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Introduction to PHP base64_encode

The following article provides an outline for PHP base64_encode. The Base64_encode method is used to encode our data. When we use the base64_encode method in the program, we convert them into a sequence of bytes and then convert it to the text of string in PHP. Base64_encode method works in the same way as it does in other programming languages main purpose of this method is that it is used to encode our data as a part of Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. The base64_encode method takes one parameter, and it is our string that we want to encode while passing.

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As we saw, this method takes only one parameter as the input. We can pass our string which we want to encode in base64 format.

string base64_encode( $your_data )

As we can see above, we can pass our data inside this method as a parameter. This takes only one parameter as the input here.

Now we can see one practice syntax to know it better:

Example:

string base64_encode( "hello just syntax " ) How base64_encode Method work in PHP?

As of now, we know that this method is used to encode our data into a sequence of bytes. This method used where we want to hide our secrets over the network. We can define our own encoding method also. This will be useful where we have some keys or secrets exposing to the network. So we can encode our data by using the base64_encode method in PHP to protect them as well. This will simply be the sequence o the bytes here that can be again converted into the text of string while decoding it.

Byte the use of this, there are very few changes that our message will get corrupted by the system, original string or data will be safe, and we can easily decode them at the other side by using any decoding mechanism for this. Encoding styles are highly recommending in the programming language when needed. We can easily encode image as well and send them over the network using any XML or JSON file. base64 encode method allows us to easily bind the binary data as Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.

We will now see the method signature, how it works, and how many parameters it takes in detail.

Method signature

So let’s have a look at the method signature:

Signature:

string base64_encode($your_data)

Return Type

As of now, we see that the return type for this method is written as a string here. So this will return a string of base64. This will return False if the method is not able to encode the given string provided; otherwise, it will return string on successful execution of the method.

Parameter

Example:

Code:

<?php $mystr = 'Sample string to encode'; echo base64_encode($mystring);

In the above lines of code, we define a string that we are trying to convert into base64 encoding. So first, we have created one string named as ‘mystr’; after this, we have called the base64_encode method and passed this parameter inside this method. So it will convert the existing string into encode base64. This will generate some sequence of characters that can be easily decoded by using some method in PHP.

Some points we need to keep in mind while working with the base64_encode method:

This is the in-build method provided by PHP.

This method will generate a sequence of character for a particular string in PHP.

An encoded string of data can be again converted back into the string of text.

By using this, we can encode images and place them in an XML or JSON.

By the use of base64 encoding, we can encode our secrets and keys, which we do not to get corrupt by anything. Hence the original message will be remaining the same.

Advantage:

By the use of the base6_ encode method, we can end binary data.

When we convert or encode the data by using the base64_encode method, it occupies more space in the memory than usual. It will increase the memory space for the data by 33 percent.

Examples of PHP base64_encode

Given below are the examples of PHP base64_encode:

Example #1

Code:

<?php $mystr1 = 'Hello i am example one to encode string to base64 in PHP.!!'; $myencode1 = base64_encode($mystr1); echo $myencode1. "n"; $mystr2 = 'Hello i am example two to encode string to base64 in PHP.!!'; $myencode2 = base64_encode($mystr2); echo $myencode2. "n"; $mystr3 = 'Hello i am example three to encode string to base64 in PHP.!!'; $myencode3 = base64_encode($mystr3); echo $myencode3. "n";

Output:

Example #2

In this example, we are encoding empty string, some string integer and black space to see how they look after being encoded.

Code:

<?php $mystr1 = '100200, 300 , 500, 600'; $myencode1 = base64_encode($mystr1); echo $myencode1. "n"; $mystr2 = '  '; $myencode2 = base64_encode($mystr2); echo $myencode2. "n"; $mystr3 = 'I am not empty '; $myencode3 = base64_encode($mystr3); echo $myencode3. "n";

Output:

Conclusion

By the use of the base64_encode method, we can encode our data and send the binary data over the network using email attachments. This encoding will generate the sequence of characters or bytes for us. Then this can be converted back into the original message.

