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Introduction to Scala reduce Function

Scala reduces functions to reduce the collection data structure in Scala. This function can be applied for both mutable and immutable collection data structures. Mutable objects are those whose values change frequently, whereas immutable objects are those objects that one assign cannot change itself. Reduce function can be applied to map, sequence, set, list, etc. This function returns a single value from the collection data structure. In reducing function, it merges all the values from the collection data structure and returns on a single value.

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Syntax

Below is the syntax of Scala reduce:

Explanation: In the above syntax, we have prepared one collection followed by the reduced function. It takes two parameters on which we can perform our operation. At last, we will obtain one value as output.

How does reduce Function work in Scala?

Reduce function reduces the number of elements in the collection data structure. What it does internally is it uses binary operation and merges all the available elements into one single element. We can see how it works internally. Suppose we have one list of elements like 3, 7, 9, 2, 1, 5. Now we will apply to reduce function to generate a single number after adding all the numbers from the list.

1. First, it will take the first element 3. Then it will apply a binary operation on the first and second numbers and merge them to generate the third number.

Now we can have a look at one practical example for beginners for more understanding:

Code:

object Main extends App{ val collection = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) }

Explanation: In this example, we create one collection data structure list. After that, we apply to reduce function on the list to try to find out the max element from the list of elements. This will also return as a single value from the list of elements.

Extended class:

AbstractIterable[(K, V)]

Map[K, V]

Some of the supertype:

Map

Equals

MapFactoryDefaults

MapOps

PartialFunction

AbstractIterable

Iterable

IterableFactoryDefault

IterableOps

IterableOnceOps

IterableOnceOps

Some known classes:

TrieMap

AbstractMap

HashMap

IntMap

ListMap

Longman

Map1

Map2

Map3

Map4

withDefault

TreeMap

TrrSeqMap

VectorMap

AbstractMap

AnyRefMap

CollisionProofHashMap

LongMap

WithDefault

SystemProperties

ListMap

OpenHashMap

reduceLeft

reduceRight

reception

reduceRightOPtion

reduceLeftOPtion

Examples to Implement Scala reduce

Below are the examples mentioned :

Example #1

In this example, we find out the sum of all elements present in the collection data structure using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example, we find out the subtraction of all elements present in the collection data structure using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Output:

Example #3

In this example, we are finding out the multiplication of all elements present into the collection data structure by using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Example #4

In this example, we find out the division of all elements present in the collection data structure using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Output:

Example #5

In this example, we are finding out the minimum of all elements present in the collection data structure by using a binary operation.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val list1 = List(200 , 400, 100, 30, 1000, 500) println("list before ::") println(list1) println("list after ::") println(result) }

Output:

Conclusion

Scala reduces function is used to perform the binary operation on the collection elements. We can perform so many types of operations. Also, we can find the maximum and minimum values from the collection using the reduce function. Always remember this reduction will always return a single value as the output of the logic because it will merge all the values from the collection.

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## How Function Works In Scala With Examples

Definition of Scala Function

As the name suggests, Scala Function means a piece of code supposed to do a function. Like any other programming language scala, Function works in the same way. The function is nothing but a way to writing our logic in a separate part, or we can say a function is a group of statements that are responsible for performing some specific task. The function can be used where we have the same logic or repetitive code, so instead of writing the code again and again, we can create one function and call that from everywhere. Scala function is also responsible for performing a specific task.

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How to Define Functions in Scala? defname_of_function ([parametre_list]) : [return_type] = { }

Scala Function contained 6 parts while defining; let’s discuss them one by one.

def: It is a keyword that is available in scala. If you want to define any function, we have to use this keyword at the beginning.

name_of_function: This is the user-defined name of the function. It should be similar to the logic or task that the function is going to execute while calling. Also, it should be in a camel-case (lower).

return_type: return type means what we are expecting from the function in return after executing. It can be anything, but it is optional. In java, the default return type is void, and in scale, it is Unit if we do not specify.

parametre_list: This stands for what we are providing to our function while calling. We have to specify the data type of the parameters as well while declaring inside the square brackets []. We will see them into the practice syntax below.

=: This can be used with the return type component. It specifies, if the = is there, it means our function is going to return some value. If not, then no value we want. It is like a default return type function.

function logic: Inside this, we write the whole logic that we want to perform on the calling of function. We can also call the different functions inside this function. Remember body should be enclosed with the {} curly braces.

defcalculateSum ([a:Int, b: Int]) : Int = { return a + b; }

This way, we can define it.

How does Function work in Scala?

