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Introduction to Haskell Library

In Haskell, we have so many libraries which have their own importance, and they provide us with various functions which are used to perform various operations when needed. This library comes up with different packages containing a list of conation to perform the logic and operation fatly. There may be some library that needs to be imported while using it in the program. But in Haskell, we have Prelude; this is an implicit library of the Haskell, which is imported by default; there should not be any explicit import statement for this we can use this directly.

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How do Haskell Libraries Work?

Here we will see the different libraries available in Haskell for use to perform the different operations as well.

Platform Libraries in Haskell: In Haskell, we have a platform library that includes support for the network, quick check, and many more. Before releasing this library, they are well tested and preinstalled for use. They provide us with additional packages for this, which have a Haskell Platform library.

2010 Libraries in Haskell: This library also provides us various packages which all the Haskell libraries should support; this library provides us with the basic functionality which can be used with the monad, data list, io, and many more.

Haskell Prelude Library: This is the most important library of Haskell, which is used to perform the more basic operation on the data structures and data type we have in Haskell.

Here we will see the details and various functions of this library with their syntax:

These modules are nothing but contain the required library, which is very much needed to write a basic program in Haskell or in any other programming language.

Here we will see what the functions that are available inside this module are. While using this module, we do not require to import any statement or dependency while using the default functions present inside Haskell’s prelude module.

Let’s see all the methods:

1. abs

This is the function that is available inside the prelude module and can be accessed directly with its name. Basically, this function will return us the absolute value the input passes as the parameter inside it.


print(abs (-1)) 2. all

This function from the prelude is used to check whether all the elements from the list or the array satisfy the given condition or not. It always returns us the Boolean value based on the evaluation of the condition. If all the elements satisfy the condition, then it will return true else, it will return False.


all predicate your_list 3. ceiling

This function from predicate is used to return the integer value, which is the next possible approx value for that passing argument.


ceiling your_value 4. Chr


chr your integer value between 0 to 255 5. compare

This is a function from the prelude module, which is used to compare the two values which are of the same type. It will return three results based on the evaluation of the comparison, i.e., EQ, GT, LT. All have some meaning, EQ if the two values are equal, LT if the first value is less than or equal to the second value passed, GT if the first value is greater than the second value passed.


compare value1 value2 6. concat

This function from the prelude is used to concat the two lists together. It is very easy to use and implement, as well.


concat [value to be concate] 7. div

This function from the prelude module is used to calculate the integer division of the passing param.


val1 `div` val2 8. drop


drop yournumber [list] or varibale Example of Haskell Library

Given below is the example of Haskell Library:

Basic example to show usage of Haskell library, with how to use their functions in detail.


main = do print("Demo to show library in Haskell with its function !!") let val1 = 100 let val2 = -10 let val3 = -3 let val4 = 80 let val5 = -90 let val6 = 8 let val7 = 15 print("Using the abs function to!!") let result1 = abs val1 let result2 = abs val2 let result3 = abs val3 let result4 = abs val4 let result5 = abs val5 let result6 = abs val6 let result7 = abs val7 print("Result one is ::", result1) print("Result two is ::", result2) print("Result three is ::", result3) print("Result four is ::", result4) print("Result five is ::", result5) print("Result six is ::", result6) print("Result evens ::", result7)



In Haskell or in any other programming language, we have so many libraries that are inbuilt, or we can use an external library for better performance. But in Haskell, we have the Prelude module, which contains all the necessary things required to write a program in Haskell; also, these libraries are very easy to use, readable, and easy to understand by developers.

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How Do Pharmaceutical Wholesalers Work?

The pharmaceutical industry is massive. It generates nearly $1.3 trillion in revenue annually. However, not everyone knows how their medications get from the manufacturer to their local pharmacy. In many instances, pharmaceutical wholesalers are the method. Here is more on how the process works.  

What is a wholesale drug distributor?

Wholesale drug distributors purchase medications directly from manufacturers. The wholesale drug distributor in turn sells the medications to pharmacies. The United States Food and Drug Administration urges all consumers to validate the licenses of wholesale drug distributors. Each state has a specific agency responsible for licensing wholesale drug distributors. This is extremely important for consumer protection. Without a license, a wholesale drug distributor may be linked to serious offenses, including counterfeit prescriptions and unapproved medication distribution. Any websites with taglines like “not a prescription pharmacy” are likely operating without a license.

There are two main business models that categorize wholesale drug distributors. Full-line wholesalers purchase a company’s complete product line. In contracts between manufacturers and distributors, certain medications may be excluded. On average, pharmacies make up 75% of distributors’ profits. The other type of wholesale drug distributor is a specialized company. These distributors purchase specialty drugs to sell to clinics and hospitals.

