Trending February 2024 # How To Convert Fat32 To Ntfs Without Losing Data In Windows 11/10? # Suggested March 2024 # Top 9 Popular

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Are you looking for methods to convert FAT32 disks to NTFS file systems without losing data? If so, this post will interest you.

FAT32 is the 32-bit version of the FAT (File Allocation Table) file system primarily used for USB drives, flash memory cards, and external hard drives. Similarly, NTFS, which stands for New Technology File System is a proprietary file system by Microsoft and it is suitable for large-capacity disks. Now, you may want to convert FAT32 to NTFS on your system, and the reason behind it can differ.

Apart from that, the NTFS file system has the upper hand over the FAT32 file system because it has better Read and Write speed, higher disk utilization, etc.

Can you convert FAT32 to NTFS? How to convert FAT32 to NTFS without losing data in Windows 11/10

To convert FAT 32 to NTFS without losing your data, you can use a convert command on Windows. Open Command Prompt with admin rights and enter a simple command to convert FAT32 to NTFS. If you are unfamiliar with Command Prompt, you can use a third-party GUI-based converter to perform FAT32 to NTFS conversion without deleting your data. Let us look at all the methods.

Convert FAT32 to NTFS without losing data using Command Prompt

You can convert FAT32 to NTFS without losing data through Command Prompt. All you need to do is enter a simple command and Windows will convert your drive from the FAT32 file system to NTFS. As simple as that.

First, open Command Prompt as an administrator. For that, open Windows Search, enter cmd in the search box, hover the mouse over the Command Prompt app, and choose the Run as administrator option.

In the administrator Command Prompt, enter the below command:

help convert

The above command will display the exact command with elaboration to convert your disk to an NTFS file system.

Now, enter a command with below syntax:

CONVERT volume /FS:NTFS [/V] [/CvtArea:filename] [/NoSecurity] [/X]

For example, if you want to convert an E drive having a FAT32 file system to NTFS without any additional attribute, your final command will look something like the below one:

CONVERT E: /FS:NTFS

Wait for the command to finish successfully. Once done, close Command Prompt. Your FAT32 drive will not be changed to the NTFS file system.

Read: How to enable or disable NTFS File Compression in Windows?

Use GUI-based converter software to perform FAT32 to NTFS conversion

Read: Best free NTFS to FAT32 converter software for Windows 11

1] AOMEI NTFS to FAT32 Converter

You can also use this dedicated free FAT32 to NTFS converter called AOMEI NTFS to FAT32 Converter. This software lets you convert FAT32 to NTFS and NTFS to FAT32 without losing any data.

It is a great FAT32 to NTFS converter. However, the free edition of this software has some limitations. To enjoy all its features, you must upgrade to the pro version.

See: How to format USB to NTFS in Windows?

2] EaseUS Partition Master

EaseUS Partition Master is a popular free disk and partition manager for Windows 11/10. Using it, you can also convert FAT32 to NTFS without losing your data. You can even use it to convert NTFS to FAT32.

It is an easy-to-use partition manager capable of converting FAT32 drives to an NTFS file system.

Read: NTFS FILE SYSTEM Blue Screen error on Windows.

3] MiniTool Partition Wizard

Another free software that you can use to convert FAT32 to NTFS is MiniTool Partition Wizard (Home Edition). It is one of the best free partition manager software using which you can create, delete, extend, and organize your disk partitions. It also offers a tool to perform file system conversion that allows you to convert FAT32 to NTFS.

I hope this post helps you convert FAT32 to NTFS without erasing or losing your data.

Now read: Repair damaged RAW Drive without formatting or losing Data.

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How To Convert Azw To Mobi In Windows 11/10

Now, if you need to convert an AZW eBook to MOBI format, how can you do that? In this post, we are going to find out methods to perform AZW to MOBI conversion. There are basically three different methods that we are going to discuss. Let us check out these methods now.

How to convert AZW to MOBI in Windows 11/10

Here are the main methods using which you can convert an AZW eBook to MOBI format on Windows 11/10:

Use Calibre to convert AZW to MOBI.

Try a dedicated converter software to convert AZW to MOBI.

Convert AZW to MOBI using a free online tool.