The function is used to perform the task. To use any function, we need to call it. Scala provides us with different ways to call a function, i.e. we can call them directly or by using the class instance.

[instance].name_of_function

or

function(list_parameter)

In scala, we have two types of functions like any other programming language.

Parameterized functions: In this type of function, we pass the list of parameters.

Non-Parameterized functions: In this type of function, we do not pass any parameters to function. That will be empty. Also, we can pass any user-defined value as a parameter also.

Let’s take one example to understand its working;

object Main extends App{ calculateSum(10, 20) defcalculateSum(a : Int, b : Int){ var result = a + b ; println("Result is  :: "+ result) } }

Above we have defined one function name calculateSum, and it is taking two variables, a and b. Both are of the Integer type. Inside the function body, we have written the logic that we want to perform. We are adding these two values, a and b, holding the value into the third variable named result. After that, we are just printing the value that we obtained. But now we have to call this function, so in the above line, we are calling the function b its name and parameter specified. The number of Parameters we passed and the number defined in the function signature should be the same; otherwise, it will give a compile-time error.

Examples of Scala Function

Examples of (simple function, parameterized function, etc.).

Example #1

This example shows the use of functions without parameters.

object Main extends App{ simpleFunction() defsimpleFunction(){ println("This is simple function") println( "without parameter. ") } }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

object Main extends App{ sum(20 , 50, 100) defsum(x: Int, y : Int, z: Int){ println("This is parameter function") var result = x + y +z println("result obtained is  :::"  +result) } }

Output:

Example #3

In this example, we are making a mixed parameter list of a function. This takes integer and string as well.

Code:

object Main extends App{ mixedFunction(20 , 50, 100, "Ajay", "Indore") defmixedFunction(x: Int, y : Int, z: Int, name: String, address: String){ println("This is parameter function") var result = x + y +z println("result obtained is  :::"  +result) println("Employee name  :: " + name) println("Employee address  :: " + address) } }

Example #4

In this example, we are taking a user-defined object and printing its value. We can take any value as a parameter.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var emp1 = new Employee("Amita", 20, 30, "Indore") employeeInfo(emp1) defemployeeInfo(emp : Employee){ println("In this we are taking one user defined parameter.") println("Passing a user value ::") } } class Employee(name: String, Id:Int, Age: Int, address: String){ }

Output:

Conclusion

Functions are used to avoid the redundant code or repetitive code. It makes our code looks simple and more understandable. Also, we can easily debug our code and identified the error, if any. These Scala functions are the same as any other programming language. Keep in mind the return type and parameter list or signature of the function while working with them.

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## How Byte Types Work In Scala? Examples

Introduction to Scala Byte

Scala Byte contains 8-bit like any other programming language. Scala byte is a member of the value class, and this scala byte is equal to the java byte primitive type. In Scala, we cannot represent an instance of a byte as an object. In scala this byte is implicitly converted from byte to rich byte internally because, after conversion, it provides us some useful nonprimitive operations on it. Byte is basically an 8-bit signed integer, and also, scala byte is different from int data type.

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Syntax:

varvariable_name: Byte = value _of_variable

In the above syntax, we need to provide the variable name followed by the type of the variable. In our case, we have defined Byte as the data type for it. After that data type, we can assign value to the variable created.

How do Byte Types work in Scala?

But in general, language how it looks like we can see below:

1 Byte = 8-bit

We can say that it is a collection of 8-bit. These 8 bits represent in the form of 0 and 1. Also, it is the smallest unit of storage in the computer system. So we can say that a byte is a group of bits to store information.

For example, they look like:

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 representation in 0 and 1 format.

Now we can have a look at its hierarchy, extended class, supertupes:

Hierarchy:

Anyval

lang.Byte

RichByte

Double

Float

Long

Extends and super classes:

Anyval

Any

Example:

One simple program to know workings of scale.

Code:

object Main extends App{ valbyteResult = (20.toByte).^(2:Byte) println("now the result is  :: " + byteResult) }

We are defining a byte into our main function, followed by the methods that convert the value passed of bitwise XOR. Just holding this to our result variable to show the output. In Byte, we have an overflow problem which is related to the range of the byte. Scala byte ranges from -128 to 127. So if the range exceeds the mentioned range, it will start an overflow of bytes, and the reminder byte will display in the output.

KiloByteKB: This KB is measured and equal to 1024 bytes.

MegaByteMB: This MB is measured and equal to 1,048,576 bytes.

Gigabyte YB: This GB is measured and equal to 1,000 MB, or we can convert it into bytes of 1,073,741,824 bytes.