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How After() Method Works In Tkinter? ( Syntax, Example )

Introduction to Tkinter after

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Syntax

from tkinter import Tk from chúng tôi import Button variablename =functionName() variablename.after(time(if it’s in delay status or not),callback)

In the above code, we used first to import the specific libraries, and we declared one variable name with the specific function. If it is in delay, then it will be executed at another time interval.

How does it Work?

The after() method also calls all the widgets of the Python apps. It will be supported on multiple OS like Windows, Linux, etc. It is a standard library also; we can create desktop-based applications using Python Tkinter also; it’s not a complex task. We can use the Tkinter basic widgets like “Button,Canvas,Checkbutton,Frame,Label,Listbox,Menu,Message,Radiobutton,Text, etc” These widgets are mostly covered in the UI part, and these widget packages utilize the method called after() in all the widgets. Mostly time-related logic has been covered, and the multi-threading applications are also the most important part of this particular method in the library. It has separate modules, and it has its own interface.

Examples of Tkinter after

Lets us discuss the examples.

Example 1 from tkinter import * from time import time from chúng tôi import Button demos= Tk() b = Button(demos, text = 'Welcome To My Domain') b.pack(pady = 77,side = TOP) pink = Button(demos, text = "pink") pink.pack( side = TOP) green = Button(demos, text = "green") green.pack( side = BOTTOM ) violet = Button(demos, text = "violet") violet.pack( side = LEFT ) yellow = Button(demos, text = "yellow") yellow.pack( side = RIGHT) print('The Tk Widget is running on the screen...') startingtime = time() demos.after(200000, demos.destroy) demos.mainloop() endingtime = time() print('The Tk Widget is closed after % d seconds' % (endingtime-startingtime)) Example 2 from tkinter import * user = Tk() uname = Label(user,text = "uname").grid(row =0, column = 0) un= Entry(user).grid(row = 0, column = 0) passw = Label(user,text = "pass").grid(row = 1, column = 1) ps = Entry(user).grid(row = 1, column = 1) result = Button(user, text = "submit").grid(row = 3, column = 3) user.mainloop() try: import tkinter as tk except ImportError: import Tkinter as tk class Timer: def __init__(first, second): first.seconds = 1 first.label = tk.Label(second, text="1s", font="Arial 25", width=17) first.label.pack() first.label.after(3000, first.demo) def demo(first): first.seconds += 1 first.label.configure(text="%i s" % first.seconds) first.label.after(2000, first.demo) if __name__ == "__main__": demos = tk.Tk() tme = Timer(demos) demos.mainloop()

Output:

Example 3 from tkinter import Tk, mainloop, TOP from chúng tôi import Button from tkinter.messagebox import _show sample = Tk() btn = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') btn.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) b2 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b2.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) b3 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b3.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) b4 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b4.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) sample.after(3400, lambda : _show('user', 'Have a Nice Day')) sample.after(5400, sample.destroy) btn.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) b5 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b5.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) b6 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b6.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) b7 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b7.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) mainloop() b8 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b8.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) b9 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b9.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) b10 = Button(sample, text = 'Welcome To my Domain') b10.pack(side = TOP, pady = 7) mainloop()

Output:

Conclusion

The after() method is a function available in the Tkinter library of Python that allows the creation of various GUI presentations. Tkinter is a popular library for building graphical user interfaces (GUIs) in Python. It provides a user-friendly approach to GUI development. Likewise, the Python library has default methods to create UI widgets in desktop and web-based applications.

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How Byte Types Work In Scala? Examples

Introduction to Scala Byte

Scala Byte contains 8-bit like any other programming language. Scala byte is a member of the value class, and this scala byte is equal to the java byte primitive type. In Scala, we cannot represent an instance of a byte as an object. In scala this byte is implicitly converted from byte to rich byte internally because, after conversion, it provides us some useful nonprimitive operations on it. Byte is basically an 8-bit signed integer, and also, scala byte is different from int data type.

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Syntax:

varvariable_name: Byte = value _of_variable

In the above syntax, we need to provide the variable name followed by the type of the variable. In our case, we have defined Byte as the data type for it. After that data type, we can assign value to the variable created.

How do Byte Types work in Scala?

