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Introduction to Bootstrap Responsive

Developing responsive websites is mandatory to present user requirements. People can access websites from anywhere and accessed them from different devices like mobile, PC, Notepad, etc. Even Google has considered a point of emphasizing how these responsive websites play an important role in web design. Designing or developing responsive websites from scratch becomes very difficult for beginners. So, Web developers come up with different technologies HTML5, CSS 3, and bootstrap. Among these 3, bootstraps are more responsive because of capable of dealing with jQuery, JavaFX, and CSS in a single bundle by including libraries. However, the people who aren’t ready to deal with cutting edge layout techniques still, the Bootstrap grid is providing an excellent opportunity alternatively.

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What does “Responsive Bootstrap Website” Means?

The first and foremost thing coming to mind is what exactly the word “Responsive Design” is. Is responsive web design compatible with all different kinds of devices and different screen resolutions? The answer is Yes. For this, we can use bootstrap technology.

Nowadays, responsive websites’ need is much more constant because of different devices and different screen sizes. It is very difficult to develop the same web page multiples times for multiple screen sizes. There we come across an idea of “Responsive Web Design”.

We can include CSS3 and HTML5 in bootstrap. We can develop “Responsive Web pages” in fewer times because of pre-defined libraries.

Advantages of Bootstrap

Multiple devices and multiple screen types can able to access the content.

Better readability and beautiful User Interface by adding pre-defined libraries.

How can we get a Responsive Website in Bootstrap?

1. While designing responsive pages in bootstrap, “Setting the Viewport” is important.

2. While designing responsive pages in bootstrap Media Queries, we can define different-different styles for different-different browser sizes.

Syntax:

@media screen and (min-width:value){ }

Syntax:

4. Include the bootstrap feature in our application; we must specify some pre-defined libraries inside our application. They are

Includes bootstrap view

Includes ajax and jQuery libraries

Includes bootstrap libraries

Includes bootstrap libraries

Examples of Bootstrap Responsive

Given below are the examples of Bootstrap Responsive:

Example #1

Responsive content example

Bootstrap Code: ResponsiveContent.html

<link rel=”stylesheet” <script <script <script h2 { color:green; } h3 { color:brown; } full-stack web development projects, with an emphasis on front end features, browser manipulation, and cross-browser compatibility. Wrote templates and front-end code for ECM app to meet WebTop application compatibility. Assisted in development of back end features in Spring MVC with Hibernate. Developed importing models full-stack web development projects, with an emphasis on front end features, browser manipulation, and cross-browser compatibility. Wrote templates and front-end code for ECM app to meet WebTop application compatibility. Assisted in development of back end features in Spring MVC with Hibernate. Developed importing models

Output:

Screenshot #1

Screenshot #2

Screenshot #3

You can see in the output screenshot #1 is not resized, and screenshot #2 is resized, then page content is also automatically resized.

Screenshot #3 further resized, then content further resized with the scroll bar.

This way, we can achieve responsive features in bootstrap.

Example #2

Responsive navigation example.

Bootstrap Code: ResponsiveNavigation.html

<script <link rel=”stylesheet” <script h2 { color: green; } h3 { color: brown; } <!– pre-definedalignnone wp-image-309143 size-full” src=”” alt=”Navigation.html” width=”631″ height=”166″>

Screenshot #2

Screenshot #3

Explanation:

You can see in the output screenshot #1 is not resized, and screenshot #2 is resized, then page content and the navigation bar is also automatically resized.

Screenshot #3 further resized, then the content and navigation bar further resized with the scroll bar.

This way, we can achieve responsive features in bootstrap.

Example #3

Bootstrap Code: ResponsiveImage.html

<link rel=”stylesheet” <script <script

Output:

Screenshot #1

Screenshot #2

Screenshot #3

Explanation:

You can see in the output screenshot #1 is not resized, and screenshot #2 is resized, then page content and images are also automatically resized.