How do drug wholesalers make money?

Drug distributors make money by following a concise business model: buy medications at low prices in bulk, and sell them to customers and pharmacies at an increased market price. The distributors’ income comes from the difference between what they paid and what the medications were sold for. The consumer typically pays the most through the supply chain, since pharmacies also need to make a profit from medications. However, consumers are finding that purchasing directly from a distributor instead of a pharmacy can cut their overall medication costs. Wholesalers still make a profit from direct sales, but retail the products to patients instead of pharmacies. Since specialty drugs make up about 30% of wholesale revenue, this business model has experienced significant growth over the past two years.

Bottom Line

Pharmaceutical distributors make most of their money by charging a small percentage of their product’s market price, also known as a wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), in exchange for distribution services.

Savings for customers and clients

While some might argue wholesale providers aren’t needed anymore, wholesale pharmaceutical products do provide savings to clients and customers. Whether you’re in pharmaceutical retail, pharmaceutical supply or home healthcare, the goal is to provide the best-quality products and services at reasonable prices.

Healthcare is expensive for consumers and pharmaceutical suppliers alike. A trusted pharmaceutical wholesaler keeps costs low and inventory high, and gives clients better buying power. Pharmaceutical wholesalers also provide products for pharmaceutical retailers. Since pharmacies offer a wide variety of products, it’s vital to get the best prices for your retail pharmacy. Wholesale vitamins are big sellers, for example, but pharmacies compete with big-box stores, vitamin shops and health food stores for those consumer dollars. Getting customers to think of your pharmacy first when purchasing vitamins is a challenge.

Did You Know?

Home healthcare providers rely on wholesale pharmacy supplies for medical equipment, wound care and sterile fields. Wholesale surgical gloves, sterile syringes, bandages and other supplies save patients money.

Full-service pharmaceutical wholesalers

Full-service pharmaceutical distributors supply their clients with a variety of products and services to meet the needs of clients and customers. A pharmaceutical provider offering products like wholesale drugs and over-the-counter pain relievers saves independent pharmacists and home care companies valuable time as well as money.

Here are a few benefits of pharmaceutical wholesale suppliers:

Savings on pharmaceutical supplies for pharmaceutical retailers

Savings for clients and patients on high-quality care

A full line of pharmaceutical products and supplies to retailers, hospitals, and home healthcare companies

Competitive pricing on vitamins and other products to attract customers

Wholesale pharmacy supplies

Whether you’re an independent pharmacy or a part of a pharmacy chain, wholesale pharmacy supplies are a sensible way to increase revenue and save money.

Wholesale medical supplies

Medical supply costs add up quickly for chronically ill patients. Regular purchasers of diabetic testing supplies, insulin syringes, arthritis treatments, joint support devices and incontinence supplies need every opportunity to save money.


Small businesses that offer health insurance can provide ways for their employees to save even more money on their medications.

Wholesale vitamins and supplements

Vitamins, herbal remedies and supplements are a big business in the medical community. Patients who use nutritional supplements may find relief from symptoms and an improved sense of well-being from these products. Providing vitamins and supplements to your customers at competitive prices turns you into their one-stop source for all health-related purchases.

Here are a few ways to do that:

Visit pharmaceutical wholesaler trade show displays to develop relationships with industry specialists.

Meet with drug reps from various companies that offer significant savings on generic drugs for your customers. Drug reps also offer lots of free samples as an added incentive.

Who are the largest pharmaceutical distributors in the United States?

The largest pharmaceutical distributors include the companies below:

CR Pharmaceutical: This flagship subsidiary of the China Resources Group develops, manufactures and distributes an extensive range of pharma products.

Cardinal Health: This distributor and global manufacturer of medical and laboratory products is based out of Dublin, Ohio.

Alfresa Holdings: This wholesaler and distributor based primarily out of Tokyo aims to “support the pharmaceutical supply chains that are part of Japan’s social infrastructure, and strives to meet the full range of medical needs,” according to its website.

Anda Inc.: This company distributes over 15,000 different pharmaceutical products for nearly 400 manufacturers across a multitude of therapeutic categories.

AmerisourceBergen: Founded by lifelong druggist Lucien Napoleon Brunswig in 1871, this company distributed numerous vaccines and other medicines across the U.S. for most of the 20th century. AmerisourceBergen recently acquired Alliance HealthCare, hoping to expand its global reach.

