You are reading the article **How To Use Kobold Ai Colab? A Comprehensive Guide** updated in November 2023 on the website Cancandonuts.com. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. *Suggested December 2023 How To Use Kobold Ai Colab? A Comprehensive Guide*

Do you know you can use Kobold AI on Google Colab for free without installation?

Kobold AI Colab is a special version of Kobold AI that runs on Google Colab and lets you use any of the supported models and features.

You can use Kobold AI Colab by finding the link on the official website or the GitHub repository. All you need is a Google account and an internet connection.

In this article, we will show you the steps of using Kobold AI Colab and show you what features it offers.

Additionally, you will learn how to select a model and start a session.

What Is Kobold AI Colab?Kobold AI Colab is a version of Kobold AI that runs on Google Colab.

It is a cloud service that provides access to GPU(Graphics Processing Unit) and TPU(Tensor Processing Unit).

You can use it for free with a Google Account, but there are some limitations, such as slowdowns, disconnections, memory errors etc.

Users may also lose their progress if they close the notebook of their session expires.

Moreover, you can choose from different models and settings to customize your experience.

Models Available In Kobold AI ColabIf you want to use it on Google Colab, you can choose from several models available in the TPU or GPU edition.

Here are some of the available models in the TPU.

Nerys by Mr. Seeker: It is a hybrid model based on Pike, a newer Janeway. It is trained on the largest dataset of novels and is heavily inclined toward SFW novel writing.

Shinen: It is a model that focuses on Japanese Light Novels and Anime with a large vocabulary. It can generate colorful descriptions and dialogues and is good at creating fantasy and sci-fi scenarios.

Pike: It is a newer version of the Janeway-trained, more extensive and diverse datasets of novels.

How To Use Kobold AI Colab?To use it, you need to open one of the notebooks provided by the developers.

Here are the steps to use it.

Go to ColabKobold TPU to open the the notebook for the TPU edition. Alternatively, go to ColabKobold GPU to open it for the GPU edition.

If you don’t have a Google account, you can create it to use Colab. Additionally, you can save a copy of the notebook to your Google Drive for future use.

Then, select your preferred Model from the dropdown menu. You can find the description of the model below the menu.

This will take a few minutes and depends on the model size and availability of the resources.

Here, you need to acknowledge the warning, and then you will be taken to the interface of Kobold AI.

Despite this, if you choose Cloudflare and receive a 1033 error, you must refresh the error page and wait for some time.

Can You Train Your Model With Kobold AI Colab?Different models have different styles and capabilities. Therefore, you must choose the one that suits your needs.

You can train a model with Kobold AI Colab. However, it depends on what kind of model you want to train.

Additionally, you can easily interact with the AI with KoboldAI API URL.

If you want to train a soft prompt, you can use a Colab notebook provided by the Kobold AI community.

In this case, you will need to run the development version of Kobold AI on your PC to use them.

However, if you want to train the model itself, you will need something better than the Colab service.

It is a more complex and resource-intensive process that requires a larger dataset than a 3 MB text file to get a good result.

Keep the Colab notebook page open while using it, AI and regularly check if you got a Captcha.

Failure to complete the Captcha’s in time can result in the termination of your session or a lower priority towards the TPUs and GPUs.

Alternatively, you can use Kobold AI without Google Colab. You can run it on your PC, use Kobold Horde or download it from GitHub.

Note: Remember that Colab sessions are limited and may disconnect anytime; hence permanently save your work.

The Bottom LineHowever, Colab may not support all the features and options that Kobold AI offers.

Therefore, if you want a better and more stable experience with it, you can try running it on your PC or a dedicated cloud service.

Keep reading and find out how to use KoboldAI Pygmalion.

You're reading __How To Use Kobold Ai Colab? A Comprehensive Guide__

## How To Use Chatgpt In Egypt: A Comprehensive Guide

ChatGPT is a state-of-the-art language model that has revolutionized the way we communicate with machines. However, due to government restrictions in Egypt, ChatGPT is not available for use in the country. The government has blocked the platform to ensure the privacy and security of its users. Nonetheless, if you are a ChatGPT enthusiast living in Egypt, there are ways to bypass these restrictions and access ChatGPT. This article will guide you on how to access ChatGPT in Egypt using Virtual Private Network (VPN) services and ChatGPT alternatives.