Screenshot #3 is further resized, and then the content and images are further resized with the scroll bar.

This way, we can achieve responsive features in bootstrap.

Conclusion

Bootstrap is a very flexible web technology to develop responsive pages in less time with its all predefined classes and libraries.

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Can A Classic Thought Experiment Explain How We Elected Trump?

In 2008, Barack Obama won the presidential election with 69.5 million votes, and in 2012, he pulled in a less impressive (but nonetheless sufficient) 65.9 million. In this year’s election, far fewer voters cast their ballots for either major party: Donald Trump won the electoral college and the presidency with a mere 59.3 million votes, losing the popular vote to Hillary Clinton’s 59.5 million. [Note: These numbers are as of noon on Wednesday, with 98 percent of reported votes in.] The low numbers are surprising given that the number of registered voters reached a record 200 million in 2024, with most of the new voters registered as Democrats. The fact that they didn’t turn out in high numbers contributed to Trump’s win.

With high stakes in this election—most Americans had a historically low opinion of Trump and even considered him unfit to be president—pundits expected that the average American would want to defeat the Republican nominee. And the only way to do so, realistically, was to vote for Clinton. But millions of voters chose not to, instead staying home or selecting write-in or third-party candidates. Why?

The trolley problem might explain this voter behavior. In the classic thought experiment, a trolley is barreling down its track, about to hit a group of five people. You have access to a lever that can redirect the trolley to another track, saving the group of five but dooming a single person on the second track. The problem forces you to choose between taking action and killing one person or remaining inactive and letting five die—it pits your personal morality (“I don’t kill people”) against a cold, Spock-ian assessment of the greater good (“I should save as many people as possible”).

Faced with a standard trolley problem, about 90 percent of people will choose the greater good, pulling the switch and saving the larger number of people. This changes, however, when feelings get involved. When they were given scenarios with strong imagery or emotions—they saw the victims clearly or one of them was a relative—participants were more likely to fall back on their personal morality and let the larger group perish.

Which brings us back to 2024’s incredibly emotional election. Third-party voters often phrase their decision as a moral choice: They don’t want one candidate to win, but they “can’t bring themselves” to vote for the other. (Clinton also had a low favorability rating going into this election, although it wasn’t as low as Trump’s.) That mindset turned this year’s election into a type of trolley problem: Voters knew that a Trump win would harm women, minorities, immigrants, members of the LGBTQ community, and others. However, to “save” these marginalized groups, they would have had to take action, transgressing their personal ethics to vote for a candidate they disliked or even distrusted.

The fact that millions of Americans instead chose to protect their moral self-image and do nothing suggests that their emotions won out over logic. For these voters, the ballot was a personal ethical decision rather than a means to an end.

How To Use Figma Ai Website Builder To Create Stunning Website In Minutes

Figma is a popular design tool that allows users to build stunning websites, applications, and other digital goods. Figma just developed an AI website builder, making it even easier to design attractive and professional websites without any coding experience.

In this article, we will show you how to use Figma AI Website Builder to create your own stunning website in minutes.

Figma AI Website Builder

Figma AI Website Builder is a Figma plugin that lets users design websites with artificial intelligence (AI). The plugin use artificial intelligence to build a website design based on user input such as the website’s purpose, target audience, and desired style. The generated design may then be customized to the user’s satisfaction and exported to code.

Although Figma AI Website Builder is a new technology, it has already been used to generate a range of websites such as personal portfolios, commercial websites, and landing pages. The plugin is free to use for personal projects, but commercial use requires a paid membership.

How to Install the Figma AI Website Builder Plugin?

The Figma workspace will open.

Navigate to the “Generate with AI” tab.

How to Generate a Website Design with AI?

How to Customize your Website Design?

Generate a design with Figma AI. You can use the chúng tôi Figma plugin or the Ando AI Copilot for Designers plugin to generate a design based on your prompts.