But in general, language how it looks like we can see below:

1 Byte = 8-bit

We can say that it is a collection of 8-bit. These 8 bits represent in the form of 0 and 1. Also, it is the smallest unit of storage in the computer system. So we can say that a byte is a group of bits to store information.

For example, they look like:

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 representation in 0 and 1 format.

Now we can have a look at its hierarchy, extended class, supertupes:

Hierarchy:

Anyval

lang.Byte

RichByte

Double

Float

Long

Extends and super classes:

Anyval

Any

Example:

One simple program to know workings of scale.

Code:

object Main extends App{ valbyteResult = (20.toByte).^(2:Byte) println("now the result is  :: " + byteResult) }

We are defining a byte into our main function, followed by the methods that convert the value passed of bitwise XOR. Just holding this to our result variable to show the output. In Byte, we have an overflow problem which is related to the range of the byte. Scala byte ranges from -128 to 127. So if the range exceeds the mentioned range, it will start an overflow of bytes, and the reminder byte will display in the output.

KiloByteKB: This KB is measured and equal to 1024 bytes.

MegaByteMB: This MB is measured and equal to 1,048,576 bytes.

Gigabyte YB: This GB is measured and equal to 1,000 MB, or we can convert it into bytes of 1,073,741,824 bytes.

TeraByteTB: This TB is measured and equal to 1,000 GB, or we can convert it to a byte of 1,000,000,000,000 bytes.

We can measure the byte multiple for this. We have two systems i.e. base-10 or base-2.

Examples of Scala Byte

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 10 varb : Byte = 20 println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Example #2

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 10 varb : Byte = 20 valbyteResult = (a.toByte).<(b:Byte) println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 20 varb : Byte = 20 valbyteResult = (a.toByte).<=(b:Byte) println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Example #4 object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 20 varb : Byte = 20 valbyteResult = (a.toByte).==(b:Byte) println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Example #5

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 20 varb : Byte = 20 valbyteResult = (a.toByte).!=(b:Byte) println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Example #6

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 20 varb : Byte = 20 println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Conclusion

So scala byte is like any other byte in a computer system or, we can say, in a programming language. One byte can be formed by using a collection of 8 bites or a group of 8 bits. We also have different types of bytes, which possess different memory storage accordingly. It also gave us various methods to work with it.

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How Does Meshgrid Function Work In Numpy?

Definition of NumPy Meshgrid

In Python, meshgrid is a function that creates a rectangular grid out of 2 given 1-dimensional arrays that denote the Matrix or Cartesian indexing. MATLAB inspires it. This meshgrid function is provided by the module numpy. Coordinate matrices are returned from the coordinate vectors. In this, we will discuss more about meshgrid function in detail.

Syntax

Below is the syntax of meshgrid function in numpy.

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numpy.meshgrid(*xi, **kwargs)

1. x1, x2,…, xn

Required parameter

The parameter denotes the coordinates of the grids in the 1-D arrays.

2. indexing

Optional parameter

The parameter denotes the cartesian(‘xy’, default) or matrix indexing of the result.

3. Sparse

Optional parameter

Takes Boolean value

A sparse grid is returned for conserving memory if ‘True’ is passed.

Default value: False

4. Copy

Optional parameter

Takes Boolean value.

The original array’s view is returned for conserving memory if ‘false is passed.

Default value: False

If the parameters sparse and copy are set to False, non-contiguous arrays will be returned. Moreover, 1 or more elements of a broadcast array can point to a single memory location. Copies of the arrays have to be made first if writing has to be done into the arrays. The return value is Length of the coordinate from the coordinate vectors.

How does Meshgrid Function Work in NumPy?

In order to understand the working of meshgrid function in numpy, let us see an example.

Steps for creating meshgrid:

Import the module numpy.

importnumpy as np

Create two variables.

n1, n2 = (5, 3)

Create two arrays

a = np.linspace(0, 1, n1) b = np.linspace(0, 1, n2)

Call the meshgrid function with the arrays as parameters.

aa, bb = np.meshgrid(a, b)

Display the result

print(aa) print(bb) Examples of NumPy Meshgrid

Let us see some sample programs of meshgrid function.

Example #1

Python program to print the meshgrid coordinates of two arrays.