1] Use Calibre to convert AZW to MOBI

You can use Calibre to convert an AZW eBook to MOBI format. Using it, you can also convert AZW to many other eBook formats like EPUB, LIT, PDF, PDB, RB, LRF, TCR, DOCX, RTF, etc.

Calibre is a free and open-source eBook manager for Windows. It provides a lot of handy eBook-related tools that allow you to read eBooks, edit eBooks, organize your eBook library, remove eBook DRM, edit ebook metadata, download and save news in the format of eBooks, download free eBooks from various online sources, etc. Apart from these tools, you can also find an eBook converter that lets you batch convert eBooks from one format to another. You can use this tool to convert AZW to MOBI.

How to batch convert AZW to MOBI in Calibre:

Here are the basic steps to convert multiple AZW ebooks to MOBI format in Calibre:

Download and install Calibre.

Open Calibre and add source AZW ebooks.

Set output format to MOBI.

Customize the output options.

First, make sure you have Calibre installed on your Windows 11/10 PC. You can download it from its official website and then install it. Calibre also provides a portable version that you can download and use on the go without installation.

In the new dialog window, select EPUB as the output format and configure various output options to customize the resulting MOBI eBooks. You can customize options like look & feel, table of content, page setup, layout, etc.

Calibre is one of the best eBook management that allows you to convert AZW eBooks to MOBI and many more eBook formats.

Read: How to convert PDF to MOBI on Windows.

2] Try a dedicated converter software to convert AZW to MOBI

You can even use a free desktop converter application to convert your AZW eBooks to MOBI format. There are some eBook converter software that you can use. However, if you want to use a free one, there are not many. Here, we are going to mention this free eBook converter called Any eBook Converter that lets you convert AZW to MOBI.

Read: Best free ePub to PDF converter tools for Windows

Any eBook Converter is a dedicated free eBook converter using which you can convert your eBooks. Along with several eBook files, you can also convert AZW to MOBI format. Besides MOBI, it also supports some other output eBook formats to convert your eBooks, like EPUB, TXT, PDF, KFX, etc.

How to convert AZW to MOBI using Any eBook Converter?

Here are the main steps to convert an AZW eBook to MOBI using Any eBook Converter:

Download and install Any eBook Converter.

Open Any eBook Converter.

Add the source AZW eBook.

Set MOBI as the output format.

Edit eBook metadata if required.

Now, browse and select an input AZW eBook that you want to convert. Next, select the MOBI format from the bottom of the interface by pressing the Convert to drop-down button.

In case you need to modify eBook metadata prior to the conversion, you can do that too. For that, press the Pen icon available next to the imported AZW eBook. You can then modify eBook metadata e.g., title, author, date, language, book cover, etc.

Finally, tap on the Convert to MOBI button to start the AZW to MOBI conversion process.

It is a great eBook converter using which you can convert AZW to MOBI as well as several other eBook formats. In it, you can also find features like eBook Library and Kindle eReader.

Note: It is primarily a batch eBook converter, but the batch conversion feature is paid. So, you will have to upgrade to its pro version in order to convert multiple eBooks at a time through it.

Read: Convert FB2 to EPUB using free software and online tools.

3] Convert AZW to MOBI using a free online tool

One of the easiest methods to convert AZW to MOBI is using a free online tool. Just open the website in a web browser, import your eBook, and convert it to MOBI format. As simple as that.

Now, if you want to convert AZW to MOBI online, here are some nice free online tools that you can try:

ToePub

Firstly, go to the chúng tôi website in a web browser.

Now, browse and choose one or multiple AZW eBooks that you want to convert.

Next, choose MOBI as the output format.

Lastly, download the resulting MOBI files to your PC.

It is a good online eBooks converter that lets you convert AZW to MOBI for free. Apart from eBooks, it lets you convert audio, video, images, documents, and more.

Read:

Another free online tool that you can use to convert AZW to MOBI is chúng tôi As its name suggests, you can convert different types of files using it. The good thing is that it lets you convert an AZW eBook file as large as 1 GB. Also, it lets you customize options like font scaling, eBook margin, input file encoding, and more before conversion.

It is a good online tool that lets you convert AZW to MOBI and more eBook formats. Plus, you can batch convert files through it. You can try it here.

See: How to convert CBR or CBZ to PDF in Windows 11/10?

You can also chúng tôi as an AZW to MOBI converter. It lets you batch convert AZW to EPUB online. It lets you convert up to 10 ebooks at a time.

It is basically an online eBook converter tool that allows the conversion of eBooks from one format to another. Some supported input and output ebook formats in it include AZW, EPUB, MOBI, PDF, TXT, etc.

Here are the basic steps to convert AZW to MOBI online using this free online tool:

Firstly, open the chúng tôi website in your web browser.

Next, upload the source AZW eBooks from your computer.

After that, select MOBI as the output eBook format.

If you want, you can customize the eBook reader, title, and author.

There is an Automatically start option provided by this online tool. This feature basically starts eBook conversion as soon as you add the source eBooks. You can enable this feature before conversion if you want to use it.

Read: How to convert PDF to MOBI on Windows 11/10?

To start with, simply open chúng tôi in a web browser and go to its eBook converter page. After that, choose the Convert To MOBI option and press the Choose Files button to upload one or more AZW eBooks. You can upload the source files from PC, URL, Dropbox, and Google Drive.

Next, customize the target ebook reader and configure options like ebook title, ebook author, version, base font size, add a border, etc. Finally, you can hit the Start Conversion button and it will convert your AZW eBooks to MOBI format that you can download.

If you liked it, you can use it here.

Read: Edit EPUB Formatted eBooks with Sigil EPUB ebook Editor.

E) ToePub

ToePub is yet another free online AZW to MOBI converter tool. Unlike its name, it also lets you convert your eBooks to other eBook formats than EPUB. It supports MOBI and other eBook formats like FB2, LIT, LRF, etc.

You can open ToePub’s website in a web browser. Now, navigate to the MOBI tab and upload the source AZW eBooks for conversion. It will start converting your eBooks as soon as you add them. Once done, you will be able to download the resulting MOBI eBooks to your PC.

RELATED: How to convert LIT to EPUB or MOBI in Windows?

How do I convert an AZW file?

To convert an AZW file on your Windows PC, you can use Calibre. It is a famous eBook manager that provides a batch eBook converter. Using it, you can convert AZW to a wide number of output eBook formats like EPUB, MOBI, PDF, DOCX, RTF, and more. Besides that, you can also use a free desktop converter application like Any eBook Converter or a free online tool like CloudConvert to convert an AZW eBook.

How do I convert Kindle AZW to EPUB?

You can convert AZW to EPUB using a free online tool. There are some free web services that let you do so like chúng tôi chúng tôi ToePub, etc. You can open any of these websites in a web browser, upload the source AZW files, and then convert them to EPUB format. Apart from that, if you want to use a free desktop application, you can try Calibre or Any eBook Converter.

How do I read AZW files?

You can read AZW eBooks on Windows PC using a free third-party application. There are free software like Calibre and Kindle Previewer that you can use to open and view AZW eBooks.

Now read: 

Best free DRM removal software for eBooks for Windows PC.

How to convert an eBook into an Audiobook in Windows 11/10.

How To Convert Cr2 To Png, Jpg, Gif In Windows 11/10

In this post, we are going to show you how to convert CR2 images to various standard image formats like PNG, JPG, BMP, GIF, and more. CR2 (Canon Raw Version 2) is a raw image file format that is used to store images captured by Canon digital cameras.

Being a raw image, the file size of CR2 images is too large which makes it hard to share. Plus, it is only supported in a few third-party applications and can’t be viewed or edited in regular image software. Hence, you need to convert CR2 images to common image formats like PNG, JPG, GIF, etc. to make it easy to open, view, edit, or share. Let us check out how.

How to convert CR2 to JPG offline free?

To convert CR2 to JPG for free offline, you can download and install a free image converter software on your computer. There are some raw image converters using which you can import CR2 images and convert them to JPG format quickly. PhotoScape, SageThumbs, digiKam, and ImBatch are some examples of offline CR2 image converter software. Besides that, you can even use the popular image editing software chúng tôi to convert CR2 to JPG. We have discussed the detailed steps below, so check out.

How do I convert CR2 to PNG?

There are some free online tools to convert CR2 to PNG. You can use Zamzar, Convertio, AnyConv, or MiConv web service to quickly convert your CR2 images to PNG format. Apart from that, you can also use a desktop application like XnConvert for CR2 to PNG conversion.

How to convert CR2 to PNG, JPG, GIF in Windows 11/10

You can convert a CR2 image to commonly used formats like PNG, JPG, GIF, BMP, and more using two methods. Here are the two methods:

Use a free desktop application to convert CR2 to other image formats offline.

Use a free online tool to convert CR2 to PNG, JPEG, GIF, etc.

Convert CR2 images in chúng tôi using an additional plugin.

1] Use a free desktop application to convert CR2 to other image formats offline

If you want to perform the conversion offline, you can use a desktop application that lets you convert a CR2 image to various other image formats. There are plenty of free image converters that can also convert raw images. Chasys Draw IES Converter is one such software using which you can perform CR2 image conversion.

Chasys Draw IES Converter is an image converter that can be used for converting cameras as well as other standard image formats. It is a part of the image processing suite called Chasys Draw IES that you can download from here. You can then install the software on your computer and launch the Chasys Draw IES Converter application on your computer.

Next, in the opened GUI, choose the source folder where you have stored the input CR2 images. The good thing about this software is that it lets you batch convert CR2 images. Plus, it supports a lot of output formats to convert CR2 images including JPG, PNG, GIF, BMP, TIFF, TGA, WebP, etc.

Another software that allows you to convert CR2 images to JPG is PhotoScape. It provides a Raw Converter tool that can be used for converting raw images like CR2 to JPG format. However, it only supports JPG as output. If you want to convert CR2 to PNG, GIF, BMP, or some other format, consider using some other software we have listed here.

Some other software that you can use for converting CR2 images to common image formats are:

See: How to convert PDF to SVG in Windows?

2] Use a free online tool to convert CR2 to PNG, JPEG, GIF, etc.

Another method to convert your CR2 images to PNG, JPEG, GIF, and other formats is to try a free online tool. Online tools like FreeConvert, image.online-convert, CloudConvert, and OnlineConvertFree can be used to convert CR2 images to multiple formats.

It is very easy to convert CR2 images online. If you want to use CloudConvert, open its website in a preferred web browser and then import one or multiple input CR2 images. After that, set the output format for each added image. It supports formats like BMP, JPG, GIF, PNG, WEBP, PS, EPS, PSD, etc. Furthermore, it also lets you customize output settings like width, height, fit, quality, etc. When done, press the Convert button to start the image conversion.

Similarly, you can use other mentioned online CR2 image converter tools.

Read: How to view and edit a KDC file in Windows?

3] Convert CR2 images in chúng tôi using an additional plugin

If you use chúng tôi on your computer, you can convert CR2 images through it. However, to do that, you will be required to install an additional plugin.

Paint.Net doesn’t natively support camera raw images. Hence, you need to add an additional plugin to make it open, edit, and convert raw images. There are multiple raw image plugins for chúng tôi available on the internet. We will be using this plugin called RAW FileType from chúng tôi Let us see how to use this plugin to convert CR2 images to PNG, JPG, and other formats in Paint.NET.

How to convert CR2 images in Paint.NET?

To start with, make sure you have chúng tôi already installed on your system. After that, download the RAW FileType plugin from chúng tôi Once downloaded, extract the ZIP folder and from the extracted folder, copy the following files and folders:

RawFileType.dll

RawFileTypeOptions.txt

LibRaw

Now, open File Explorer using Win+E and navigate to the FileTypes folder in the installation directory of chúng tôi By default, you will find it at the following location: C:Program FilesPaint.NETFileTypes. Next, paste the previously copied files and folder in this location.

Download this plugin from here.

Hope this tutorial helps!

Now read: How to open RAW image in Adobe Photoshop CS6 or CC?

How To Enable Remote Desktop Without Password In Windows 11/10

By default, PC users are required to have a password to be able to access and use the native Remote Desktop feature in the Windows operating system. In this post, we will show you the steps for the methods on how to enable Remote Desktop without Password in Windows 11/10.

Due to Windows authentication issues which has to do with a user account and password, when you attempt to establish a Remote Desktop connection to a remote Windows-based machine, to remotely logon to the machine, the logon may fail with the Remote Desktop client displaying any one of the following error messages.

Your credentials did not work.

Unable to log you on because of an account restriction.

An authentication error has occurred. The Local Security Authority cannot be contacted

One of the likely reasons you may get any one of these RDP authentication errors could be that you’re trying to connect and log in remotely via Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) with a user account without a password set or username with a blank (null) password. The obvious solution, in this case, is to set a password which nonetheless is recommended for security reasons for the user account that requires to logon remotely to a computer via Remote Desktop. However, if some reason you’re unable or cannot assign a password to the user account, then you can see below for how you can easily enable remote login with blank passwords.

How to enable Remote Desktop without Password in Windows 11/10

Generally, Remote Desktop is a client application that allows a “client” computer to connect to a “host” computer from a remote location allowing users to control and use the applications and files on the host device from anywhere. In the Windows OS, by default, if you don’t have a password, the remote desktop won’t work because of the settings in the security policy that is set to not allow or grant a user access without a password.

However, if you want to enable and use remote desktop without a password on your Windows 11/10 computer, you can do so in either of the following ways:

Configure Local Group Policy

Configure Local Security Policy

Modify the Windows Registry

Let’s look at the description of the steps involved as it relates to each of the listed methods. Note that this configuration to enable blank or null passwords logon must be done on the host computer, that is the remote computer you intend to remotely control.

1] Configure Local Group Policy (GPEDIT.msc)

To configure Local Group Policy to enable and use remote desktop without a password on Windows 11/10, follow these steps:

Press the Windows key + R to invoke the Run dialog.

In the Run dialog box type gpedit.msc and hit Enter to open Local Group Policy Editor.

Inside the Local Group Policy Editor, use the left pane to navigate to the path below:

In the properties window that opens, set the radio button to Disabled.

Exit Local Group Policy Editor.

You can enable and use Remote Desktop (RDP) in Windows Home edition and you can easily add the Local Group Policy Editor feature and then follow the instructions as provided above or you can do the Local Security Policy or tweak the Registry as described below.

Read: The logon attempt failed error while connecting to Remote Desktop

2] Configure Local Security Policy (Secpol.msc)

To configure the Local Security Policy to enable and use remote desktop without a password on Windows 11/10, follow these steps:

Press the Windows key + R to invoke the Run dialog.

In the Run dialog box type secpol.msc and hit Enter to open Local Security Policy Editor.

Inside the Local Security Policy Editor, use the left pane to navigate to the path below:

In the properties window that opens, set the radio button to Disabled.

Exit Local Security Policy Editor.

Read: Harden Windows Login Password Policy & Account Lockout Policy

3] Modify the Windows Registry (Regedit.exe)

The “LimitBlankPasswordUse” registry key stores the value of the policy set above in the Local Group Policy and Local Security Policy. To allow for Remote Desktop logon with a user account without a password, simply set the value data for the aforementioned registry key to the value 0 so that there is no limit on blank or null password use.

To modify the Windows Registry to enable and use remote desktop without a password on Windows 11/10, follow these steps:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlLsa

Input 0 in the Value data field.

Exit Registry Editor.

Alternatively, you can create a REG file and then use the file to automatically set the value of the LimitBlankPasswordUse registry key to 0. Here’s how:

Press the Windows key + R to invoke the Run dialog.

In the Run dialog box, type notepad and hit Enter to open Notepad.

Copy and paste the code below into the text editor.

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00 [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlLsa] "LimitBlankPasswordUse"=dword:00000000

Choose a location (preferably the desktop) where you want to save the file.

Enter a name with .reg extension (eg;  chúng tôi ).

Choose All Files from the Save as type drop-down list.

You can now delete the .reg file if you like.

Similarly, you can edit the registry via Command Prompt for the same outcome by following these steps:

Press the Windows key + R to invoke the Run dialog.

In the Run dialog box, type cmd and then press CTRL + SHIFT + ENTER to open Command Prompt in admin/elevated mode.

In the command prompt window, copy and paste the command below and hit Enter:

reg.exe Add "HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlLsa" /V "LimitBlankPasswordUse" /T REG_DWORD /D "0"

Exit CMD prompt once the command executes.

Read: Enable or Disable Your remote session will be disconnected RDC prompt

That’s it on how to enable Remote Desktop without a Password in Windows 11/10! But you can use third-party remote desktop tools like Google Remote Desktop, VNC, TeamViewer, etc as they don’t rely on Windows authentication.

Also read:

How do I stop RDP from asking for credentials?

Open Registry Editor.

Navigate to the key below:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPolicies

Select System.

Change its Value data to 0.

Reboot your computer for the change to take effect.

Read: Save Remote Desktop Connection Settings to RDP File in Windows

How do I make Windows 11 not ask for password?

To make Windows 11 not ask for password, you need to disable all the security settings, including PIN or Password. You can use the Command Prompt to get the job done quickly. For that, enter net user command first. Then, enter this command: net user USERNAME *. You need to press the Enter key twice to remove the password.

Read: Fix Remote Desktop connection issues & errors on Windows.

How To Download Windows 11/10 Iso Without Using Media Creation Tool

Many a time you need to download Windows ISO files to install Windows 11 or Windows 10 fresh on your PC. The reason to do that could be because your Windows 11/10 Upgrade didn’t go well or your existing installation got corrupt, and the only way out is to install the operating system again.

Microsoft offers you to download ISO files from their website, but only using Media Creation Tool. This tool lets you create a bootable USB. The drawback of this method is you will have to re-download the files, again and again, every time you need it. In this post, we are talking about a procedure to download Windows 11 or Windows 10 ISO files directly from Microsoft servers, without using the multimedia tool.

Download Windows 11 ISO without using Media Creation Tool

You can easily download Windows 11 ISO without using Media Creation Tool from the official website of Microsoft. Just follow the given steps and you will be good to go.

Scroll down to Download Windows 11 Disk Image (ISO), and from the drop-down menu, select Windows 11.

Finally, wait for the process to complete and Windows 11 ISO file will be downloaded.

How do I install Windows 11 from ISO?

To install Windows 11 from an ISO file, you can use different methods. You can use Rufus to create a bootable USB and then install the OS, or you can create Windows 11 bootable installation media using the Media Creation Tool. Or if you want a portable option, you can create a Windows To Go version of the OS on a suitable USB and then use it to utilize Windows 11 on your computer.

Download Windows 10 ISO without using Media Creation Tool

Similarly, you can easily download Windows 10 ISO without using Media Creation Tool from the official website of Microsoft. Just follow the given steps and you will be good to go.

Scroll down to Download Windows 11 Disk Image (ISO), and from the drop-down menu, select Windows 11.

That said, the process is completely legal, and we are doing it so we don’t have to download the ISO again, and again.

However, if you are updating a number of PCs or a PC that doesn’t have direct access to the internet or is restricted, this will come in handy.

Should I install Windows 11 on an unsupported PC?

Windows 11 is new and exciting, and it is enticing to use something new, but you have to think about the consequences it can have on your computer. It can make your computer sluggish, as the new OS is not optimized to work on your system.

Microsoft has also ensured that they will continue to support Windows 11 until October 2025. So, you can rest assured that you won’t face any issues if you continue to use Windows 10.

However, there is still a way by which you can use Windows 11 on your  PC, that is to install it on a Virtual Machine. You can install Windows 11 on VirtualBox or VMware and get a similar experience.

But, if you want to, you can install Windows 11 on unsupported hardware. So, do that, and see how your computer responds. Sometimes, it can run smoothly as well, so, try and decide for yourself.

Is Windows 11 faster than Windows 10?

According to Microsoft, Windows 11 is faster than Windows 10, and they are backing this claim by giving us the reason for the same.

Windows 11, will have better memory management, so, you will notice that more apps will stay in the memory. This also means that apps will launch quicker than earlier, and the time to wake from sleep will also be less. So, all in all, we can say that Windows 11 will have better memory optimization than its predecessor.

They have also dialed up the efficiency resulting in a well-balanced system, with ample power and a good battery. Windows 11 has a smaller footprint than Windows 10, which will help you to save a few extra GBs. So, we can conclude that if you are installing Windows 11 on a supported system, it will be more powerful than Windows 10.

Read: Download Windows 11/10 Enterprise Trial Version Setup Free.

How To Convert Strings In R Data Frame To Unique Integers?

To convert strings in R data frame to unique integers, we first need to extract the unique strings in the data frame and then read them inside data.frame function with as.numeric along with factor function.

Check out the below Examples to understand how it works.

Example 1

Consider the below data frame −

x1<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) x2<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) x3<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) df1<-data.frame(x1,x2,x3) df1

The following dataframe is created

       x1      x2 x3 1     Hot  Normal     Hot 2     Hot     Hot  Normal 3     Hot  Normal     Hot 4     Hot    Cold Normal 5     Hot    Cold Hot 6     Hot     Hot Cold 7     Hot    Cold Cold 8  Normal    Cold Cold 9     Hot  Normal Cold 10    Hot     Hot Hot 11 Normal  Normal Hot 12 Normal  Normal Normal 13    Hot     Hot Cold 14 Normal    Cold Cold 15    Hot     Hot Hot 16   Cold     Hot Normal 17    Hot     Hot Hot 18    Hot     Hot Cold 19    Hot    Cold Cold 20   Cold     Hot Hot

To extract the unique values in data frame df1 on the above created data frame, add the following code to the above snippet −

x1<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) x2<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) x3<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) df1<-data.frame(x1,x2,x3) Unique_df1<- unique(c(as.character(df1$x1),as.character(df1$x2),as.character(df1$x3))) Unique_df1 Output

If you execute all the above given snippets as a single program, it generates the following Output −

[1] "Hot" "Normal" "Cold"

To convert the string values in df1 to unique numeric values on the above created data frame, add the following code to the above snippet −

x1<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) x2<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) x3<-sample(c("Hot","Normal","Cold"),20,replace=TRUE) df1<-data.frame(x1,x2,x3) Unique_df1<- unique(c(as.character(df1$x1),as.character(df1$x2),as.character(df1$x3))) df1<- data.frame(x1=as.numeric(factor(df1$x1,levels=Unique_df1)),x2=as.numeric(factor (df1$x2,levels=Unique_df1)),x3=as.numeric(factor(df1$x3,levels=Unique_df1))) df1 Output

If you execute all the above given snippets as a single program, it generates the following Output −

x1 x2 x3 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 1 4 1 3 2 5 1 3 1 6 1 1 3 7 1 3 3 8 2 3 3 9 1 2 3 10 1 1 1 11 2 2 1 12 2 2 2 13 1 1 3 14 2 3 3 15 1 1 1 16 3 1 2 17 1 1 1 18 1 1 3 19 1 3 3 20 3 1 1 Example 2

Following snippet creates a sample data frame −

y1<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) y2<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) y3<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) df2<-data.frame(y1,y2,y3) df2

The following dataframe is created

y1 y2 y3 1 Rainy Winter Rainy 2 Summer Rainy Summer 3 Summer Spring Summer 4 Summer Spring Winter 5 Winter Winter Rainy 6 Summer Rainy Winter 7 Winter Winter Rainy 8 Winter Summer Spring 9 Spring Summer Winter 10 Summer Summer Spring 11 Rainy Rainy Spring 12 Rainy Winter Summer 13 Summer Spring Spring 14 Summer Summer Winter 15 Spring Spring Winter 16 Spring Spring Spring 17 Winter Spring Spring 18 Winter Rainy Summer 19 Winter Spring Winter 20 Winter Summer Summer

To extract the unique values in data frame df2 on the above created data frame, add the following code to the above snippet −

y1<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) y2<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) y3<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) df2<-data.frame(y1,y2,y3) Unique_df2<- unique(c(as.character(df2$y1),as.character(df2$y2),as.character(df2$y3))) Unique_df2 Output

If you execute all the above given snippets as a single program, it generates the following Output −

[1] "Rainy" "Summer" "Winter" "Spring"

To convert the string values in df2 to unique numeric values on the above created data frame, add the following code to the above snippet −

y1<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) y2<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) y3<-sample(c("Summer","Rainy","Winter","Spring"),20,replace=TRUE) df2<-data.frame(y1,y2,y3) Unique_df2<- unique(c(as.character(df2$y1),as.character(df2$y2),as.character(df2$y3))) df2<- data.frame(y1=as.numeric(factor(df2$y1,levels=Unique_df2)),y2=as.numeric(factor (df2$y2,levels=Unique_df2)),y3=as.numeric(factor(df2$y3,levels=Unique_df2))) df2 Output

If you execute all the above given snippets as a single program, it generates the following Output −

y1 y2 y3 1 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 5 3 3 1 6 2 1 3 7 3 3 1 8 3 2 4 9 4 2 3 10 2 2 4 11 1 1 4 12 1 3 2 13 2 4 4 14 2 2 3 15 4 4 3 16 4 4 4 17 3 4 4 18 3 1 2 19 3 4 3 20 3 2 2

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