Trending November 2023 # How To Encrypt Files And Folders With Veracrypt In Ubuntu # Suggested December 2023 # Top 18 Popular

You are reading the article How To Encrypt Files And Folders With Veracrypt In Ubuntu updated in November 2023 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested December 2023 How To Encrypt Files And Folders With Veracrypt In Ubuntu

It may be a good idea sometimes to keep certain files and folders in an encrypted location to prevent unauthorised access. This is especially important on a shared computer where you might have some sensitive documents that you don’t want other users to see.

A common technique used by some people is to hide the files in obscure locations, such as a deeply nested folder, where other users cannot easily find it, but that’s not entirely foolproof, as it could show up in search results.

Short of removing the file from the computer completely, the next best way to prevent unauthorised access to your private files is to store them in an encrypted location.

There are several ways to encrypt a folder in Ubuntu, but I will show you how to use VeraCrypt, a free, open-source and cross-platform data encryption tool.

Install VeraCrypt

To install VeraCrypt in Ubuntu, run the following commands in the terminal:


add-apt-repository ppa:unit193




apt update





Once installed, launch it from the Unity Dash or your preferred application launcher.

Create an Encrypted Volume

The first thing you need to do is create an encrypted volume where you will store all folders you’d like to protect.

3. Choose “Standard VeraCrypt volume.”

6. In the next step choose your preferred Encryption Algorithm and Hash Algorithm. The defaults should be okay for most uses.

7. Next, you need to specify the size of your encrypted container. Specify a big enough size to hold all the files you’d like to store there.

8. Now choose a complex password for your container. This is the password that will be used to mount the container and access any files stored there.

9. Next, select a filesystem for your container. FAT is the safest option because it works on all operating systems.

10. Move your mouse randomly on the window, preferably until the bar is full. This helps to increase the cryptographic strength of the encryption keys.

Mount Encrypted Volume

To mount the encrypted volume, open VeraCrypt and select the file you created in the previous step.

You can use your encrypted volume just like any other partition on your hard drive. Anything you keep here will be encrypted and inaccessible to other users once you dismount the partition.

We’d love to hear how you protect sensitive documents on your Linux PC. Any thoughts, questions or suggestions are welcome.

Ayo Isaiah

Ayo Isaiah is a freelance writer from Lagos who loves everything technology with a particular interest in open-source software. Follow him on Twitter.

Subscribe to our newsletter!

Our latest tutorials delivered straight to your inbox

Sign up for all newsletters.

By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy and European users agree to the data transfer policy. We will not share your data and you can unsubscribe at any time.

You're reading How To Encrypt Files And Folders With Veracrypt In Ubuntu

How To Securely Delete Files, Folders And Hard Drives

Deleting files is as easy as pressing the delete button or selecting delete from the context menu of the selected item, but do you know that a simple delete in Windows doesn’t actually delete the file. It just free up the hard drive space, ready for other files to overwrite it. Until that happens, that supposedly deleted file can still be recovered using some recover software. The question is – how do I delete files so that they are really, deleted?

To securely delete a file, it is very important to overwrite free space and the deleted data with random stuff so that the original files and folders will never be able to be recovered again using any kind of recovery software.

Although there are several free software available which can securely wipe out the hard drive, xShredder is one open source app we will be using.

If you are running xShredder on Windows Vista or Windows 7, you will need to run it with administrative privileges. Otherwise it will give an error.

There are four tabs on the main interface of xShredder.

Saved erase jobs


Disk Shredder


Saved erase jobs contains all the jobs that you have created. You can run xShredder wizard in order to create a new job or just press “Ctrl + N” to create a new job directly. The steps to securely erase a file using xShredder are a little complex and confusing. So I am giving a step by step process of erasing one file securely. You can apply the same method to securely delete multiple files, folders or even drives.

Download xShredder, install it and run with administrative privileges.

Create a new erase job by pressing Ctrl + N in the Saved erase jobs tab.

Choose all the files that you want to securely delete and keep repeating step no. 3.

After you have selected all the files, open the second tab “Deletion request” and press Ctrl + S to save the deletion request that you have just created.

Although xShredder is a complex program but once you start using it, you’ll start loving it. The greatest feature of xShredder is the number of deletion methods that it supports. What are your thoughts about this free software?

You may also consider reading how to delete files securely in Ubuntu Linux and deleting files on a Mac.

Image credit: Businessman by Big Stock Photo.

Usman Khurshid

Subscribe to our newsletter!

Our latest tutorials delivered straight to your inbox

Sign up for all newsletters.

By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Policy and European users agree to the data transfer policy. We will not share your data and you can unsubscribe at any time.

Encrypt Folders With Password Protection In Mac Os X The Easy Way

Encrypting folders and requiring passwords for access is an excellent way to store and protect private data on a Mac. Now, there is a new means of password protecting folders and sensitive files introduced in Mac OS X that lets you create a new encrypted disk image directly from a specified folder.

Though you can still create a blank disk image and fill it as you see fit by using the older trick, this new option in Disk Utility is easier to use and extremely quick, making it the preferred method to add a very strong layer of encryption to a folder, securing itself along with all of its contents.

How to Encrypt a Folder in Mac OS X

This specific “Image from Folder” trick requires a modern MacOS release, anything from Mac OS X 10.8 or later will have this as an option to use:

Open Disk Utility, found in /Applications/Utilities/

Pull down the “File” menu and select “New” and then “Disk Image from Folder”

Set the Image Format to “read/write” and the Encryption to “128-bit AES”

If you do not intend on using the encrypted image as a working folder that you can add and remove documents from, you can choose an Image Format other than “read/write”.

An encrypted disk image will be created based on the folder you specified, it may take a while if the folder is large or your Mac is slow.

Accessing the Encrypted Folder & Contents

After the encryption procedures is finished, you’ll now be able to access and use the encrypted folder. To summarize steps of accessing the encrypted folder and how to properly use it to maintain security:

Enter the password used during the initial encryption setup – do NOT check “Remember password”

Access the encrypted folder and the contents as a mounted virtual disk, you can modify, copy, edit, delete, and add to it

When finished, close the files and eject the virtual image to re-secure the folder and files and require a password for future access

Just as when creating the disk image password, always uncheck the box saying “Remember password in my keychain” or else you will store the password and lose the security benefit of the encrypted image since anyone with access to your user account could open it. This also applies to transferring the encrypted folder image to another Mac.

With a readable and writable encrypted disk image, you can treat it as a normal folder and copy, delete, or move files from the image. Anything brought into the image while mounted will become encrypted automatically under the same protective layer with the same password.

When you are finished working with the folder and want it password protected again, simply unmount the disk image.

Regaining access again will require the password before it can be mounted and available.

The short video below demonstrates the entire process, in less than a minute you can encrypt a folder with password protection and mount it for access.

Remember, do not forget the password, or else you will lose access to the data stored within the encrypted folder for good. This is important, because the security level of the encryption format is so strong that it’s virtually impossible to break, thus a lost password means lost data.

Note: This will only encrypt and password protect the folder specified, if you are looking for full disk encryption for literally every single thing on the Mac, you would want to enable FileVault instead. FileVault applies similar encryption methodology to the entire hard drive automatically.


Install Jira On Ubuntu With Nginx, Rds And Let’s Encrypt Ssl – Aws

Install Jira on Ubuntu 18.04 with Nginx, RDS and Let’s Encrypt SSL on AWS EC2 Instance. Jira is a software designed to help teams to plan, track, managing software developments easily.

In this guide we are going to learn how to install Jira and configure it with Nginx reverse proxy and secure it with Let’s Encrypt SSL.

You will also configure RDS and connect it with Jira.

Step 1: Download Jira Core

You can download the latest version of Jira from the official Atlassian website. The version we are going to install is JIRA Core 8.6.1.

SSH to your server or instance and start downloading Jira.

Once the file is downloaded, make the file executable.

sudo chmod a+x atlassian-jira-core-8.6.1-x64.bin

Now you can start the installation.

Step 2: Install Jira

Run the installation file.

sudo ./atlassian-jira-core-8.6.1-x64.bin

Now you will get…


We couldn't find fontconfig, which is required to use OpenJDK. Press [y, Enter] to install it.

Enter y followed by Enter and start the installation.

When you are prompted to choose the Installation type, you can choose Custom Install by typing 2 and Enter

Install JIRA as Service? Type y

You can configure other steps with the default.

Finally you will get the overview of your installation.

Details on where JIRA Core will be installed and the settings that will be used. Installation Directory: /opt/atlassian/jira Home Directory: /var/atlassian/application-data/jira HTTP Port: 8080 RMI Port: 8005 Install as service: Yes Install [i, Enter], Exit [e]

Now enter i to start the installation.

Once the installation is complete you can start Jira when prompted.

You will receive an output similar to the one below. This indicated Jira is installed successfully and running on port 8080.


Installation of JIRA Core 8.6.1 is complete Your installation of JIRA Core 8.6.1 is now ready and can be accessed via your browser. Finishing installation … Step 3: Configure Tomcat for Nginx

Now you can configure Tomcat setting for Nginx reverse proxy.

Stop Jira.

sudo service jira stop

Edit your server.xml and replace the connector and the context.

sudo nano /opt/atlassian/jira/conf/server.xml


with (add a / symbol in the path)

Scroll up to find the default connector and add the proxyName, proxyPort, scheme and secure. So the connector looks like the one below.

Hit CTRL + X followed by Y and ENTER to save and exit the file.

Step 4: Restart Jira

Once the setup is done, you can start the Jira.

sudo service jira start

If you get any error while restarting, the file hasn’t been deleted while stopping. So you need to delete the file manually and start Jira.

sudo su sudo rm -rf /opt/atlassian/jira/work/ exit sudo service jira start

Once the restart is successful you can install and configure Nginx.

Step 5: Install Nginx sudo apt install nginx

Remove default Nginx configuration.

sudo rm -rf /etc/nginx/sites-available/default sudo rm -rf /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default Step 6: Configure Nginx reverse Proxy

Create a new configuration file for Jira.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/jira.conf

Add the following configurations.

server { listen [::]:80; listen 80; location / { proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; client_max_body_size 10M; } }

Hit Ctrl+X followed by Y and Enter to save the file and exit.

To enable this newly created website configuration, symlink the file that you just created into the sites-enabled directory.

sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/




Check your configuration and restart Nginx for the changes to take effect.

Step 7: Install Let’s Encrypt SSL for Jira

Now we have installed Certbot by Let’s Encrypt for Ubuntu 18.04, run this command to receive your certificates.

sudo certbot --nginx certonly

Enter your email and agree to the terms and conditions, then you will receive the list of domains you need to generate SSL certificate.

To select all domains simply hit Enter

The Certbot client will automatically generate the new certificate for your domain. Now we need to update the Nginx config.

Redirect HTTP Traffic to HTTPS

Open your site’s Nginx configuration file add replace everything with the following. Replacing the file path with the one you received when obtaining the SSL certificate. The ssl_certificate directive should point to your chúng tôi file, and the ssl_certificate_key directive should point to your chúng tôi file.

server { listen [::]:80; listen 80; } server { listen [::]:443 ssl; listen 443 ssl; location / { proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; client_max_body_size 10M; } }

Hit CTRL+X followed by Y to save the changes.

Check your configuration and restart Nginx for the changes to take effect.

sudo nginx -t sudo service nginx restart Renewing SSL Certificate

Certificates provided by Let’s Encrypt are valid for 90 days only, so you need to renew them often. Now you set up a cronjob to check for the certificate which is due to expire in next 30 days and renew it automatically.

sudo crontab -e

Add this line at the end of the file

Hit CTRL+X followed by Y to save the changes.

This cronjob will attempt to check for renewing the certificate twice daily.

Step 7: Confirm the Installation

Now you can point your browser to the Jira URL. You will see the Jira Setup page. Now you can configure it yourself.

You can follow the on screen details to setup Jira completely by using your RDS database credentials.

Take your first step towards a career in Java software development with this introduction course


Now you have learned how to install Jira with Nginx reverse proxy and secure it with Let’s Encrypt SSL on Amazon Web Services.

Cut And Paste Files & Folders In Mac Os X

The Mac now has the highly desirable “Cut and Paste” file feature throughout the Mac OS X desktop and Finder, allowing users to truly cut and paste to move the selected documents or folders to a new location, rather than just making a copy of them. In this sense, the cut & paste ability behaves much like the Windows explorer counterpart, and it represents a fast and efficient way to move and relocate files from one location to another location, without using the standard drag & drop approach that has been standard on the Mac since the origins of the OS.

Using the cut and paste file feature can be seem a little tricky at first, but it’s really not complicated. All you need to do is learn to differentiate the keystrokes that make the action happen. Let’s cover exactly how to cut and paste to move files and folders around on the Mac.

How to Cut & Paste Files and Folders in Mac OS X with Keyboard Shortcuts

What you need to do first is select files in the Mac file system browser, known as Finder, and then combine a series of keyboard shortcuts. The keystrokes necessary for cutting and pasting files on the Mac are as so:

FIRST: Command+C copies the files or documents in the Finder, note they won’t be ‘cut’ yet

SECOND: Command+Option+V pastes the documents into the new desired location on the Mac, cutting it from the prior locating and moving it to the new location

Remember, you must have a file selected for the cut & paste to work on Mac.

Important: If you just hit Command+V you will only move a copy of the files into the new location, as in a true copy and paste, rather than a cut and paste function. Notice holding down the Option key also changes the menu text to show “Move Items Here” to further signify the difference if you use the menu based approach described below.

Cutting & Pasting Files on Mac with Menu Options

You can also cut & paste files and folders entirely from the Edit menu in the Mac Finder.

Select the files / folders you wish to move in the Finder, then pull down the “Edit” menu and choose “Copy”

Now navigate to the new location in the Finder where you want to ‘paste’ the files to

Go back to the ‘Edit’ menu in Finder and hold down the OPTION key to reveal “Move Items Here” (the Paste command changes to this, choose that to complete the file cut and paste in Mac OS X

You must hold down the “Option” key to reveal the “Move Items Here” choice to actually cut and paste (move) the files.

You’ll notice that you can’t select “Cut”, which is why you choose “Copy” in the Finder instead. The Copy command turns into “Cut” when you go to “Move” with the Paste command. You can watch this sequence directly by pulling down the menu itself to see the accompanying keystrokes as well, you’ll find it in all modern versions of MacOS and Mac OS X:

Being able to cut and paste files and folders is a feature many Windows converts have been wanting for a long time. Prior to this, users would drag and drop items into their new locations to move them, or use the command line mv tool. Those methods still work too as well, obviously, but the cut and paste methodology is a very welcome addition for many Mac users.

This works the same within MacOS Mojave, Sierra, macOS High Sierra, El Capitan, OS X Yosemite, OS X Mountain Lion and Mac OS X Mavericks, and will likely continue as a feature in the future versions of the MacOS desktop as well.


How To Use Smart Folders In Notes On Iphone, Ipad, And Mac

Having trouble organizing or finding the notes you need? With Smart Folders in Apple Notes, you can set up folders that automatically include specific notes. This gives you a great way to stay organized and on top of the notes you need most. So, let’s take a look at how you can create and use Smart Folders on iPhone, iPad, and Mac.

What are Smart Folders in Notes?

As mentioned, you can create a Smart Folder that contains certain notes automatically. To do so, you set up a filter (condition) like a tag, date, or locked note. When the condition is met for a particular note, it pops into the Smart Folder. This gives you a convenient spot to quickly access the notes you need.

Uses of Smart Folders in the Notes app

View all notes for the current day, each day of the week.

See pinned notes that contain specific tags.

Gather notes that were created or edited in a certain date range.

Access notes that you share with particular contacts.

See notes with specific types of attachments like photos, videos, or documents.

Collect notes that contain checklists, including checked or unchecked items.

If you’re ready to set up your own Smart Folder, let’s get to it!

How to create a Smart Folder in Notes on iPhone and iPad

Launch the Notes app on your iPhone.

Select an account and tap the New Folder icon on the bottom left.

Next to Include notes matching, use the drop-down box to pick All or Any depending on if you want to match all of the filters or just a few of them.

As an example, we’ll select Shared and With Specific People. At the top, below Enabled Filters, you’ll see an option to Select People.

You’ll then see the Smart Folder in your list for you to select and view the contents.

Convert a normal folder to a Smart Folder on iPhone and iPad

Maybe you have an ordinary folder in Notes that you’d like to turn into a Smart Folder. Once you convert the folder, you’ll see all notes inside contain a tag with the folder name.

Keep in mind you cannot convert a Smart Folder to an ordinary folder, so be sure you want to change the folder type before you follow these steps.

Open a simple folder and then tap the three dots at the top.

Pick Convert to Smart Folder.

Confirm by choosing Convert at the bottom or Cancel if you change your mind.

Edit a Smart Folder on iPhone and iPad

If you’d like to change your Smart Folder, you can edit it easily. This includes folders you convert to Smart Folders.

Select the folder and tap the three dots at the top.

You can then sort or group the notes within the folder or choose Edit Smart Folder for the other changes below.

To rename the folder, simply enter the new name.

To adjust the filter(s), pick Manage Smart Folder, make your changes, and tap Done to save them.

Delete a Smart Folder on iPhone and iPad

You can remove a Smart Folder you no longer use in Notes. The notes in the folder don’t get deleted but remain in their original location(s). It’s only the Smart Folder container that’s removed.

On the main Folders screen, either slide the folder name from right to left and tap the Delete icon (trash can) or long-press the folder and pick Delete.

How to create a Smart Folder in Notes on Mac

Like on an iPhone or iPad, you can create a Smart Folder in Notes on Mac easily, albeit with a few changes.

Launch the Notes app on Mac.

Give your Smart Folder a name at the top of the pop-up box. You should see the Make into a Smart Folder box checked for you.

Convert a folder to a Smart Folder on Mac

Start with one of the following:

Select the three dots to the right of the name and pick Convert to Smart Folder.

Edit a Smart Folder on Mac

After you create a Smart Folder, you can make adjustments to it just like on iPhone and iPad. 

To change the filter(s) for the Smart Folder, pick Edit Smart Folder. Then, make your adjustments and select OK to save them.

Delete a Smart Folder on Mac

If you no longer want to use a Smart Folder you’ve created, you can delete it easily. Remember, this does not delete the folder’s notes.

Do one of the following:

Select the three dots to the right of the name and pick Delete Folder.

Work smarter with Smart Folders in Apple Notes!

The nice thing about Smart Folders in Notes, aside from quick access to the notes you want, is that it all happens without any effort. By taking a few moments to create a Smart Folder upfront, you can keep your notes organized without lifting another finger.

Over to you! Now that you know how to use a Smart Folder in Notes on iPhone, iPad, and Mac, are you going to create one, or have you already?

Read more:

Author Profile


With her BS in Information Technology, Sandy worked for many years in the IT industry as a Project Manager, Department Manager, and PMO Lead. She wanted to help others learn how technology can enrich business and personal lives and has shared her suggestions and how-tos across thousands of articles.

Update the detailed information about How To Encrypt Files And Folders With Veracrypt In Ubuntu on the website. We hope the article's content will meet your needs, and we will regularly update the information to provide you with the fastest and most accurate information. Have a great day!