Drag and drop your own images onto the design to add them. The photos can also be resized and repositioned.

To alter the colors of a design element, select it and then use the color picker to select a new color.

Drag and drop design components to new spots to rearrange chúng tôi may also utilize the alignment tools to align the design components.

When you’re satisfied with your unique design, you may save it as a Figma file or as a website.

How to Export your Website to Code?

Our plugin allows you to import anything you create in Figma or with our tool into Builder. Once imported, you can easily obtain the code for your preferred framework such as React, Vue, Qwik, Svelte, plain HTML/CSS, and many others.

Features of Figma AI Website Builder

Generate designs with AI: The plugin generates designs based on your prompts using OpenAI’s GPT-3 API. Your prompts can be as extensive and explicit as you like.

Convert designs to code: Once you’ve created a design, you can use the plugin to convert it to code. The plugin is compatible with a number of frameworks, including React, Vue, Svelte, and plain HTML/CSS.

Import from the web: You can also use the plugin to import designs from the web into Figma. This is important if you want to utilize an existing design as a starting point for your own.

Also Read: 6 Updates from Figma Config 2023.

Conclusion

Figma AI Website Builder is a powerful tool that can help you to create stunning websites in minutes. The chúng tôi Figma AI plugin makes it easy to generate designs with AI, convert designs to code, and import from web. With Figma AI Website Builder, you can save time and effort while creating a website that is both visually appealing and functional.

9 Ways You Can Make Your Website More Accessible

Incorporating accessibility on your website is the right thing to do today.

Why?

Because 25% of adults in the U.S. live with a disability, according to the CDC.

However, too many websites still lack accessibility features.

That means millions of users are struggling to use the web.

What Is Web Accessibility?

Web accessibility is about designing and developing websites, tools, and technologies that people with disabilities can use, according to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

People with disabilities should be able to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, and contribute to the web.

Web accessibility applies to all disabilities that affect access to the web, including:

Auditory.

Cognitive.

Neurological.

Physical.

Speech.

Visual.

Where Does ADA Stand?

The most relevant sections of the ADA to web accessibility are Title II and Title III.

Title II requires state and local governments and governmental entities receiving federal funding to provide qualified individuals with disabilities with equal access to their programs, services, or activities.

Title III prohibits “places of public accommodations such as restaurants, hotels, movie theaters, museums, and hospitals from disability-based discrimination.”

While the ADA does not clearly address the question of web accessibility, websites and apps are often considered as part of a business.

New Wave of ADA Lawsuits

Recent years have seen a spike in the number of ADA-based web accessibility lawsuits.

There were 2,256 ADA website-accessibility lawsuits filed in federal courts in 2023.

However, it appears the curve is flattening.

How to Optimize Your Website for Disabled Users

Optimizing a website for disabled users makes perfect business sense.

You can cater to a broader market segment while building a positive brand image.

Once you have tested your website for web accessibility, you can implement the following steps:

1. Add Images with Alt Text

A picture may be worth a thousand words, but visual elements like images are an accessibility barrier to blind users and those with low vision.

They often have to rely on assistive technologies such as Screen Readers and refreshable Braille Readers.

Screen Readers are software programs that read the text on the screen using a synthesizer or Braille display.

However, neither of these technologies can read images or the text in the images.

So, you need to add Alt Text to describe your images to disabled users.

Make sure to describe the image as clearly as possible.

You can use alt attribute for brief descriptions and “Longdesc Tag” for lengthy descriptions.

2. Allow Users to Enlarge Font Sizes

People with low vision often can’t read small text sizes.

So, they have to use specific font settings when browsing your website.

Offering an alternate style sheet with the ability to enlarge the font size without breaking your page layout should make it easier for them to read your content.

Also, make sure your CTA buttons have a larger font size.

Also, make these buttons visible to people with impaired vision.

3. Keep Contrast Sensitivity in Mind

Along with text size, think about color and contrast.