Code:

import numpy as np n1, n2 = (5, 3) a = np.linspace(0, 1, n1) b = np.linspace(0, 1, n2) aa, bb = np.meshgrid(a, b) print(aa) print(bb)

Output:

To execute this program, it is necessary to import the numpy module using the alias “np”. The code begins by creating two variables, “n1” and “n2”, and assigning them the values 5 and 3, respectively. The program imports the “numpy” module with the alias “np” and uses the linspace() function to create two arrays, “a” and “b”. The meshgrid() function is then called with the arrays “a” and “b” as arguments, and the resulting output is stored in the variables “aa” and “bb”. The values of “aa” and “bb” are printed. Two arrays containing the lengths and vectors of coordinates will be shown after the code is executed. Plotting functions within the given coordinate range is possible using these coordinate values.

Example #2

Python program to print the meshgrid coordinates of two arrays that are between specified values.

Code:

import numpy as np l = np.linspace(-7, -1, 9) k = np.linspace(-6, -2, 11) x1, y1 = np.meshgrid(l, k) print("x1 is : ") print(x1) print("y1 is : ") print(y1)

Output:

In this program, also,numpy modules have to be imported with any alias name. The alias name in this program is np. The program starts by creating two arrays, “l” and “k”, using the “linspace()” function. Then, two variables, “x1” and “y1”, are assigned the return value of the “meshgrid()” function, which takes the arrays “l” and “k” as inputs. The program then prints the values of “x1” and “y1”. When executed, the program displays two arrays containing coordinate lengths and coordinate vectors.

Example #3

Python program to print the meshgrid coordinates of two arrays where sparse is true.

Code:

import numpy as np n1, n2 = (5, 3) l = np.linspace(0, 1, n1) k = np.linspace(0, 1, n2) aa, bb = np.meshgrid(l, k, sparse=True) print(aa) print(bb)

To execute this program, you need to import the “numpy” module using the alias “np”. Create two variables named “n1” and “n2” with the values 5 and 3, respectively. Generate two arrays, “l” and “k”, using the “linspace()” function. Assign the return value of “meshgrid()” to the variables “x1” and “y1”. The “sparse” variable is set to True in order to conserve memory. Pass the “sparse” value along with the arrays “l” and “k” to the function. Finally, print the values of “x1” and “y1”. The format of these arrays may differ from the previous programs.

Example #4

Python program to print the meshgrid coordinates of two arrays and display contour lines.

Code:

import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt n = np.arange( -5, 5, 0.1 ) m = np.arange( -5, 5, 0.1 ) x, y = np.meshgrid( n, m, sparse=True ) c = chúng tôi x**2+ y**2  ) / ( x**2 + y**2 ) z = plt.contourf( n, m, c ) plt.show()

Output:

To run the program, import the “numpy” module with the alias “np”. Create two arrays, “n” and “m”, using the “arange()” function. Assign the return value of the “meshgrid()” function to the variables “x” and “y”. Set the variable “sparse” to True. Pass the arrays “n” and “m” along with the “sparse” value to the function. Declare a variable “z” and assign the return value of the “np.sin()” function to it. Finally, use the “plt.contourf()” function to plot the contour lines and filled contours.

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How To Install Snapchat On Pc (Working Method)

Among the score of social media apps, Snapchat is quite unique for its disappearing messages and funky content creation tools. In addition, you can’t take screenshots on Snapchat without notifying the sender which adds an extra layer of security. However, unlike Facebook and Twitter, Snapchat cannot be used on desktop, and that is a big problem for its ardent fans. That being said, running Snapchat on PC may be hard, but it’s not impossible. So in this article, we take a look at all the various methods to install Snapchat on PC. We have talked about Android emulators and other possible ways to use Snapchat on PC. So without further ado, let’s go through the article and learn about the installation steps in detail.

Install and Use Snapchat on PC in 2023

Earlier, there was a surefire way to run Snapchat on PC by using the BlueStacks emulator. However, recently Snapchat updated its app to block emulators and now BlueStacks is unable to run the app. Sure, you can install the app successfully, but you won’t be able to log in as the app crashes thereafter. There is another emulator called Andy Android which somehow bypasses the detection by Snapchat, but there are some major concerns with this emulator. Many reports suggest that Andy Android emulator drops a bitcoin miner on your system which runs in the background and eats up GPU resources. So frankly, I would not really recommend this emulator. However, if you have an urgent need to use Snapchat on your PC then you can give it a try, but again tread with caution.