TeraByteTB: This TB is measured and equal to 1,000 GB, or we can convert it to a byte of 1,000,000,000,000 bytes.

We can measure the byte multiple for this. We have two systems i.e. base-10 or base-2.

Examples of Scala Byte

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 10 varb : Byte = 20 println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Example #2

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 10 varb : Byte = 20 valbyteResult = (a.toByte).<(b:Byte) println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 20 varb : Byte = 20 valbyteResult = (a.toByte).<=(b:Byte) println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Example #4 object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 20 varb : Byte = 20 valbyteResult = (a.toByte).==(b:Byte) println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Example #5

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 20 varb : Byte = 20 valbyteResult = (a.toByte).!=(b:Byte) println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Example #6

Code:

object Main extends App{ vara : Byte = 20 varb : Byte = 20 println("result for the above function is  ::: ") println(byteResult) }

Output:

Conclusion

So scala byte is like any other byte in a computer system or, we can say, in a programming language. One byte can be formed by using a collection of 8 bites or a group of 8 bits. We also have different types of bytes, which possess different memory storage accordingly. It also gave us various methods to work with it.

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## How Getorelse Function Works In Scala?

Definition of Scala getOrElse

This method is the part of option class in scala. Also, this method exists for both some and none class in scala. What it basically do is it just evaluates the value of the variable and return us the alternative value if the value is empty. This method works on two things success and fail. It will return us the actual value or the default value according to the response we get. This method is used to return an optional value.

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Below is the syntax for getOrElse methods as per the scala doc. This method will return us the optional value if the value is coming out to be empty otherwise it will give us the evaluates values or the actual value obtained. We will also see one practice example for better understand of syntax:

Example:

val myVar = toInt("200").getOrElse(10)

In the above line of syntax, we are declaring our variable and here we are trying to type case the string into integer and passing one default value to the getOrElse if the value is empty.

How getOrElse Function Works in Scala?

As we know getOrElse method is the member function of Option class in scala. This method is used to return an optional value. This option can contain two objects first is Some and another one is None in scala. Some class represent some value and None is represent a not defined value. All these classes can be found in the scala. Option package.

Some of the extended class,syper types of option values are as follow see below;

1. Exteded class available in scala for getOrElse method;

IterableOnce[A]

Product

Serializable

2. Linear type available in scala for getOrElse method;

AnyRef

Any

io.Serializable

Product

Equal

3. Some of the known sub classes available in scala for getOrElse method;

None Some

Now we will see one practical example and understand how it internally works;

object Main extends App{ valx:Option[Int] = Some(100) println("value for x is :: " + x.getOrElse(0) ) }

In this example, we are creating one Option variable and assigning it a value 100 by using Some class in scala. After this we are using the getOrElse method get the value of the variable. But here we have initialized some value to the variable so the output will be 100 here. If we have not initialized the value the output would be the default value that we have assigned to the getOrElse method. In order to use this method, the variable should be the instance of Option here because we can use this method as the optional value for variable in scala.

This method is used as an optional value provider in the scala if the input is empty.

We can provide any alternative value by using this method.

This method first evaluates the value and then return us the actual or we can say the calculated value.

While using Option class one thing we have to keep in mind is we have two Object Some and None. Some takes value and None means not defined value.

This method follows the success and failure approach which means success if value present fail if not present.

Examples of Scala getOrElse

Following are the examples are given below:

Example #1

In this example we are using the option class in scala to make use of getOrElse method. We have created two Integer variable for this to test.

Code:

object Main extends App{ valy:Option[Int] = None valx:Option[Int] = Some(100) val result1 =   x.getOrElse(0) val result2 =   y.getOrElse(0) println("value for the variable one is  :::") println(result1) println("value for the variable two is  :::") println(result2) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example we are creating the string objects and using getOrElse method with them here.

object Main extends App{ valy:Option[String] = None valx:Option[String] = Some("Hello some value here!!") val result1 =   x.getOrElse("No value provided !!") val result2 =   y.getOrElse("No value provided !!") println("value for the variable one is  :::") println(result1) println("value for the variable two is  :::") println(result2) }

Output:

Example #3

In this example, we are using more than one variable with getOrElse method n scala. By using some and none both class because we cannot directly call them on the normal variable it is not the function for them.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val variable1:Option[Int] = Some(90) val variable2:Option[Int] = Some(90) val variable3:Option[Int] = Some(90) val variable4:Option[Int] = Some(90) val variable5:Option[Int] = None val variable6:Option[Int] = None val variable7:Option[Int] = None val variable8:Option[Int] = None val result1 = variable1.getOrElse(0) val result2 = variable2.getOrElse(1) val result3 = variable3.getOrElse(2) val result4 = variable4.getOrElse(3) val result5 = variable5.getOrElse(4) val result6 = variable6.getOrElse(5) val result7 = variable7.getOrElse(6) val result8 = variable8.getOrElse(7) println("value for the variable one is  :::") println(result1) println("value for the variable two is  :::") println(result2) println("value for the variable three is  :::") println(result3) println("value for the variable four is  :::") println(result4) println("value for the variable five is  :::") println(result5) println("value for the variable six is  :::") println(result6) println("value for the variable seven is  :::") println(result7) println("value for the variable eight is  :::") println(result8) }

Output:

Conclusion

So getOrElse method can we used as an optional or a default value if the input provided is empty. We can use this in a scenario where we have to give some default value for the empty input. Also, it is very easy to use, readable and under stable by the developer, and also it is available for both Some and none class of Option in scala.

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## How Does Alias Work In Java With Programming Examples

Introduction to Java alias

In Java, when multiple references are used to refer to the same object, it is commonly referred to as “alias.”The issue with aliasing is when a user writes to a particular object, and the owner, for several other references, does not expect that object to change. Here, the code that includes aliasing can get confusing fast, and it is very tedious to debug as well. Let us see how Java Alias works.

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How does an alias work in Java?

Let us take an example. x and y are two variable names that have two types, X and Y. Y extends X.

Y[] y = new Y; X[] x = y; x =  new X(); Y.func1();

In memory as well, they both point to the same location.

The memory location which is pointed is pointed by x as well as y. However, the actual object saved chooses which method to call during runtime.

Let us see another example.

Rectangle b1 = new Rectangle (0, 0, 50, 150); Rectangle b2 = b1;

Both b1 and b2 refer to the same object, or we can say that the given object has two names, such as b1 and b2. Similar to a person that has two names, objects can also have two names.

When two aliased variables are present, changes that cause one variable also reflect on the other, as shown below.

System.out.println (b2.width); b1.grow (40, 40); System.out.println (b2.width);

On executing the code, you will see that the changes that have been caused on one rectangle have occurred in the second rectangle as well. This is one of the main things that has to be noted for Alias in Java.

Examples of Java Alias

The following are some of the sample programs on Java Alias.

Example #1

Code:

class X { public void func1() { System.out.println("called sample function 1"); } } class Y extends X { public void func1() { System.out.println("called sample function 1"); } public void func2() { System.out.println("called sample function 2"); } } public class AliasExample { public static void main(String[] args) { Y[] y = new Y; X[] x = y; x =  new X(); y.func1(); } }

Output:

How this occurs? What has to be changed? Is it possible to solve this?

Yes!! The only reason for this exception is that Java manages aliases during runtime. Only during the run time will it be able to know that the first one should be an object of Y instead of X.

class X { public void func1() { System.out.println("called sample function 1"); } } class Y extends X { public void func1() { System.out.println("called sample function 1"); } public void func2() { System.out.println("called sample function 2"); } } public class AliasExample { public static void main(String[] args) { Y[] y = new Y; X[] x = y; x =  new Y(); y.func1(); } }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

public class AliasExample { public static void main(String[] args) { int a= 87; int b=87; System.out.println(a == b); b=a; System.out.println(a == b); } }

What will happen if two arrays, a and b, are used instead of integer variables?

public class AliasExample { public static void main(String[] args) { int []a = {81, 54, 83}; int []b = {81, 54, 83}; System.out.println(a == b); b=a; System.out.println(a == b); } }

Output:

In this program, two arrays, a and b, are created in the first step. Then, similar to the above program, a and b check whether they are equal. On executing the code, it can be seen that the output for the first check is false, and the output for the second check is true. It is because Java Alias works.

Conclusion

The drawback of alias is when a user writes to a specific object, and the owner, for some other references, does not guess that object to change.

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## How Does Meshgrid Function Work In Numpy?

Definition of NumPy Meshgrid

In Python, meshgrid is a function that creates a rectangular grid out of 2 given 1-dimensional arrays that denote the Matrix or Cartesian indexing. MATLAB inspires it. This meshgrid function is provided by the module numpy. Coordinate matrices are returned from the coordinate vectors. In this, we will discuss more about meshgrid function in detail.

Syntax

Below is the syntax of meshgrid function in numpy.

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numpy.meshgrid(*xi, **kwargs)

1. x1, x2,…, xn

Required parameter

The parameter denotes the coordinates of the grids in the 1-D arrays.