People with vision impairments such as retinitis pigmentosa, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and cataract have low color contrast sensitivity.

When designing your webpages, make sure to have a high contrast between the foreground and background, such as yellow letters on a black background.

Avoid using thin fonts.

Also, try to avoid using any JavaScript or CSS features that will prevent visually impaired users from increasing the contrast.

Just like the text size, color contrast is also critical for CTAs.

While black text on a white background has the highest readability, you can also use a combination of black text on a yellow background and yellow text on a blue background.

Avoid using combinations like green text on red background and vice versa as they are hard to read.

4. Add Keyboard Navigation

For blind and visually impaired users, navigation is a challenge.

As they can’t use a mouse to browse the site, you have to incorporate keyboard navigation into your website.

Blind users will use Braille keyboards to access your site.

Make sure disabled users can access all interactive elements of your website, including:

URLs.

Anchor text.

Drop-down menus.

Widgets.

Forms.

CTAs.

Dialog boxes.

Also, make JavaScript widgets accessible with the keyboard.

Alternatively, you can use HTML links, buttons, and form fields alone to make sure all elements of your website are keyboard-accessible.

5. Make Video and Multimedia Accessible

Videos and other multimedia elements on your website play a critical role in increasing the user-engagement on your website.

While blind and visually-impaired users can’t see visuals, deaf users and those hard-of-hearing can’t hear audio.

You can use an audio description to describe visuals-only parts such as images, gestures, and changes in settings, among others. It will help blind users to enjoy the video.

However, use your better judgment when adding an audio description.

Make sure you don’t end up with hours of audio description, making it a meaningless experience for the user.

You can provide text captions that synchronize with the video and audio tracks for users who are deaf or hard-of-hearing.

Make sure to use the right color contrast to highlight the captions correctly.

Finally, you will have to use an accessible multimedia player.

Fortunately, HTML5 players provide a better chance of incorporating accessibility.

6. Use Descriptive URLs

Screen readers can quickly and precisely read descriptive URLs, offering blind and visually-impaired users some context.

Meaningful descriptions also make it easier to skip to the right content.

For example, when describing the link of the “About” page, keep the following mind.

Also, don’t add links to images that can’t support Alt Text.

7. Use ARIA Roles

ARIA stands for Accessible Rich Internet Applications.

It helps you make dynamic content more accessible.

ARIA roles and attributes provide more information or context about a website element to screen readers and other assistive tools.

The six most common categories of ARIA roles include:

Landmark: Screen readers use this role for navigation.

Document Structure: It offers a structural description of a section.

Widget: It describes interactive elements lacking semantic equivalents in HTML.

Abstract: It helps organize and streamline a document.

Window: It creates a subcategory or subsection of the main document.

Live Regions: It helps assistive tools to detect dynamic content changes on a webpage and alert disabled users.

However, only people with access to source code and with the knowledge of ARIA and HTML5 can and should make these changes.

You should contact your website developer for further details.

8. Avoid Using Placeholder Text in Forms

Online forms often use placeholder text to describe various elements to save space.

However, placeholder text is usually gray.

Visually impaired users can’t read it due to the low contrast.

It is also a non-label text, which means screen readers will usually skip place holder text. As a result, blind users won’t be able to read this text either.

These steps will improve usability for blind and visually impaired users. However, when taking these steps, make sure to avoid creating a cluttered web form. Try to keep it as simple as possible.

9. Minimize the Use of Tables

Usually, screen readers will inform blind users of how many rows and columns a table has.

However, it is often challenging for screen readers to read the tabular data in the same flow that matches the visual order.

So, wherever possible, use CSS for data presentation.

If you must create a table, use the correct headers for each row and column.

You can also use HTML5 table captions to provide additional context to your disabled users.

Conclusion

Creating an accessible website not only makes good business sense, it is also the morally right thing to do.

So always keep accessibility in mind.

Hopefully, these tips will help you as you optimize your website for disabled users.

