about docker, like

Commands(More powerful commands)

Docker Images are a type of container (Build your custom images)

Networking with Docker (Setup and configure networking)

Stack of Docker (Grouping services required by an application)

Docker Compose is a tool that allows you to create a container (Tool for managing and running multiple containers)

Swarm of Dockers (Grouping and managing one or more machines on which docker is running)

If you’ve found this fascinating and want to learn more about it, I recommend enrolling in one of the courses listed below. They were educational and right to the point, in my opinion.

If you are a complete beginner, I recommend enrolling in this course, which has been prepared specifically for you.

Investing your time and money into studying Docker is not something you will regret.

End Notes

I hope you find this article helpful. Please feel free to share it. Thank you, have a great day.

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