2. indexing

Optional parameter

The parameter denotes the cartesian(‘xy’, default) or matrix indexing of the result.

3. Sparse

Optional parameter

Takes Boolean value

A sparse grid is returned for conserving memory if ‘True’ is passed.

Default value: False

4. Copy

Optional parameter

Takes Boolean value.

The original array’s view is returned for conserving memory if ‘false is passed.

Default value: False

If the parameters sparse and copy are set to False, non-contiguous arrays will be returned. Moreover, 1 or more elements of a broadcast array can point to a single memory location. Copies of the arrays have to be made first if writing has to be done into the arrays. The return value is Length of the coordinate from the coordinate vectors.

How does Meshgrid Function Work in NumPy?

In order to understand the working of meshgrid function in numpy, let us see an example.

Steps for creating meshgrid:

Import the module numpy.

importnumpy as np

Create two variables.

n1, n2 = (5, 3)

Create two arrays

a = np.linspace(0, 1, n1) b = np.linspace(0, 1, n2)

Call the meshgrid function with the arrays as parameters.

aa, bb = np.meshgrid(a, b)

Display the result

print(aa) print(bb) Examples of NumPy Meshgrid

Let us see some sample programs of meshgrid function.

Example #1

Python program to print the meshgrid coordinates of two arrays.

Code:

import numpy as np n1, n2 = (5, 3) a = np.linspace(0, 1, n1) b = np.linspace(0, 1, n2) aa, bb = np.meshgrid(a, b) print(aa) print(bb)

Output:

To execute this program, it is necessary to import the numpy module using the alias “np”. The code begins by creating two variables, “n1” and “n2”, and assigning them the values 5 and 3, respectively. The program imports the “numpy” module with the alias “np” and uses the linspace() function to create two arrays, “a” and “b”. The meshgrid() function is then called with the arrays “a” and “b” as arguments, and the resulting output is stored in the variables “aa” and “bb”. The values of “aa” and “bb” are printed. Two arrays containing the lengths and vectors of coordinates will be shown after the code is executed. Plotting functions within the given coordinate range is possible using these coordinate values.

Example #2

Python program to print the meshgrid coordinates of two arrays that are between specified values.

Code:

import numpy as np l = np.linspace(-7, -1, 9) k = np.linspace(-6, -2, 11) x1, y1 = np.meshgrid(l, k) print("x1 is : ") print(x1) print("y1 is : ") print(y1)

Output:

In this program, also,numpy modules have to be imported with any alias name. The alias name in this program is np. The program starts by creating two arrays, “l” and “k”, using the “linspace()” function. Then, two variables, “x1” and “y1”, are assigned the return value of the “meshgrid()” function, which takes the arrays “l” and “k” as inputs. The program then prints the values of “x1” and “y1”. When executed, the program displays two arrays containing coordinate lengths and coordinate vectors.

Example #3

Python program to print the meshgrid coordinates of two arrays where sparse is true.

Code:

import numpy as np n1, n2 = (5, 3) l = np.linspace(0, 1, n1) k = np.linspace(0, 1, n2) aa, bb = np.meshgrid(l, k, sparse=True) print(aa) print(bb)

To execute this program, you need to import the “numpy” module using the alias “np”. Create two variables named “n1” and “n2” with the values 5 and 3, respectively. Generate two arrays, “l” and “k”, using the “linspace()” function. Assign the return value of “meshgrid()” to the variables “x1” and “y1”. The “sparse” variable is set to True in order to conserve memory. Pass the “sparse” value along with the arrays “l” and “k” to the function. Finally, print the values of “x1” and “y1”. The format of these arrays may differ from the previous programs.

Example #4

Python program to print the meshgrid coordinates of two arrays and display contour lines.

Code:

import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt n = np.arange( -5, 5, 0.1 ) m = np.arange( -5, 5, 0.1 ) x, y = np.meshgrid( n, m, sparse=True ) c = chúng tôi x**2+ y**2  ) / ( x**2 + y**2 ) z = plt.contourf( n, m, c ) plt.show()

Output:

To run the program, import the “numpy” module with the alias “np”. Create two arrays, “n” and “m”, using the “arange()” function. Assign the return value of the “meshgrid()” function to the variables “x” and “y”. Set the variable “sparse” to True. Pass the arrays “n” and “m” along with the “sparse” value to the function. Declare a variable “z” and assign the return value of the “np.sin()” function to it. Finally, use the “plt.contourf()” function to plot the contour lines and filled contours.

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