Foundations Of Culturally And Linguistically Responsive Teaching

What is culturally and linguistically responsive teaching? It involves leveraging students’ cultural and linguistic experiences, utilizing their background knowledge, and providing multiple ways for students to learn and demonstrate new learning. When we use culturally and linguistically responsive practices, we employ interactive and collaborative learning activities that draw from students’ references and previous experiences to help them make connections to new learning.

As a teacher, I found that these practices helped my students engage in the learning process and built up their confidence—even when the learning became challenging.  These practices helped my students say, “I think I can,” rather than “I can’t.” Later, as a researcher, I found that teachers who received professional development and coaching on how to use culturally and linguistically responsive practices saw an increase in reading scores among their English language learners (ELLs) and racially diverse students within a school year.

So let’s take a look at some activities that support foundational pieces of culturally and linguistically responsive teaching. You may find that you already do some of these activities, or you may find new activities that you will be excited to try.

Acquire Cultural Knowledge

A cornerstone of culturally and linguistically responsive teaching is having cultural knowledge of the students in your classroom. It is the understanding that culture impacts how we process and learn information. I often started the process of getting to know my students with a questionnaire that I called “Getting to Know You.” In this questionnaire, I asked students to let me know what name they would like me to use, their interests, any activities they enjoyed, and what they would like to learn in this class. Before and during lessons, I’d ask students to discuss their own experiences and try to make connections to the topic we studied. This not only helped make the learning relevant for the students but gave me insight regarding how to conduct a lesson.

Many of my students came to my classroom with collectivistic experiences, which emphasize the needs of the group over the needs of each individual. To leverage this asset, I would often build opportunities into lessons for students to work together in small groups or with a partner.

For example, during writing time I would have students work with a partner or small group to discuss their ideas before writing them on paper. During a math lesson, I would have students work together to solve a problem and then discuss how they solved that problem. Such activities gave my students the opportunity to use their collectivistic skills in the learning process, thus building their confidence, communication, and problem-solving skills.

Using Language Acquisition Principles

A culturally and linguistically responsive environment also involves providing language supports for our ELLs. Researcher Stephen Krashen has noted language acquisition principles that help teachers create a supportive, nurturing place where language is learned through meaningful tasks and authentic interactions. Krashen reminds us that comprehension of language typically develops before the production of language and that conversational, or everyday, language develops more quickly than academic, or more formal, language. These principles can help us tailor supported opportunities for students to practice language within their Zone of Proximal Development.

So how does this play out in the classroom? To support the development of language, I used the following practices to support my students’ language growth, while still being able to share their knowledge and new learning.

Connect content to real life by inviting community members to the classroom to talk about their experiences, relate content to students’ lives, or provide students with real problems to solve. 

Nonverbal methods such as drawing or pointing to a picture/answer can be used by ELLs to demonstrate comprehension, even when they do not yet have the production language to verbally answer.

Provide opportunities for ELLs to work with a partner or in small groups. This will support their use and input of language.

Allow ELLs to use their first language when learning new concepts. This allows them to understand the concept, then learn the concept language, rather than learning both at the same time.

Employ Instructional Scaffolds

I often referred to instructional scaffolds as training wheels for learning—they are used as you are learning a new skill but are intended to be temporary until a skill is mastered. Instructional scaffolding involves understanding the specific, temporary instructional supports that a student needs and providing these supports. Once the student has mastered the skill or task, the scaffolding is gradually removed.

I often used the following scaffolds to help support student learning:

Various levels of questions to build students’ thinking, from the recall of information to answers that required synthesis or evaluation of ideas/information

Incorporating visual tools such as pictures and illustrations for science and social studies lessons and graphic organizers for reading to help students connect language to content

Supplementing texts with study guides, definitions of key vocabulary, and an outline of key events

Reading instruction that uses language modified texts and focuses on an interactive reading skills approach

Provide Effective Feedback

Instruction isn’t complete without effective feedback, because it provides students with information to improve upon a task, and why. I found that when I involved students in the process of assessing their work with rubrics, I was able to provide specific actions that focused on working toward not only the learning target at hand but also future assignments. This would later impact student assessments because students understood what actions were needed to successfully reach learning outcomes.