3. Now, download Snapchat just like any other app from the Play Store. After the installation, sign in to your Snapchat account and you will be able to move past the log in screen.

4. Now, you can use Snapchat on your PC, but there are some limitations. You can’t use the camera functionality and sometimes the app freezes up. Anyway, head over to our article and learn cool Snapchat tricks so you remain on top of your Snapchat game.

Other Ways to Use Snapchat on PC

If you don’t want to use the Andy emulator then you can give a try at other Android emulators on your PC. We have curated a list of safe-to-use Android emulators so go through that and try out LD Player, Nox, MEMU, etc. on your computer. The installation process is similar to the above method. Apart from that, if you want a foolproof method for running Snapchat on PC then you will have to install Chrome OS on PC which brings Android app support. We recently wrote a detailed article on how to install Chrome OS on PC with Play Store support so go through that. However, bear in mind, you will have to fully move to Chrome OS from Windows which is quite a task. But on the other hand, you get all the features like DM, stories, camera and more without any performance issues.

Enjoy Snapchat on PC With Some Restrictions

How Reduce Function Work In Scala With Examples

Introduction to Scala reduce Function

Scala reduces functions to reduce the collection data structure in Scala. This function can be applied for both mutable and immutable collection data structures. Mutable objects are those whose values change frequently, whereas immutable objects are those objects that one assign cannot change itself. Reduce function can be applied to map, sequence, set, list, etc. This function returns a single value from the collection data structure. In reducing function, it merges all the values from the collection data structure and returns on a single value.

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Syntax

Below is the syntax of Scala reduce:

Explanation: In the above syntax, we have prepared one collection followed by the reduced function. It takes two parameters on which we can perform our operation. At last, we will obtain one value as output.

How does reduce Function work in Scala?

Reduce function reduces the number of elements in the collection data structure. What it does internally is it uses binary operation and merges all the available elements into one single element. We can see how it works internally. Suppose we have one list of elements like 3, 7, 9, 2, 1, 5. Now we will apply to reduce function to generate a single number after adding all the numbers from the list.

1. First, it will take the first element 3. Then it will apply a binary operation on the first and second numbers and merge them to generate the third number.

Now we can have a look at one practical example for beginners for more understanding:

Code:

object Main extends App{ val collection = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) }

Explanation: In this example, we create one collection data structure list. After that, we apply to reduce function on the list to try to find out the max element from the list of elements. This will also return as a single value from the list of elements.

Extended class:

AbstractIterable[(K, V)]

Map[K, V]

Some of the supertype:

Map

Equals

MapFactoryDefaults

MapOps

PartialFunction

AbstractIterable

Iterable

IterableFactoryDefault

IterableOps

IterableOnceOps

IterableOnceOps

Some known classes:

TrieMap

AbstractMap

HashMap

IntMap

ListMap

Longman

Map1

Map2

Map3

Map4

withDefault

TreeMap

TrrSeqMap

VectorMap

AbstractMap

AnyRefMap

CollisionProofHashMap

LinkedHashMap

LongMap

WithDefault

SystemProperties

ListMap

OpenHashMap

reduceLeft

reduceRight

reception

reduceRightOPtion

reduceLeftOPtion

Examples to Implement Scala reduce

Below are the examples mentioned :

Example #1

In this example, we find out the sum of all elements present in the collection data structure using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example, we find out the subtraction of all elements present in the collection data structure using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Output:

Example #3

In this example, we are finding out the multiplication of all elements present into the collection data structure by using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Example #4

In this example, we find out the division of all elements present in the collection data structure using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Output:

Example #5

In this example, we are finding out the minimum of all elements present in the collection data structure by using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Output:

Conclusion

Scala reduces function is used to perform the binary operation on the collection elements. We can perform so many types of operations. Also, we can find the maximum and minimum values from the collection using the reduce function. Always remember this reduction will always return a single value as the output of the logic because it will merge all the values from the collection.

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