Medipal Holdings: Another pharmaceutical wholesaler based out of Tokyo, Medipal also distributes animal care products and food processing raw materials.

All of these distributors have exceeded $4 billion in revenue. It’s possible that profits will decrease in the coming years due to legislation that blocks the overinflation of brand-name medications. Profits are also impacted by deflations occurring in the generic medication market.

What Are Chatgpt Plugins And How Do They Work?

Information about what are ChatGPT Plugins and how they work are detailed in this article

In the AI industry, ChatGPT plugins are in vogue. With its human-like responses to a wide range of prompts and its ability to handle moderately complex tasks like code writing and data analysis since its launch in late 2023, ChatGPT has captivated the world.

However, it also comes with some restrictions. To some extent, ChatGPT plugins will be able to assist in overcoming these drawbacks. There’s something else to ChatGPT plugins besides making the chatbot safeguard; modules will upgrade ChatGPT’s capacities by giving extra usefulness.

What is ChatGPT Plugin?

The simplest method for making sense of something new is to analogize them to what’s recognizable; however, this risks distortion and oversight of subtleties. If ChatGPT was an iPhone, the modules are the applications on the telephone. ChatGPT is no longer just a chatbot; it has turned into a stage, an environment.

As you can introduce applications onto your telephone and grow its abilities, add new highlights, and upgrade its utilities, you’ll have the option to introduce modules in ChatGPT to make it considerably more valuable than it is. Modules will permit you to interface it to the web and get modern data, improve its numerical and abilities to code, and modify it for additional particular errands.

ChatGPT’s built-in functionality will be supplemented and tailored by ChatGPT plugins. They will furnish clients with data inside their talk hence lessening the need to switch between applications and locales to get what they need.

Depending on the function they are designed for, ChatGPT plugins will be able to assist with a variety of tasks, including language translation, sentiment analysis, tax preparation, and task scheduling. They will empower clients to bring ongoing data like games, stocks, and news; recover data from an organization’s information base and individual notes; arrange for flights, buy groceries, and food; and access open government data.

It’s unrealistic to predict all that ChatGPT modules can do or what direction they’d take as a ton relies upon designers and whether they will put resources into the ChatGPT biological system. However, taking a gander at the early signs, there’s a lot to be amped up for.

How do plugins for ChatGPT work?

Users of ChatGPT can retrieve information as defined by the plugin’s developers using ChatGPT plugins. At the point when a client gives a brief, ChatGPT “chooses” whether to draw data from the information it has been prepared by OpenAI or to finish the solicitation utilizing one of the introduced modules, contingent upon importance. For instance, on the off chance that a client requests lodgings to say in, say, Milan, one of the booking modules, for example, Expedia might be summoned and data about cost and booking will be served utilizing the significant module.

Here’s a quick overview of how ChatGPT plugins operate without getting too technical.

Module designers make a manifest record containing a machine-intelligible portrayal of the module’s capacities and how to conjure them as well as client-confronting documentation. The data is incorporated into a brief framing of how ChatGPT might utilize it to improve its responses.

After that, the plugin is moved to the “Plugin Store,” where users can install it. Since modules are not empowered as a matter of course, clients should initiate them physically to utilize them.

How Base64_Encode Method Work In Php?

Introduction to PHP base64_encode

The following article provides an outline for PHP base64_encode. The Base64_encode method is used to encode our data. When we use the base64_encode method in the program, we convert them into a sequence of bytes and then convert it to the text of string in PHP. Base64_encode method works in the same way as it does in other programming languages main purpose of this method is that it is used to encode our data as a part of Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. The base64_encode method takes one parameter, and it is our string that we want to encode while passing.

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As we saw, this method takes only one parameter as the input. We can pass our string which we want to encode in base64 format.

string base64_encode( $your_data )

As we can see above, we can pass our data inside this method as a parameter. This takes only one parameter as the input here.

Now we can see one practice syntax to know it better:


string base64_encode( "hello just syntax " ) How base64_encode Method work in PHP?

As of now, we know that this method is used to encode our data into a sequence of bytes. This method used where we want to hide our secrets over the network. We can define our own encoding method also. This will be useful where we have some keys or secrets exposing to the network. So we can encode our data by using the base64_encode method in PHP to protect them as well. This will simply be the sequence o the bytes here that can be again converted into the text of string while decoding it.

Byte the use of this, there are very few changes that our message will get corrupted by the system, original string or data will be safe, and we can easily decode them at the other side by using any decoding mechanism for this. Encoding styles are highly recommending in the programming language when needed. We can easily encode image as well and send them over the network using any XML or JSON file. base64 encode method allows us to easily bind the binary data as Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.