How can we ensure that our feedback will help our students grow? The following practices helped me provide feedback that was actionable and concrete for my students.

 Provide feedback in written and verbal form to ensure that the student understands what needs improvement and why. This can be done by annotating an assignment or meeting with students one-on-one to review a task with a rubric.

Give students specific information about their performance on a particular task. This can be done with the use of a rubric, which breaks down a learning task into individual elements.

Give feedback almost immediately after a student has demonstrated new learning. This will help the student make connections between the feedback and the task.

Long Covid Can Manifest In Dozens Of Ways. Here’s What We Know So Far.

Among the nearly half a billion people who have contracted COVID around the world so far, an estimated 10 to 50 percent will experience long-term symptoms. For four weeks to years after the initial diagnosis, the aftereffects of the virus may linger, affecting how patients go about their daily lives. 

Medical experts are still trying to understand why long COVID grips some patients and not others. According to a study in the journal Cell, a patient may be more prone to long-term symptoms if they experience one or more of the following biological factors: high viral load during the initial infection, a flood of autoantibodies, reactivation of the Epstein-Barr virus, and a history of Type 2 diabetes. These drivers aren’t immediately visible in patients from the outset, making it challenging to predict who eventually is at higher risk for long COVID. Some studies suggest that vaccines halve the risk of adults ending up with long COVID—but additional preliminary research suggests otherwise.

“Our knowledge of long COVID is definitely better today than it was a year ago,” says Ziyad Al-Aly, the Chief of Research and Education Service at Veterans Affairs St. Louis Health Care System. “But certainly, there’s a lot more that needs to be done, especially in the area of treatments. We don’t know what we don’t know yet.” 

In the lungs, where the virus typically takes root, SARS-Cov-2 might cause tissue damage and scarring that hinder oxygen intake. But the pathogen “can affect nearly every organ system,” Al-Aly explains. “The heart, the brain, the kidneys.” He says scientists are still puzzled by how a respiratory virus can cause so many symptoms outside the lungs, and for so long. 

Now, armed with more experience from tackling the fallout of the infections, medical experts have started to recognize the common ailments among long haulers and are working toward improved treatment. 

Heart and blood circulation

As a Los Angeles-based cardiologist, Alice Perlowski always took heart health very seriously. She was an endurance athlete and had several marathons under belt. But ever since she fell victim to COVID in March 2023, her blood pressure has been all over the place, she says. Her heart rate spikes when she stands abruptly—a mark of exertion for someone who used to be on her feet 12 hours plus a day at the hospital prior to the pandemic. In the first eight months after contracting COVID, she experienced chronic fatigue, which is thought to be a side effect of disrupted oxygen delivery from blood vessel damage and blood clots. 

“My job changed 180 degrees,” Perlowski says. “My entire life changed 180 degrees.” Her symptoms have improved to the point where she can now practice telemedicine from home.

Al-Aly and his team have conducted their own broad study on how COVID ravages the heart and blood vessels, but they admit that the mechanisms are still unclear. They’ve found that the virus scars and kills off heart cells, infects blood vessel linings, throws off hormonal regulation, and turns the immune system against itself. These wide-ranging reasons could partially explain why the disease devastates the body’s cardiovascular system and impairs how oxygen is distributed throughout the body for normal everyday function. 

The nervous system and brain

One of the most common symptoms of long COVID is what’s often called “brain fog”—a term Perlowski detests.  

“Brain fog sounds like you were kind of up on call all night, or with a screaming baby all night, and you are a little bit slower than normal,” she says. “But the kind of cognitive impairment that happens with this is to the point where some people have trouble reading, writing, carrying on conversations. It’s very similar to a traumatic brain injury.” 

