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Command line users are likely familiar with using chmod to set file permissions in numerical or octal format, for example running a command like ‘chmod 755 filename’, but have you ever wondered how you can get file permissions in octal format?
If you want to see or view the octal numerical value of permissions of any file or folder via the command line, you can turn to the stat command in Mac OS to do so.How to Get Numerical chmod Permissions Values on the Mac
To get started, launch the Terminal app from /Applications/ on the Mac and use the following commands:
stat -f %A file.txt
For example, that command may output something like the following:
Where, in this example, ‘644’ is the octal value of that files permissions.
Alternatively, you can use -f and %OLp (yes that’s an upper case ‘o’ and not a zero), the output will be the same assuming the file is too:
stat -f %OLp /Applications/System Preferences.app
Example output for that command may look like the following, showing the numerical octal value permissions for the target item:
In this example, the “System Preferences” application has a octal permissions value of 775.
You should not need to use quotations, though if you need for some reason to escape a file name or path, or for scripting purposes, they’re easy to place like so:
stat -f "%OLp" '/Applications/System Preferences.app'
The -f flag is for format, you can read more about specific formatting options for the stat output from the manual page on stat with ‘man stat’.
In the latter command case, the “O” (upper case o) is specifically for achieving octal output.
Knowing the exact numerical permissions of a file or folder is wildly useful for so many reasons, and it can be helpful to know this if you’re adjusting the permissions of various items, or even if you’re moving files on the Mac and want to maintain the exact permissions and to verify it after the fact. There are countless other uses as well, particularly if you’re running a server of any sort from the Mac.
These commands should work the same for retrieving octal permissions in just about any version of macOS, MacOS, or Mac OS X, regardless of how the naming convention is capitalized. Notably however, is that the approach to getting octal permissions on the Mac is different from the rest of the Linux world, thus if you’re coming to the Mac from the Linux world you’ll need to adjust the stat command flags to accurately get the permissions in octal format, we’ll cover that quickly next.Getting Octal File Permissions from Command Line in Linux
For the sake of being thorough, we’ll briefly discuss getting octal permissions values in the Linux world as well, where you can use the following to get the octal file permissions:
stat -c "%a %n" /Path/To/File
You can also more simply use the stat -c command:
stat -c %a /Path/To/File.txt
The numerical value output will be the same regardless, as long as the inputted target file is the same of course.
Again, these latter two approaches are linux specific, and you’ll need to use the methods outlined further above to get octal values of permissions of a file in Mac OS.
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In Windows 11/10, you can view NTFS permissions in different ways. Many third-party tools or software are available that will help you check NTFS permissions on your Windows computer. In addition to this, you can also use the command line tool. In this article, we will show you how to check NTFS Permissions using Command-line or Tool.How to check NTFS Permissions using Command-line or Free tools
To check NTFS Permissions using Command-line or Tool, you can use Windows PowerShell and other free software. We have listed all these tools below.
Folder Security Viewer
Permissions Reporter from Key Metric Software
NTFS Permissions Reporter from CJWDEV
Let’s see how to use all these tools to check NTFS permissions on Windows 11/10.1] Windows PowerShell
Windows PowerShell is a built-in command line tool that comes pre-installed in all Windows computers. You can use this tool to check NTFS permissions. The command that is used to check NTFS permissions in PowerShell is Get-Acl. We will explain here how to use this command in PowerShell in different scenarios.
First of all, launch Windows PowerShell. There are different ways to open Windows PowerShell. The easiest method is to open it via Windows Search.
You can use the Get-Acl command with and without parameters. If you use it without any parameters, Windows will show you the NTFS permissions for the current working directory. For example, if I want to check the NTFS permissions for the folder located inside my D drive, the command is:Get-Acl D:foldername
Replace the folder name in the above command with the name of your folder. If the folder name has spaces, you have to type it in quotations. For example, if the folder name is New folder, then the command will become:Get-Acl D:"New Folder"
Now, let’s see how to use the Get-Acl command with different parameters. In all the commands, we will use the New folder as the folder name. Replace the New folder with the name of your folder.
If you use the Format-List parameter, you will see the detailed permissions as shown in the above screenshot. The command Get-Acl with the Format-List parameter is as follows:
The Select -ExpandProperty Access or .Access parameters give you a more detailed view of NTFS permissions, like file system rights, access control type, inheritance flags, etc. (refer to the above screenshot). Both the parameters give you the same result but commands to use both these parameters are different. The commands are given below:(Get-Acl D:"New Folder").Access
You can use any of the above commands to get more detailed NTFS permissions.