We will now see the method signature, how it works, and how many parameters it takes in detail.

Method signature

So let’s have a look at the method signature:


string base64_encode($your_data)

Return Type

As of now, we see that the return type for this method is written as a string here. So this will return a string of base64. This will return False if the method is not able to encode the given string provided; otherwise, it will return string on successful execution of the method.




<?php $mystr = 'Sample string to encode'; echo base64_encode($mystring);

In the above lines of code, we define a string that we are trying to convert into base64 encoding. So first, we have created one string named as ‘mystr’; after this, we have called the base64_encode method and passed this parameter inside this method. So it will convert the existing string into encode base64. This will generate some sequence of characters that can be easily decoded by using some method in PHP.

Some points we need to keep in mind while working with the base64_encode method:

This is the in-build method provided by PHP.

This method will generate a sequence of character for a particular string in PHP.

An encoded string of data can be again converted back into the string of text.

By using this, we can encode images and place them in an XML or JSON.

By the use of base64 encoding, we can encode our secrets and keys, which we do not to get corrupt by anything. Hence the original message will be remaining the same.


By the use of the base6_ encode method, we can end binary data.

When we convert or encode the data by using the base64_encode method, it occupies more space in the memory than usual. It will increase the memory space for the data by 33 percent.

Examples of PHP base64_encode

Given below are the examples of PHP base64_encode:

Example #1


<?php $mystr1 = 'Hello i am example one to encode string to base64 in PHP.!!'; $myencode1 = base64_encode($mystr1); echo $myencode1. "n"; $mystr2 = 'Hello i am example two to encode string to base64 in PHP.!!'; $myencode2 = base64_encode($mystr2); echo $myencode2. "n"; $mystr3 = 'Hello i am example three to encode string to base64 in PHP.!!'; $myencode3 = base64_encode($mystr3); echo $myencode3. "n";


Example #2

In this example, we are encoding empty string, some string integer and black space to see how they look after being encoded.


<?php $mystr1 = '100200, 300 , 500, 600'; $myencode1 = base64_encode($mystr1); echo $myencode1. "n"; $mystr2 = '  '; $myencode2 = base64_encode($mystr2); echo $myencode2. "n"; $mystr3 = 'I am not empty '; $myencode3 = base64_encode($mystr3); echo $myencode3. "n";



By the use of the base64_encode method, we can encode our data and send the binary data over the network using email attachments. This encoding will generate the sequence of characters or bytes for us. Then this can be converted back into the original message.

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How Does Offshoring Work With Example?

What is Offshoring?

“Offshoring” refers to relocating business processes, like manufacturing or supporting activities, from one country to another. Typically, a company opts for offshoring due to various operational benefits, such as a lower-cost labor market, skilled labor, presence in a foreign country, favorable tax regime, etc.

How Does Offshoring Work?

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Examples of Offshoring

Now, let us look at some real-life examples currently available today.

1. WhatsApp

In 2009, WhatsApp offshored its software development unit to Eastern Europe, relying on the offshore unit to maintain the backstage, provide design solutions, and take care of main application development. It allowed WhatsApp’s in-house team to focus on client-related activities (say customer support) and solve other relevant business challenges.

2. Amazon

In 2023, Amazon employed an offshoring route for expansion wherein it acquired the startup Ring, which had an R&D set up in Ukraine. The acquired entity specialized in designing outdoor home security solutions, and this expertise boosted Amazon’s market position in the security system industry. Within a year, Amazon opened another offshore unit in the country to expand its market dominance.

3. Types of Offshoring

The offshoring process can be divided into two broad categories as follows:

1. Production Offshoring

In this type, a company sets up its manufacturing unit in another country, imports the finished goods, and then sells them in the domestic market. The company intends to leverage the availability of rich sources of raw materials and cheap labor to optimize its operational capability. For instance, a company may decide to set up the manufacturing unit of heavy machinery in a country with an adequate supply of iron and cheap local labor skilled in such a task.

2. Services Offshoring

In this type, a company relocates its services by setting up units in another country to carry out operations such as marketing, customer care, human resource, accounting, etc. In this case, the company employs a highly skilled workforce relatively cheaply in a foreign country. For instance, a software company may relocate its R&D unit to a country where the human resources possess strong technical knowledge but are comparatively cheaper than the domestic workforce.

Benefits of Offshoring

The parent company can focus more on its business’s core functions.

It allows companies to hire competent and cost-efficient labor from developing nations.