A study published in the journal Nature in March reported that MRI brain scans on 401 COVID patients found tissue damage and the loss of gray matter. Brain atrophy was another common issue: On average, individuals showed smaller brain sizes post-infection and increased presence of cerebrospinal fluid. The patients also performed worse on basic cognitive tests compared to non-COVID sufferers. 

[Related: ‘Preliminary research’ on COVID has been surprisingly solid]

Although COVID’s myriad effects on the brain are still unclear, leading hypotheses suggest that the virus might infiltrate the cerebrum through olfactory nerves, or trigger the immune cells to attack brain cells. 

Beyond COVID’s grip on a person’s central nervous system, another insidious outcome is its impact on the autonomic nervous system. This is the network of nerves lying outside the brain that regulates various body processes running in the background of human consciousness. It governs balance and automatically adjusts heart rate and blood pressure as a person switches between different activities.  

Like Perlowski, long COVID patient Sarah (who asked PopSci not to use her real name) still finds it physically daunting to stand up from a sitting position. Walking rounds in her apartment is a momentous feat. Taking a trip to the grocery store by herself is a far-fetched dream. Even simple cognitive tasks take a chunk out of Sarah’s energy reserve, so she saves up her daily strength for communicating with her medical care team and has no room for chatting with family and friends. 

Earlier this year, she tried knitting a sock. But after three rows, “I was breathing hard and so physically exhausted, I had to nap for a couple of hours,” she writes in email. She wants the public to know “just how all-encompassing this disability is.” From landing her dream job and leading an active, full life pre-pandemic, Sarah now struggles daily to make sure she’s simply clean and fed. 

Autoimmune reactions

Before the pandemic, Sarah never experienced allergies. But in the two years since she contracted COVID, she’s developed intolerances to food and medication, random hives, and vision problems. “I feel like I’m playing a macabre game of autoimmune/inflammatory bingo, every time a new set of symptoms pops up,” she writes.

“Long COVID symptoms can really be all over the place,” says Philip A. Chan, an infectious disease physician at Brown University. “This is the category that “I would call ‘other.’” 

“My job changed 180 degrees. My entire life changed 180 degrees.”

Alice Perlowski, cardiologist

These “other” symptoms can be as far ranging as insomnia, diarrhea, hair loss, dry skin, erectile dysfunction, voice damage, and body aches. The diverse and seemingly unconnected illnesses after the initial bout of COVID defy categorization—and highlight just how extensive the virus’s reach is throughout the body.

“We’re still reminded that COVID, in general, is still a relatively new virus,” says Chan. In the first two years of the pandemic, the focus of public health policies was on containing the pandemic. Now, after Omicron’s wave crested and broke, Chan says that it’s time to shift our attention to understanding and treating long COVID in the months and years to come. 

The long hauler treatment

There are no cures for long COVID yet; current treatments only address the symptoms rather than the underlying cause. “This is one of the reasons why we should do everything we can, of course, to prevent COVID,” says Chan. “This is again another big reason why people should consider being vaccinated if they haven’t.” He adds that anyone experiencing symptoms weeks after their first COVID infection should seek help from their primary care physician as soon as possible to prevent symptoms from worsening. 

As both a physician and a long COVID patient herself, Perlowski has a front-row seat as the disease terrorizes her and her patients. “There are people who are really suffering, who have no relief and no treatment,” she says. “It’s frightening to watch.” She hopes the public is more aware of what kind of risk they’re up against, and doesn’t relax its guard, even as daily cases and death rates improve. 

Government agencies need to step up more too. With more states dropping their COVID restrictions, long haulers like Sarah are worried that they’ll be left to fend for themselves. She thinks getting infected with COVID again would render her not just housebound, but also bedridden. She’s worried—and angry—that she will be even more excluded from society as mask mandates are eased. 

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