See More : How to Use ChatGPT in Hong Kong: A Guide for Users

Use a Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to change your location to a country where ChatGPT is available.

Some of the VPN services that can be used to access ChatGPT in Egypt are NordVPN, ExpressVPN, and Surfshark.

Alternatively, use ChatGPT alternatives such as Chatsonic and Chinchilla.

If ChatGPT is not working when you first try to access it, you can wait for some time as it could be a server problem.

When creating an account on ChatGPT, it is recommended to use an email address from a different country to avoid being blocked.

According to the search results, ChatGPT is not available in Egypt due to government restrictions for privacy concerns. The government of Egypt has blocked ChatGPT in the country to ensure the privacy and security of its users as ChatGPT collects and stores the private and sensitive data of its users, which can cause a huge threat to its users. However, despite the government restrictions, users have been accessing ChatGPT through VPNs to discover its extraordinary potential. ChatGPT could benefit Egypt in a number of ways, including automating customer service tasks, reducing wait times, and improving the overall customer experience. Additionally, ChatGPT can be used to generate educational content and spread awareness about important social and cultural issues in Egypt.

Using a VPN service is the easiest and most reliable way to access ChatGPT in Egypt. A VPN service encrypts your internet traffic and changes your IP address, making it look like you are browsing the internet from a different country. This enables you to access ChatGPT without any restrictions.

Here are the steps to follow when using a VPN to access ChatGPT in Egypt:

There are many VPN services available on the market. However, not all VPN services are reliable. Some VPN services may log your internet traffic or leak your IP address, which could compromise your privacy and security. Therefore, it is essential to choose a reliable VPN service such as NordVPN, ExpressVPN, or Surfshark.

Once you have selected a VPN service, you need to download and install its VPN client on your device. VPN clients are available for various platforms such as Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android.

After installing the VPN client, launch it, and log in with your VPN account details.

Once you have logged in, choose a server location where ChatGPT is available. You can choose a server location in the US, UK, or any other country where ChatGPT is accessible.

Also Read : How to Use ChatGPT on Mobile for Free (Android & iPhone)

Based on search results, NordVPN and ExpressVPN12345 are considered the best VPNs to access ChatGPT in Egypt. NordVPN is suggested by various sources for its security features and ability to change your location to a ChatGPT-accessible country. ExpressVPN is also a popular choice due to its fast speeds and excellent customer support. Other factors to consider when selecting a VPN for ChatGPT include server network, pricing, and privacy features. Keep in mind that using a VPN may go against ChatGPT’s terms of service, so use it at your own risk.

In summary, You can use a VPN service such as NordVPN or ExpressVPN to change your location to a country where ChatGPT is available and access it from there

ChatGPT is not currently available in Egypt due to government restrictions, but there are ways to bypass these restrictions and access the platform. Using a VPN service or ChatGPT alternatives can help you access the platform, and using an email address from a different country can help you create an account without being blocked. Despite the current restrictions, ChatGPT has a lot of potential benefits for Egypt, including automating customer service tasks, generating educational content, improving language learning, and enhancing research and development. By using ChatGPT, businesses, researchers, educators, and individuals in Egypt can benefit from its AI-based capabilities and enhance their work and personal lives.

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## How To Use Google Bard Ai: A Complete Guide

Google Bard is a chatbot developed by Google that uses natural language processing and machine learning to simulate conversations with humans. It aims to provide helpful responses to questions and assist in various tasks. In this article, we will take a deep dive into Google Bard, how it works, and how to use it effectively.

See More : Google Bard Availability: Your Access to the World’s Knowledge

Google Bard is an AI chatbot developed by Google that uses natural language processing and machine learning to simulate conversations with humans. It can understand natural language and respond appropriately to a wide range of queries. Google Bard has been designed to provide human-like responses, and it can even crack jokes and make small talk.