It ensures that a dedicated team works in the offshore unit and completes the assignment efficiently.

Many developing nations offer incentives to lure foreign companies’ investments, such as tax holidays.

It results in diversified operations across multiple countries lowering the country’s risk to a large extent.

A company entering a developing country owing to offshoring may find it difficult to communicate because of a huge gap between their native language and the local language of the foreign country.

Offshore units are geographically dispersed in distant locations, making it difficult for the management to control the subsidiaries.

Being acquainted with the local culture and society may result in various socio-cultural issues.

The offshore units may face threats of lockout or closure if the local people find the operations unethical or harmful to the nation’s identity.

Key Takeaways

Some of the key takeaways of the article are:

Offshoring refers to the relocation of business processes from one country to another. These business processes usually include manufacturing processes and various other supporting activities.

Once the offshoring set-up is established, the parent company can pay more attention to the business’s core operations.

There are two broad categories – production offshoring and services offshoring.

One of the major shortcomings of offshoring is the huge gap between the local language of the foreign country and the native language of the parent company, which results in miscommunication in many cases.

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10 Essential Python Libraries For Data Science In 2023

The 10 essential python libraries for data science in 2023, the area of data science and data analytics

The 10 essential python libraries for data science in 2023 in the area of data science and data analytics. Aside from its simplicity of use and broad applications, Python has an incredibly supportive community with millions of potential answers to any problems you may encounter. Python can be used for a variety of uses including server, interface, machine learning, data science, middleware, artificial intelligence, even arithmetic, and deep learning.

List of Python Libraries for Data Science in 2023:

1.  NumPy: Machinery has seen the universe through the lens of multi-dimensional arrays, just as we do in terms of sights, scents, tastes, and touch. As humans, we can only see and sense three dimensions (X-Axis, Y-Axis, and Z-Axis). Multi-dimensional arrays reflect the ability of machines to process and grasp numerous dimensions.


NumPy is used to keep RAM usage to a minimum

In Python, it is used as an option for arrays and lists, and it works well with multi-dimensional arrays

NumPy is used in situations where quicker runtime performance is required

2. SciPy: SciPy is an accessible science and technological computing package. It includes tools for optimization, interpolation, integration, eigenvalue, statistics, linear algebra, and multi-dimensional picture processing, among other things. Interesting fact: SciPy is built on NumPy.


Mathematics! SciPy is used for study and science computation jobs involving mathematical operations such as algebra, calculus, difference equations, and signal processing.

3. Theano: Theano is a Python package based on NumPy that allows you to manipulate and analyze mathematical expressions, particularly matrix-valued expressions.

Computer Vision: Theano is used in computer vision for tasks such as handwritten recognition and patchy coding.

Intensive Learning: Theano, widely regarded as the Grandfather of Python programs, was one of the first to make use of GPU optimization.

4. Pandas: Possibly the most popular program among Data Analysts worldwide. Pandas is a software library that deals with data structures and offer data manipulation and analysis features.

Recommendation Systems: Websites such as Netflix and Spotify use Pandas in the background to efficiently handle huge amounts of data.

Natural Language Processing (NLP): With the aid of tools like Pandas and Scikit Learn, it is now easier to build NLP models that can be used in a variety of applications.

5. Matplotlib: Matplotlib is a Python tool that helps with data analysis and plotting to create static, animated, and live displays.

Matplotlib is useful in data visualization because it can generate a large number of early plots for big datasets.

Given that NumPy is used in the server, matplotlib is heavily used with numerous third-party modules to achieve the quickest outcomes.

6. Plotly: Perhaps is Python’s finest charting and graphing program. Plotly allows users to create low-code applications for building, scaling and deploying data apps in Python.  

Plotly can be used to create an enterprise-grade interface with the dash in the backdrop in a variety of ways.

7. Sea Born: We talked about how matplotlib has a low-level interface. Seaborn is a high-level interface developed on top of matplotlib that provides useful statistical diagrams and draws appealing visualizations.

Seaborn is used in a variety of IDEs to visualize data in a visually appealing manner

8. Ggplot: Ggplot is an abbreviation for Graphics Grammar. Ggplot is a tool designed with R in mind. It is available in Python as part of the plotline module.

A fantastic package for creating fast graphics, regardless of how layered the source data is

9.  Altair: Altair is a declarative statistical visualization tool built on the Vega visualization language.

Altair is used to autonomously display graphs for data sets with fewer than 5,000 rows in a variety of methods

10. Autoviz: A collection can be automatically visualized using Autoviz.

AutoViz can be used to better comprehend data in a variety of areas·       

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