The parameter ft -AutoSize gives the NTFS permissions output in a table format. The command Get-Acl with the ft -AutoSize parameter is used as follows:
If you want to see the NTFS permissions for a particular user name or group, say, Administrators, SYSTEM, Authenticated users, etc, you have to specify it in the command while using the ft -AutoSize parameter. The command for this is:
In the above command, replace the user name or group with the respective names. For example, if you want to see the NTFS permissions for Administrators, you have to type the following command:
In the above screenshot, I have used the above command for three different user names, users, SYSTEM, and Authenticated users.2] Microsoft’s AccessEnum
You can save the permissions on your disk in text format. The “Compare to saved” is one interesting feature of this free software using which you can compare the permissions of the currently scanned directory or registry path with the saved permissions file.
Read: The Volume Bitmap is incorrect when running CHKDSK3] Folder Security Viewer
Folder Security Viewer is available as free and paid software. Its free version comes with limited features, You can use it to view the NTFS permissions for free. Under the Home tab, you will see different options, including Permission Report, Folder Report, Owner Report, etc.
To download Folder Security Viewer, visit chúng tôi You have to provide your name and email address in order to download the software. In your email, you will also receive a free trial 14 days license. After the trial license expires, you can still use its free version.4] Permissions Reporter from Key Metric Software
Permissions Reporter is a free tool from Key Metric Software to check NTFS permissions on Windows 11/10. It is available in both free and paid versions. Its free version allows you to view NTFS permissions and access some features. If you want to access all its features, you have to purchase its license.
The Folder Tree tab shows the tree view of the selected directory. The Folder Permissions tab shows the permissions of all the folders inside the directory in a list view. You can also apply filters to get more specific results. The Export option is also available. But in the free version, you can export the project only in HTML format.5] NTFS Permissions Reporter from CJWDEV What are the basic NTFS permissions?
The basic NTFS permissions include Full Control, Read and Execute, Modify, Read, Write, etc. You can check these permissions by opening the properties of a particular folder or drive. After opening the properties, go to the Security tab. You will see all these permissions there. In addition to this, you can also use free software and Windows PowerShell to view NTFS permissions.
Read next: How to take full Ownership of Files & Folders in Windows .
In the Linux desktop world, the graphical user interface is here to stay. Old Unix hands may grumble, but the fact remains that, without all the efforts poured into GNOME, KDE, Xfce and others, Linux would not be as successful as it is today.
The reason for the desktop’s success is obvious. A desktop requires much less knowledge than a command line, and is suited to maybe 80% of the most common tasks that an average user needs. If the desktop needs much larger applications, that hardly seems a problem on a modern computer.
In fact, for many administrative tasks, the command line is actually easier than the desktop. Looking through my BASH history, I can see at least five circumstances in which I generally choose the command line over the desktop:
Whether you are copying, moving, or deleting files, the BASH shell gives you far more options than KDE’s Dolphin or GNOME’s Nautilus. Such desktop file managers do their best, but they can only plan for the average use cases, and add confirmation dialogs to prevent users from doing something rash.
Moreover, because menu and toolbars rarely have entries for symbolic links, a whole generation of desktop users are unaware that the possibility even exists, or when to use them.
By contrast, consider all the possibilities of a simple command such as cp (copy). To start with, you can decide whether you want an indication of progress, or the ability to confirm before overwriting files. If you want you can archive or backup files. You can choose to create symbolic links instead of copying, and whether to preserve file attributes, and you can ensure that you remain on the same filesystem or not. Other file management commands are similarly versatile, although some of the details differ.
Another practical consideration is that, when moving large numbers of files — for instance, when you are doing a backup — desktops tend to freeze, no matter how much RAM your machine has. Consequently, you can be left waiting for your file management to complete, unable to do anything else. Or, even worse, you can be left uncertain whether you have actually succeeded what you are doing. These problems simply don’t exist at the prompt.
Just as with the file management commands, the ls command gives you far more versatility than any desktop display. True, by definition you can’t have an icon view, but you can you use colors or symbols to indicate different types of files.
You also have all the filters available in desktop file managers, including whether to show hidden and backup files, as well as the ability to sort listings by extension, file size, time modified, and file version.
However, what I appreciate most about ls is that when you use the -l or -g option, all the information about file attributes is printed on a single line.
By contrast, in the average desktop file manager, you choose the default attributes to display, or at least their order (which, in anything less than a full-sized window, often comes down the same thing). Often, too, permissions are listed on a separate tab, and four or five keystrokes away.