Google Bard is built on a language model called LaMDA (Language Model for Dialogue Applications), which is specifically designed for dialogue applications. Unlike other chatbots, LaMDA focuses on generating more natural and fluid conversations with users.

Using Google Bard is relatively easy and straightforward. You need to follow these simple steps to start using it:

Sign in with your Google account.

You will be directed to the Google Bard interface, which has a chat window.

Type your prompts or questions in the chat window and wait for the response.

You can also tap the microphone button to speak your question or instruction rather than typing it.

Google Bard is still in the experimental phase, and it is not integrated with Google search yet. However, Google is planning to add AI writing features to Bard in the future.

Google Bard can help you with a wide range of tasks. Here are some of the things that Google Bard can do:

You can ask Google Bard to search the web for you. For example, if you want to know about the weather in your area, you can ask, “What is the weather like today?” Google Bard will then provide you with the latest weather updates for your location.

Google Bard can help you set reminders. For instance, if you have a meeting coming up, you can ask Google Bard to remind you of the meeting ten minutes before the scheduled time.

You can also use Google Bard to make a phone call. For instance, you can say, “Call John,” and Google Bard will initiate a phone call to John.

Google Bard can help you translate languages. For example, if you want to know how to say “hello” in French, you can ask Google Bard to translate it for you.

Google Bard has a great sense of humor and can tell you jokes. For instance, you can ask Google Bard to tell you a joke, and it will provide you with a funny response.

Google Bard can also play games with you. For example, you can ask Google Bard to play a game of tic-tac-toe, and it will initiate the game.

Also Read : Google Bard AI Available in India: Revolutionizing Conversational AI

Google Bard, Bing AI, and ChatGPT are all AI chatbots that aim to provide human-like responses to questions. However, each chatbot performs differently, and the choice of which one to use depends on the user’s needs and preferences.

Bing AI is best for getting information from Microsoft products and services, such as Bing search engine, Microsoft Office Suite, and Microsoft Teams. It can also assist with basic tasks, such as setting reminders and scheduling appointments.

Google Bard, on the other hand, is designed to be a more creative and conversational chatbot. It can generate poetry, music lyrics, and even short stories. It is best used for entertainment and creative purposes.

ChatGPT, the language model that I am based on, is a more general-purpose chatbot that can provide information on a wide range of topics and engage in conversational exchanges with users. It is designed to be more human-like in its responses and can understand context and nuance in language.

Google Bard AI is a user-friendly chatbot developed by Google that uses natural language processing and machine learning to simulate conversations with humans. It is built on a language model called LaMDA, which focuses on generating more natural and fluid conversations with users. Google Bard can perform a wide range of tasks, such as searching the web, setting reminders, making phone calls, translating languages, telling jokes, and playing games. While still in the experimental phase, Google plans to add AI writing features to Bard in the future.

Q. Is Google Bard free?

Yes, Google Bard is completely free and accessible to anyone with a Google account.

Q. Can I use Google Bard on my mobile device?

Yes, you can access Google Bard on any device with a web browser.

Q. What languages does Google Bard support?

Currently, Google Bard only supports English, but Google is working on expanding its language capabilities.

Q. Can Google Bard help me with personal tasks, such as scheduling appointments or making reservations?

At the moment, Google Bard is not integrated with Google search, so it cannot assist with personal tasks. However, it can set reminders and make phone calls.

Q. How does Google Bard compare to other AI chatbots?

Google Bard, Bing AI, and ChatGPT are all AI chatbots that aim to provide human-like responses to questions. However, each chatbot has its own strengths and weaknesses, and the choice of which one to use depends on the user’s needs and preferences.

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## A Comprehensive Guide To Reinforcement Learning

Everyone heard when DeepMind announced its milestone project AlphaGo –

AlphaGo is the first computer program to defeat a professional human Go player, the first to defeat a Go world champion, and is arguably the strongest Go player in history.

This alone says a lot about how powerful the program itself is but how did they achieve it? They did it through novel approaches in Reinforcement learning!

And it’s not just fixated on games, the applications range from –

In this guide, I’ll walk you through the theory behind reinforcement learning, ideas based on theory, various algorithms with basic concepts, and implementation in Python!

Table of Contents

Fundamentals of Reinforcement learning

Creating an environment using OpenAI Gym

Algorithms (Concepts and Implementation)

RL – Libraries in Python

Challenges in Reinforcement Learning

Conclusion

Fundamentals of Reinforcement Learning

Let’s dig into the fundamentals of RL and review them step by step.

Key elements fundamental to RLThere are basically 4 elements – Agent, Environment, State-Action, Reward

Agent

An agent is a program that learns to make decisions. We can say that an agent is a learner in the RL setting. For instance, a badminton player can be considered an agent since the player learns to make the finest shots with timing to win the game. Similarly, a player in FPS games is an agent as he takes the best actions to improve his score on the leaderboard.

Environment

For instance, we discussed badminton players, here the court is the environment in which the player moves and takes appropriate shots. Same in the case of the FPS game, we have a map with all the essentials (guns, other players, ground, buildings) which is our environment to act for an agent.

State – Action

A state is a moment or instance in the environment at any point. Let’s understand it with the help of chess. There are 64 places with 2 sides and different pieces to move. Now this chessboard will be our environment and player, our agent. At some point after the start of the game, pieces will occupy different places in the board, and with every move, the board will differ from its previous situation. This instance of the board is called a state(denoted by s). Any move will change the state to a different one and the act of moving pieces is called action (denoted by a).

Reward

We have seen how taking actions change the state of the environment. For each action ‘a’ the agent takes, it receives a reward (feedback). The reward is simply a numerical value assigned which could be negative or positive with different magnitude.

Let’s take badminton example if the agent takes the shot which results in a positive score we can assign a reward as +10. But if it gets the shuttle inside his court then it will get a negative reward -10. We can further break rewards by giving small positive rewards(+2) for increasing the chances of a positive score and vice versa.

Rough Idea to relate Reinforcement Learning problemsBefore we move on to the Math essentials, I’d like to give a bird-eye view of the reinforcement learning problem. Let’s take the analogy of training a pet to do few tricks. For every successful completion of the trick, we give our pet a treat. If the pet fails to do the same trick we don’t give him a treat. So, our pet will figure out what action caused it to receive a cookie and repeat that action. Thus, our pet will understand that completing a trick caused it to receive a treat and will attempt to repeat doing the tricks. Thus, in this way, our pet will learn a trick successfully while aiming to maximize the treats it can receive.

Here the pet was Agent, groundfloor our environment which includes our pet. Treats given were rewards and every action pet took landed him in a different state than the previous.

Markov Decision Process (MDP)The Markov Decision Process (MDP) provides a mathematical framework for solving RL problems. Almost all RL problems can be modeled as an MDP. MDPs are widely used for solving various optimization problems. But to understand what MDP is, we’d have to understand Markov property and Markov Chain.

The Markov property and Markov chain

Markov Property is simply put – says that future states will not depend on the past and will solely depend on the present state. The sequence of these states (obey Markov property) is called Markov Chain.

Change from one state to another is called transition and the probability of it is transition probability. In simpler words, it means in every state we can have different choices(actions) to choose from. Each choice(action) will result in a different state and the probability of reaching the next state(s’) will be stored in our sequence.

Now, if we add rewards in Markov Chains we get a sequence with the state, transition probability, and rewards (The Markov Reward Process). If we further extend this to include actions it will become The Markov Decision Process. So, MDP is just a sequence of . We will learn more concepts on the go as we move further.

OpenAI Gym for Training Reinforcement Learning AgentsOpenAI is an AI research and deployment company whose goal is to ensure that artificial general intelligence benefits all of humanity. OpenAI provides a toolkit for training RL agents called Gym.

As we have learned that, to create an RL model we need to create an environment first. The gym comes into play here and helps us to create abstract environments to train our agents on it.

Installing Gym

Overview of Gym

Creating an episode in the Gym environment

Cart-Pole balancing with a random agent

Installing Gym

Its installation is simple using Pip. Though the latest version of Gym was just updated a few days ago after years, we can still use the 0.17 version.

pip install gymYou can also clone it from the repository.

Creating our first environment using GymWe will use pre-built (in Gym) examples. One can get explore all the agents from OpenAI gym documentation. Let’s start with Mountain Car.

First, we import Gym

import gymTo create an environment we use the ‘make’ function which required one parameter ID (pre-built ones can be found in the documentation)

env = gym.make('CartPole-v0')To can see how our environment actually looks like using render function.

env.render()The goal here is to balance the pole as long as possible by moving the cart left or right.

To close rendered environment, simply use

env.close() Cartpole-Balancing using Random Agent import gym env = gym.make('CartPole-v0') env.reset() for _ in range(1000): env.render() env.step(env.action_space.sample()) # take a random action env.close()We created an environment, the first thing we do is to reset our environment to its default values. Then we ran it for 1000 timesteps by taking random actions. The ‘step’ function is basically transitioning our current state to the next state by taking the action our agent gives (in this case it was random).

Observations

If we want to do better than just taking random actions, we’d have to understand what our actions are doing to the environment.

The environment’s step function returns what we need in the form of 4 values :

observation (object): an environment-specific object representing the observation of our environment. For example, state of the board in a chess game, pixels as data from cameras or joints torque in robotic arms.

reward (float): the amount of reward achieved by each action taken. It varies from env to env but the end goal is always to maximize our total reward.

done (boolean): if it’s time to reset our environment again. Most of the tasks are divided into a defined episode (completion) and if done is true it means the env has completed the episode. For example, a player wins in chess or we lose all lives in the Mario game.

info (dict): It is simply diagnostic information that is useful for debugging. The agent does not use this for learning, although it can be used for other purposes. If we want to extract some info from each timestep or episode it can be done through this.

This is an implementation of the classic “agent-environment loop”. With each timestep, the agent chooses an action, and the environment returns an observation and a reward with info(not used for training).

The whole process starts by calling the reset() function, which returns an initial observation.

import gym env = gym.make('CartPole-v0') for i_episode in range(20): observation = chúng tôi for t in range(100): env.render() #renders our cartpole env print(observation) action = env.action_space.sample() #takes random action from action space observation, reward, done, info = env.step(action) if done: #prints number of timesteps it took to finish the episode print("Episode finished after {} timesteps".format(t+1)) break env.close()Now, what we see here is observation at each timestep, in Cartpole env observation is a list of 4 continuous values. While our actions are just 0 or 1. To check what is observation space we can simply call this function –

import gym env = gym.make('CartPole-v0') print(env.action_space) #type and size of action space print(env.observation_space) #type and size of observation spaceDiscrete and box are the most common type of spaces in Gym env. Discrete as the name suggests has defined values while box consists of continuous values. Action values are as follows –

Value Action 0 Push cart towards the left 1 Push cart towards the right

Meanwhile, the observation space is a Box(4,) with 4 continuous values denoting –

0.02002610 -0.0227738 0.01257453 0.04411007 Position of Cart Velocity of Cart Angle of Pole The velocity of Pole at the tipGym environments are not just restricted to text or cart poles, its wide range is as follows –

Atari games Box2D MuJoCoAnd many more… We can also create our own custom environment in the gym suiting to our needs.

Popular Algorithms in Reinforcement LearningIn this section, I will cover popular algorithms commonly used in Reinforcement Learning. Right after some basic concepts, it will be followed with implementation in python.

Deep Q NetworkThe objective of reinforcement learning is to find the optimal policy, that is, the policy that gives us the maximum return (the sum of total rewards of the episode). To compute policy we need to first compute the Q function. Once we have the Q function, then we can create a policy that selects the best action based on the maximum Q value. For instance, let’s assume we have two states A and B, we are in state A which has 4 choices, and corresponding to each choice(action) we have a Q value. In order to maximize returns, we follow the policy that has argmax (Q) for that state.

State Action Value A left 25 A Right 35 A up 12 A down 6We are using a neural network to approximate the Q value hence that network is called the Q network, and if we use a deep neural network to approximate the Q value, then it is called a deep Q network or (DQN).

Basic elements we need for understanding DQN is –

Replay Buffer

Loss Function

Target Network

Replay Buffer –

We know that the agent makes a transition from a state s to the next state 𝑠′ by performing some action a, and then receives a reward r. We can save this transition information in a buffer called a replay buffer or experience replay. Later we sample random batches from buffer to train our agent.

We learned that in DQN, our goal is to predict the Q value, which is just a continuous value. Thus, in DQN we basically perform a regression task. We generally use the mean squared error (MSE) as the loss function for the regression task. We can also use different functions to compute the error.

Target Network –

There is one issue with our loss function, we need a target value to compute the losses but when the target is in motion we can no longer get stable values of y_i to compute loss, so here we use the concept of soft update. We create another network that updates slowly as compared to our original network and computes losses since now we have frozen values of y_i. It will be better understood with the code below.

Let’s start coding our DQN algorithm!

import random import gym import numpy as np from collections import deque from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential from tensorflow.keras.layers import Flatten, Conv2D, MaxPooling2D , Dense, Activation from tensorflow.keras.optimizers import Adam env = gym.make("MsPacman-v0") state_size = (88, 80, 1) #defining state size as image input pixels action_size = env.action_space.n #number of actions to be takenPre-processing to feed image in our CNN

color = np.array([210, 164, 74]).mean() def preprocess_state(state): #creating a function to pre-process raw image from game #cropping the image and resizing it image = state[1:176:2, ::2] #converting the image to greyscale image = image.mean(axis=2) #improving contrast image[image==color] = 0 #normalize image = (image - 128) / 128 - 1 #reshape and returning the image in format of state space image = np.expand_dims(image.reshape(88, 80, 1), axis=0) return imageWe need to pre-process the raw image from the game, like removing color, cropping to the desired area, resizing it to state space as we defined previously.

Building DQN class

#epsilon of 0.8 denotes we get 20% random decision self.epsilon = 0.8 #define the update rate at which we update the target network self.update_rate = 1000 #building our main Neural Network self.main_network = self.build_network() #building our target network (same as our main network) self.target_network = self.build_network() #copying weights to target network self.target_network.set_weights(self.main_network.get_weights()) def build_network(self): #creating a neural net model = Sequential() model.add(Conv2D(32, (8, 8), strides=4, padding='same', input_shape=self.state_size)) model.add(Activation('relu')) #adding hidden layer 1 model.add(Conv2D(64, (4, 4), strides=2, padding='same')) model.add(Activation('relu')) #adding hidden layer 2 model.add(Conv2D(64, (3, 3), strides=1, padding='same')) model.add(Activation('relu')) model.add(Flatten()) #feeding flattened map into our fully connected layer model.add(Dense(512, activation='relu')) model.add(Dense(self.action_size, activation='linear')) #compiling model using MSE loss with adam optimizer return model #we sample random batches of data, to store whole transition in buffer def store_transistion( self, state, action, reward, next_state, done ): self.replay_buffer.append(( state, action, reward, next_state, done)) # defining epsilon greedy function so our agent can tackle exploration vs exploitation issue def epsilon_greedy(self, state): #whenever a random value < epsilon we take random action if random.uniform(0,1) < self.epsilon: return np.random.randint(self.action_size) #then we calculate the Q value Q_values = self.main_network.predict(state) return np.argmax(Q_values[0]) #this is our main training function def train(self, batch_size): #we sample a random batch from our replay buffer to train the agent on past actions minibatch = random.sample(self.replay_buffer, batch_size) #compute Q value using target network for state, action, reward, next_state, done in minibatch: #we calculate total expected rewards from this policy if episode is not terminated if not done: target_Q = (reward + self.gamma * np.amax(self.target_network.predict(next_state))) else: target_Q = reward #we compute the values from our main network and store it in Q_value Q_values = self.main_network.predict(state) #update the target Q value for losses Q_values[0][action] = target_Q #training main network self.main_network.fit(state, