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Introduction to Webservice in Java

Nowadays, the Internet has become an inseparable thing from our life. We get service from different web applications over the internet via webservices. So, webservice is inevitable for running Internet activities. Here in this article, we will discuss how to create web services using a java programming language. In this topic, we are going to learn about How to Create Webservice in Java.

What is Webservice in Java?

Web service is primarily responsible for communication between different programming languages, which is achieved over the network. For example, PHP can talk with .NET via web services. Basically, it provides inter-language communication through the web. So, those services which are accessible through the network are web services.

But there is another item called a web application that users can also access. But web applications are significantly different from web services in many aspects. Web applications can be accessed using web browsers, and applications are in simple, readable formats. But web services can access data in JSON, XML, etc.

Web services use REST or SOAP protocol, whereas web applications follow HTTPs/HTTP protocols. Basically, Web applications use web services for data acquisitions and operations. Web applications are stateful, which means they may store user sessions, but web services do not.

To summarize, web service and web applications are two different things and serve different purposes.

Types of Web Services in Java

Let us have looked at different types of web services:

1. SOAP

This is basically based on XML, which Microsoft creates. Since a long, Simple Object Access Protocol is a standard for designing and developing web services. XML provides language independence to SOAP. Therefore, client and server applications are of different languages; SOAP can provide seamless service, ensuring their smooth operability for client and server communications.

2. REST

It allows many formats like JSON, XML, etc. This feature gives REST better flexibility. Representational State Transfer (REST) based web services are mostly used nowadays for their simplicity and better integration with web clients. As REST supports JSON, it provides faster and easier parsing than SOAP. Many companies like Google, Amazon, and Yahoo use REST for their web services.

Java Web Services

Java has in-built APIs for SOAP and REST; you can create your own web service by using those. For SOAP, java has JAX-WS. For REST, java has JAX-RS. You can write either JAS-WS or JAX-RS based web services as per your requirements. Both JAX-WS and JAX-RS are integrated with standard JDK so that you do not require external jars to get the required libraries. Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is the language by which java web services can interact with other web services or applications.

1. JAX-WS

For XML Web Services (JAX-WS), Java API is basically a SOAP-based web service in java for client-server applications. As it is based on SOAP, it purely based on XML. It uses various annotations to ease overall build and deploy for web services in the server. Two styles you can follow while writing JAX-WS: Document style and RPC style

2. JAX-RS

Java API for RESTful Web Services is basically a REST-based web service in java for client-server applications. As it is based on REST, it is based on JSON, XML. It also uses various annotations to ease overall build and deploy for web services in the server. Two styles you can follow while writing JAX-WS: RESTeasy and Jersey style.

How to Create Webservice in Java?

Here we will use Eclipse IDE for this. You just need to follow step by step as mentioned below with screenshots to create a simple web service in java.

On the server tab, add one server (here I am using tomcat) in which you will run your web services.

After that, you can see the server is created in the “Stopped” state; we will start the servers before running our application.

Now we will start our server.

Now we will open project explorer for java EE.

Now we will create our web service.

Could you give it a name (here, WebAdder)? Follow the below picture and do exactly the same as what is in there.

You will see your project is added as below

Now create a class.

This class will be acting as a web service, so whatever methods we will write inside this class will act as web service methods.

Step 9: Below is the code:

package com.tutorial.ws; public class WebAdder { public int addition (int nm1, int nm2){ return nm1+nm2; } }

Now we want to make the class and method as a web service; for this we need to do the following:

On the next page, as in the below screenshot, you can see that, addition () method becomes a web service method that will go in the WSDL document.

Step 13: Then, you will see that two fields will come, num1 and num2, to provide user input.  Refer to the below screenshot:

Step 14: Give some random integer values to get the result

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How To Create An S4 Object In R?

> data1<-new(“data1”,x1=rnorm(20),x2=rexp(20,1.12)) > data1

Output An object of class "data1" Slot "x1": [1] -0.586187627 0.853689097 -0.602612795 -2.194235741 -1.318522292 [6] -0.984882420 0.273584140 0.364691611 1.025472248 1.198547297 [11] -0.709282551 -0.001441127 -0.201348012 1.296811172 1.520093861 [16] 2.071031215 0.472877022 0.616211695 0.642165615 -0.122773000 Slot "x2": [1] 0.38902289 0.20631450 0.02105516 0.24891420 2.37347874 0.43704064 [7] 0.79887672 1.95711822 0.69214407 1.17875759 0.10490338 0.69417206 [13] 0.60324447 0.03573967 0.27204874 1.63015638 1.94575940 2.97829841 > data2<-new("data2",x1=rpois(200,5),x2=rexp(50,1.12)) > data2 Output An object of class "data2" Slot "x1": [1] 3 7 4 8 5 7 5 11 6 4 5 3 2 7 5 5 4 3 7 8 12 6 10 6 3 [26] 7 7 6 4 2 6 6 8 7 8 8 5 2 3 4 7 2 4 1 3 4 7 4 10 5 [51] 7 2 4 3 8 6 4 4 6 7 8 4 5 5 3 4 2 7 7 6 1 6 3 5 2 [76] 5 6 7 3 7 5 7 5 8 2 4 4 2 3 6 1 6 5 5 3 4 3 8 5 7 [101] 4 3 8 2 6 3 3 5 1 2 4 6 4 6 2 4 4 4 4 9 4 4 7 2 9 [126] 4 3 4 3 4 7 5 5 2 2 6 4 6 5 5 6 8 4 7 6 3 7 7 7 8 [151] 8 6 4 7 4 4 3 10 4 6 2 5 5 4 4 6 7 5 7 0 6 8 5 8 9 [176] 3 5 5 4 8 4 4 6 5 7 9 6 2 2 2 5 9 3 5 3 3 4 6 2 6 Slot "x2": [1] 0.03141964 0.49307236 0.31423727 0.43521757 0.52619093 0.70795201 [7] 0.35462825 0.59378101 0.10527933 0.70027538 0.44882733 0.43956142 [13] 0.09664605 0.50706106 1.65260142 0.36428909 0.61297587 1.01703946 [19] 0.89316946 0.59825470 1.32223944 1.77853473 0.19214180 4.76283291 [25] 0.51096582 1.07728540 0.94746461 1.03008930 0.80508219 2.91018171 [31] 0.13807893 0.98123535 0.71989867 1.32550897 0.86492233 0.06968105 [37] 0.75559512 0.27958713 0.18840316 1.39449247 3.78111847 0.26038046 [43] 0.02072275 0.81411699 0.89175522 0.13439256 1.16051005 1.00565524 > data3<-new("data3",x1=sample(LETTERS[1:4],50,replace=TRUE),x2=rexp(50,1.12)) > data3 Output An object of class "data3" Slot "x1": [1] "C" "D" "A" "C" "D" "D" "C" "D" "C" "A" "A" "B" "C" "D" "C" "D" "C" "A" "D" [20] "C" "C" "A" "B" "B" "C" "D" "D" "B" "B" "C" "A" "C" "D" "A" "C" "D" "A" "C" [39] "C" "C" "B" "C" "B" "B" "D" "C" "A" "C" "A" "A" Slot "x2": [1] 0.15262639 0.18257750 0.66531800 0.90077904 0.31199878 0.15326597 [7] 0.14915567 0.09891334 1.91290294 1.64658850 0.17738544 0.07428495 [13] 0.51221999 1.19112341 0.16764472 1.29586175 0.67945778 0.33704154 [19] 0.21145555 0.28791368 0.95651553 0.48383674 0.76274501 0.71038690 [25] 1.34688895 1.77748828 0.63969314 0.29701294 0.04734766 1.02116237 [31] 0.27368908 0.04268661 0.77449047 3.70772112 0.40526753 0.06333750 [37] 0.26435011 1.03701168 0.08280528 0.86331936 0.15271265 1.45303032 [43] 0.04458336 0.54749522 0.44025731 0.20837975 0.21421977 0.16732185 > data4<-new("data4",x1=sample(as.logical(c(0,1)),50,replace=TRUE),x2=rnorm(50,1,0.50)) > data4 Output An object of class "data4" Slot "x1": [1] FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE [13] TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE [25] TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE [37] TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE [49] TRUE FALSE Slot "x2": [1] 1.4535492 0.8230134 0.9926188 0.9236218 0.9568131 1.2355998 [7] -0.2649343 1.4839302 0.6435250 0.8384010 1.4399601 1.3696312 [13] 0.2847440 0.6539318 1.2568808 1.4457016 1.1884043 1.3024577 [19] 1.5923689 1.2796569 0.9942924 0.6104080 0.4510600 0.9901056 [25] 0.9496257 1.1278555 0.5048898 1.0492706 1.5142966 0.8459955 [31] 1.4398791 1.0121801 0.9473674 0.2266796 1.3360711 0.2354370 [37] 0.4838408 1.4131759 0.1566150 1.4218652 1.1542315 2.0074517 [43] 1.0019310 0.3909861 0.6707586 0.9373494 1.4065083 0.1781948 [49] 1.4708116 1.1577926

How To Create An Empty Array In Swift?

In Swift, there are several ways to create an empty array. All approaches are very easy to create an array. Manytimes, creating an empty array is most common requirement in your apps. You can create empty array of any type. In this article, you will see different ways to construct an empty array.

Syntax

In Swift, you can create an empty array of a certain type using the following syntax −

var arrayName = [Type]()

Or you can use this alternate syntax −

var arrayName: [Type] = []

Both syntaxes work similarly in Swift.

For example, if you want to create an empty array of integers, you can use

var myArray = [Int]()

This creates an empty array of integers with the variable name myArray.

Here’s an example of creating an empty array of strings −

var myArray = [String]()

This creates an empty array of strings with the variable name myArray.

An empty array of booleans −

var myArray = [Bool]()

An empty array of arrays −

var myArray = [[Int]]()

This creates an empty array of arrays of integers with the variable name myArray.

An empty array of tuples −

var myArray = [(String, Int)]()

This creates an empty array of tuples with the variable name myArray. The tuples have one element of type String and one element of type Int.

An empty array of optional −

var myArray = [Int?]()

This creates an empty array of optional integers with the variable name myArray. Each element of the array can either be an integer or nil.

Create an array with a default value by using the init(repeating:count:) initializer, like this −

var myArray = Array(repeating: 0, count: 10)

This creates an array of 10 integers, all initialized to 0.

Here are some important points to know when working with arrays in Swift

Arrays in Swift are ordered collections of values of the same type.

You can create an empty array by using the syntax var myArray = [Type](), where Type is the type of the elements in the array.

You can also use the shorthand syntax [] to create an empty array of inferred type, but this creates an array of type Any, which may not be what you want.

You can access elements in an array using their index. The index of the first element in the array is 0, and the index of the last element is array.count – 1.

You can add elements to an array using the append(_:) method or the += operator. You can also insert an element at a specific index using the insert(_:at:) method.

You can remove elements from an array using the remove(at:) method or the removeLast() method.

You can check if an array contains a specific element using the contains(_:) method.

You can iterate over the elements in an array using a for-in loop.

You can sort the elements in an array using the sort() method, which sorts the elements in ascending order, or the sorted() method, which returns a new array with the elements sorted in ascending order.

You can also filter an array to create a new array that contains only the elements that meet a certain condition, using the filter(_:) method.

Conclusion

Arrays are a significant and practical data format in Swift, to sum up. The syntax var myArray = [Type](), where Type denotes the type of the array’s components, can be used to make an empty array. An array’s components can be accessed, added, and removed from, as well as iterated over, sorted, and filtered according to a set of criteria. To prevent runtime problems, it’s crucial to always verify that the index you’re reading is present. Additionally, Swift arrays have value semantics, which means that a new duplicate of the array is made when you assign an array to a new variable or send it to a function rather than just a reference to the original array.

What Is Awt In Java?

Introduction to AWT in Java

Java AWT is also known as Abstract Window Toolkit is an API that is used to develop either GUI or window-based applications in Java. Java AWT components are platform-dependent which implies that they are displayed according to the view of the operating system. It is also heavyweight implying that its components are using the resources of the Operating System. java. awt package provides classes for AWT api. For example, TextField, CheckBox, Choice, Label, TextArea, Radio Button, List, etc.

AWT hierarchy

Following is AWT hierarchy:

Container

The Container is one of the components in AWT that contains other components like buttons, text fields, labels, etc. The classes that extend the Container class are known as containers such as Frame, Dialog, and Panel as shown in the hierarchy.

Types of containers

As demonstrated above, container refers to the location where components can be added like text field, button, checkbox, etc. There are in total, four types of containers available in AW, that is, Window, Frame, Dialog, and Panel. As shown in the hierarchy above, Frame and Dialog are subclasses of the Window class.

1. Window: The window is a container that does not have borders and menu bars. In order to create a window, you can use frame, dialog or another window.

2. Panel: The Panel is the container/class that doesn’t contain the title bar and menu bars. It has other components like buttons, text fields, etc.

3. Dialog: The Dialog is the container or class having a border and title. We cannot create an instance of the Dialog class without an associated instance of the respective Frame class.

4. Trim: The Frame is the container or class containing the title bar and might also have menu bars. It can also have other components like text field, button, etc.

Why AWT is platform dependent?

Java Abstract Window Toolkit calls native platform I.e., Operating system’s subroutine in order to create components like text box, checkbox, button, etc. For example, an AWT GUI containing a button would be having varied look- and -feel in various platforms like Windows, Mac OS, and Unix, etc. since these platforms have different look and feel for their respective native buttons and then AWT would directly call their native subroutine that is going to create the button. In simple words, an application build on AWT would look more like a windows application when being run on Windows, however, that same application would look like a Mac application when being run on Mac Operating System.

Basic Methods of Component Class

public void add(Component c): This method would insert a component on this component.

public void setSize(int width, int height): This method would set the size (width and height ) of the particular component.

public void setVisible(boolean status): This method would change the visibility of the component, which is by default false.

public void setLayout(LayoutManager m): This method would define the layout manager for the particular component.

Java AWT Example

We can create a GUI using Frame in two ways:

Either by extending Frame class or by creating the instance of Frame class

Let’s show this by both examples, first extending Frame Class :

import java.awt.*;/* Extend the Frame class here, *thus our class "Example" would behave *like a Frame */public class Example extends Frame {Example() {Button b=new Button("Button!!"); b.setBounds(50,50,50,50); add(b); setSize(500,300); setTitle("This is First AWT example"); setLayout(new FlowLayout()); /*By default frame is not visible so *we are setting the visibility to true *to make it visible. */ setVisible(true); } public static void main(String args[]){ Example fr=new Example(); } }

Example:

import java.awt.*; public class Example { Example() { Frame f=new Frame(); Label l = new Label("User: "); f.add(l); TextField t = new TextField(); f.add(t); f.setSize(500, 300); f.setLayout(new FlowLayout()); f.setVisible(true); } public static void main(String args[]) {Example ex = new Example(); } } Layouts in AWT

There are 2 layouts in AWT which are as follows :

Flow layout is the default layout, which implies when you don’t set any layout in your code then the particular layout would be set to Flow by default. Flow layout would put components like text fields, buttons, labels, etc in a row form and if horizontal space is not long enough to hold all components then it would add them in the next row and cycle goes on. Few points about Flow Layout

All the rows in Flow layout are aligned center by default. But, if required we can set the alignment from left or right.

The horizontal and vertical gap between all components is 5 pixels by default.

By default, the orientation of the components is left to right, which implies that the components would be added from left to right as required, but we can change it from right to left when needed.

Border layout wherein we can add components like text fields, buttons, labels, etc to specific five These regions are known as PAGE_START, LINE_START, CENTER, LINE_END, PAGE_END.

Method for border layout is:

public BorderLayout(int hgap,int vgap)

Parameters are :

hgap: The horizontal gap.

vgap: The vertical gap.

We can also achieve the same by using setHgap(int hgap) method for the horizontal gap between components and setVgap(int vgap) method for the vertical gap.

Conclusion

Therefore, we can conclude that AWT was designed in order to provide a common set of tools for GUI design that could work on a variety of platforms. These tools preserved the look and feel of each platform.

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How Does Alias Work In Java With Programming Examples

Introduction to Java alias

In Java, when multiple references are used to refer to the same object, it is commonly referred to as “alias.”The issue with aliasing is when a user writes to a particular object, and the owner, for several other references, does not expect that object to change. Here, the code that includes aliasing can get confusing fast, and it is very tedious to debug as well. Let us see how Java Alias works.

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How does an alias work in Java?

Let us take an example. x and y are two variable names that have two types, X and Y. Y extends X.

Y[] y = new Y[10]; X[] x = y; x[0] =  new X(); Y[0].func1();

In memory as well, they both point to the same location.

The memory location which is pointed is pointed by x as well as y. However, the actual object saved chooses which method to call during runtime.

Let us see another example.

Rectangle b1 = new Rectangle (0, 0, 50, 150); Rectangle b2 = b1;

Both b1 and b2 refer to the same object, or we can say that the given object has two names, such as b1 and b2. Similar to a person that has two names, objects can also have two names.

When two aliased variables are present, changes that cause one variable also reflect on the other, as shown below.

System.out.println (b2.width); b1.grow (40, 40); System.out.println (b2.width);

On executing the code, you will see that the changes that have been caused on one rectangle have occurred in the second rectangle as well. This is one of the main things that has to be noted for Alias in Java.

Examples of Java Alias

The following are some of the sample programs on Java Alias.

Example #1

Code:

class X { public void func1() { System.out.println("called sample function 1"); } } class Y extends X { public void func1() { System.out.println("called sample function 1"); } public void func2() { System.out.println("called sample function 2"); } } public class AliasExample { public static void main(String[] args) { Y[] y = new Y[10]; X[] x = y; x[0] =  new X(); y[0].func1(); } }

Output:

How this occurs? What has to be changed? Is it possible to solve this?

Yes!! The only reason for this exception is that Java manages aliases during runtime. Only during the run time will it be able to know that the first one should be an object of Y instead of X.

class X { public void func1() { System.out.println("called sample function 1"); } } class Y extends X { public void func1() { System.out.println("called sample function 1"); } public void func2() { System.out.println("called sample function 2"); } } public class AliasExample { public static void main(String[] args) { Y[] y = new Y[10]; X[] x = y; x[0] =  new Y(); y[0].func1(); } }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

public class AliasExample { public static void main(String[] args) { int a= 87; int b=87; System.out.println(a == b); b=a; System.out.println(a == b); } }

What will happen if two arrays, a and b, are used instead of integer variables?

public class AliasExample { public static void main(String[] args) { int []a = {81, 54, 83}; int []b = {81, 54, 83}; System.out.println(a == b); b=a; System.out.println(a == b); } }

Output:

In this program, two arrays, a and b, are created in the first step. Then, similar to the above program, a and b check whether they are equal. On executing the code, it can be seen that the output for the first check is false, and the output for the second check is true. It is because Java Alias works.

Conclusion

The drawback of alias is when a user writes to a specific object, and the owner, for some other references, does not guess that object to change.

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Learn How To Create And Use Underline In Indesign?

Introduction to InDesign underline

Adobe InDesign is a powerhouse of tools and functions. These tools and functions are mostly comprehended in terms of texts/character formatting, layout formatting, image formatting and page formatting. An InDesign underline option comes in the sub category of text and character formatting. Unlike any other vector graphics program, Adobe InDesign comprises with a bunch of Underline and strikethrough options which can be considered while using type tools.

How to Create and Use Underline in Indesign?

Underlining a text may be useful in highlighting that particular word or sentence in a paragraph. Content creators, editors, book designers and graphic designers generally use underlining tool for headings, tittles, captions or texts that needs a stand out amongst the other phrases.

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The user can create underline and strikethrough effects by using two different methods that are available within Adobe InDesign. These functions may be small and negligible but they hold adequate importance in creating standout texts within multiple pages for books and magazines.

Method 1

In this method, we will learn the most basic technique to use and apply underline and strikethrough on a text. Also, we will learn the detailed options given in the software for underline and strikethrough effects.

Following are the steps we should follow:-

Launch Adobe InDesign

Create a new document as shown in the image below

Now, go to the Type Tool

Create a text frame and write a sample text as shown in the image below.

A new dialog box will appear for CHARACTER editing and modifying.

After this, we will get a new dialog box for underline options.

In this panel, we can change/ edit the settings for underlining a particular text. Please remember to select that text.

Now, in this panel, we can change the weight (the thickness of the stroke) of the underline, Offset (Gap between the text and stroke), Color of the stroke, Gap Color of the Stroke.

Next, we can edit the Tint Color and Gap Tint color of the stroke as well.

The Strikethrough options and settings are similar to the Underline options given in the CHARACTER panel.

Finally, by using the above procedure we can change the underlining and strikethrough of the texts.

Method 2

So, as mentioned above in this method we will use the line tool and pen tool to create a stroke under the sample text. Using these tools will help the user in creating creative strokes with some realistic effects.

Following are the steps we should follow:-

Launch InDesign and create a new document

Next, We can also change the color of the stroke as shown below

A new dialogue box will appear where we can change and select the stroke style. We can also add the stroke style as per our requirement.

Next, we can add effects by using the EFFECTS option in the control. We have many options such as Drop Shadow, Inner glow, Bevel and more that can be applied on the strokes.

The user can also control the opacity of the strokes as required.

This method provides ample creative options for the user that is not available with the direct Underline options in the Type tool. It’s just that we create another object as a stroke and place it under the text we need.

Conclusion

Summarizing the article, we can say that InDesign has numerous mechanisms for creating a particular effect. It has tools and functions for both beginners as well as professionals. Adobe InDesign is embedded with multiple options for Underline tools.

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This is a guide to InDesign underline. Here we discuss that InDesign has numerous mechanisms for creating a particular effect. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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