Some applications simply defy a graphical interface. Oh, you can make one, if you insist, but the result is always proof (if you need any) that slapping everything into a window does not necessarily make for user friendliness.
That is especially true of applications with hundreds of options, such as Apache. However, it can also be true of much smaller utilities such as crontab. I have yet to see a crontag graphical interface that was not more intimidating than the command itself. By the time I have finished deciphering a desktop of crontab, I could have scheduled half a dozen jobs to run at a latter time.
Both apt-get and yum, the leading package management tools, have had graphical front ends for years. However, just as with file managers, you can practically hear graphical package tools like Synaptic or the Ubuntu Software Centre grinding away when processing large numbers of files. In fact, when you update, many of these desktop tools simply freeze — often while giving very little indication of what is happening.
Moreover, if you want to install something too soon after you log in, often the graphical tools have a conflict with the update applet. When that happens, you either have to wait or decide which one to close.
Next Page: Command line and desktop resources….
Check Disk or chúng tôi is a built-in Windows utility used to check for errors in the disk media and in the file system. If you face problems ranging from blue screens, to inability to open or save files or folders, one can run the Check Disk utility. Whenever we need to detect and fix the file system or disk corruption, we run the built-in Windows Check Disk tool. The Check Disk utility or chúng tôi checks file system errors, bad sectors, lost clusters, and so on. Check Disk can run automatically, in the case of an abrupt shutdown or if it finds the file system to be ‘dirty’.
We can say that there are “two versions” of this utility in Windows 11/10. One is the basic version which most of us use and the other is the command-line version, which has more sets of options. The basic version of the Check Disk utility can be accessed as follows:
Here you have options to Automatically Fix File System Errors and Scan For And Attempt Recovery Of Bad Sectors.
You may have to schedule the chkdsk at reboot if the drive to be checked, is in use.Command Line ChkDsk
And then there is this command-line version of chkdsk, which offers you several options, apart from just allowing you to set up regular disk checking using the Task Scheduler.
To use the command line check disk version, open a Command Prompt using the ‘Run As Administrator’ option. Type chkdsk at the prompt. This will run Chkdsk in a Read-Only mode and display the status of the current drive.
Typing chkdsk /? and hitting Enter will give you its parameters or switches.
To get a report for, say, drive C, use chkdsk c:.
You can also use the following parameters at the end of the command to specialize its operations.
The following are valid on FAT32 / NTFS volumes.
/f Fixes errors detected.
/r Identifies Bad Sectors and attempts recovery of information.
/v Displays a list of every file in every directory, on FAT32. On NTFS, is displays the cleanup messages.
The following are valid on NTFS volumes only.
/c Skips the checking of cycles within the folder structure.
/I Performs a simpler check of index entries.
/x Forces the volume to dismount. Also invalidates all open file handles. This should be avoided in Desktop Editions of Windows, because of the possibility of data loss/corruption.
/l[:size] It changes the size of the file that logs NTFS transactions. This option too, like the above one, is intended for server administrators ONLY.
Do note that, when you boot to the Windows Recovery Environment, Only two switches may be available.
/p It performs an exhaustive check of the current disk
/r It repairs possible damage on the current disk.
The following switches work in Windows 11/10, Windows 8 on NTFS volumes only:
/scan Run online scan
/forceofflinefix Bypass online repair and queue defects for offline repair. Needs to be used along with /scan.
/perf Perform the scan as fast as possible.
/spotfix Perform spot repair in offline mode.
/offlinescanandfix Run offline scan and perform fixes.
/sdcclean Garbage collection.
These switches are supported by Windows 11/10 on FAT/FAT32/exFAT volumes only:
/freeorphanedchains Free up any orphaned cluster chains
/markclean Mark the volume clean if no corruption is detected.
ChkDsk /f scans for and attempts to repair errors in the file system.
ChkDsk /r includes /f, but it also scans the entire disk surface for physical errors and attempts to repair them as well.
So you could run a command like the following to check and repair disk errors on your C drive:chkdsk c: /r Cancel a CHKDSK scan
To cancel a scheduled check, at a command prompt, typechkntfs /x d:
and hit Enter. Here d is the drive letter.
Users of Windows 11/10 may have noticed that Disk Error Checking is a bit different from the earlier versions of Windows. Read this post on Disk Error Checking in Windows to learn more.
This post on how to format External Drive or run Check Disk using Command Prompt may interest some of you.
When it comes to guarding your privacy online, your first instinct might be to protect your content—by being careful what you write and choosy about what’s in the images you post. But even though you’re being careful, it may not be enough.
Everything you upload to the internet has metadata attached to it. This is everything related to a file that’s not the content itself—format, what program it came from, its creation date, and sometimes even the name of its author.
It gets even trickier with images, as these files use a standard called exchangeable image format, or EXIF. When you use a phone or tablet to capture photos or video, it will (by default) embed information like the make and model of the device that generated the file, along with the exact GPS location where it was created. (You can opt out of these settings, though.) When you use a digital camera, this bundle of information will also include technical data like ISO speed or the aperture settings you used when you took the photo.
If sharing that potentially personal information makes you feel queasy, you’re not alone. The good news is you can delete that data before you share any file.How to remove metadata from any file using Windows
Scrubbing files clean is easy on Microsoft’s operating system: You can use the same method across all types.
[Related: Keep your photos from getting stolen on the internet]How to remove metadata using macOS
There are plenty of reasons why you might choose an Apple computer over one that runs Windows, but when it comes to wiping metadata, it certainly doesn’t help to have a Mac.
This functionality is great, but it’s all Apple offers. You can’t delete any other metadata without the help of a specialized third-party app.
[Related: 23 useful Mac settings hiding in plain sight]
To remove the remaining information attached to images, we like ImageOptim, which is a free, light, and easy-to-use alternative for cleaning your files. Go to the app’s website to download it and unzip the file. Open the app and drag and drop the images you want to clean. A green check to the left of the filename will let you know the deed is done.
If you’re dealing with PDFs, a tool like PDFelement can help you edit and remove information you don’t want to be bundled up with your file. The free trial version will leave watermarks on your documents, but if you want to get rid of them, it’ll cost you $50 for 6 months, or $90 for an entire year. If you already have it on your computer, Adobe Acrobat Pro is also a good option. You get a seven-day trial, after which you can pay $25 each month, or $15 a month for a full year.
The bottom line is that, unlike Windows, there’s no silver bullet solution to wiping metadata off your files with macOS. But not all is lost, as there are always either free tools or paid programs with free trials you can download, depending on the file format you’re trying to clean.
Although if it makes sense to you, you can always just get a PC.
The standard approach is to go through System Preferences to Sound settings and change output, but there’s actually a much faster way to adjust where sound output is directed, and it can be done from anywhere, without going into preferences at all.Toggle Audio Output Quickly on the Mac
If you’ve ever connected a Mac to something else like a TV through HDMI, you’ve probably noticed that, unlike the video source, sound output does not automatically change to the newly connected hardware. This is intentional, but many users misinterpret that as a problem with their HDMI adapter or cable, or even their Macs output capabilities, when in fact it’s almost always just a matter of adjusting the OS X audio output chúng tôi standard approach is to go through System Preferences to Sound settings and change output, but there’s actually a much faster way to adjust where sound output is directed, and it can be done from anywhere, without going into preferences at all.
This works in virtually every version of OS X, revealing all audio sources:
Find the desired audio output destination under “Output Device” and select it from the pull-down menu
The change is immediate, and the set audio output destination will have a checkbox next to it’s name. Play a sound effect or any form of audio to confirm it is working. Though we’re focusing on HDMI here, this will apply to all other means of exporting audio as well, including apps like WavTap that capture all sound.
Going the other way, this menu trick will also let you change input sources as well, making it easy to toggle input from an external microphone, another audio source, or back to the default internal mic as well.Why is the Sound Menu Icon Grey?
You will notice that after an HDMI sound output source (and many other output options) has been selected, the Sound menu icon turns grey:
This does not mean that exporting sound is not working, it simply means that sound volume must be controlled through the hardware the Mac is now outputting to through HDMI, which is typically a TV or presentation shooter, as the internal volume adjustment sliders and keyboard buttons will no longer work.HDMI Audio Output Still Not Working? Check the Mac for HDMI Sound Support
Almost all new Macs support audio over HDMI, and practically anything newer than a 2010 model year will have native support. Nonetheless, if none of this is working, you don’t have the HDMI output source visible in the menu options or the Sound Output preferences, and you’re absolutely positive there’s nothing wrong with the HDMI cables and adapters, then you may want to double-check that the Mac supports HDMI audio output.
Select “Audio” from the Hardware menu
If you see nothing in the hardware audio menus about HDMI output, then the Mac doesn’t support exporting audio over HDMI. If the Mac is brand new and thus supposed to support HDMI sound, then there could be a hardware issue either with the adapter itself (this is a very common problem with the super cheap adapters bought online, get a reliable brand like Monoprice and pay a few bucks more), or, in less usual cases it could be a problem with the Mac itself, and you may want to contact AppleCare to make a determination.
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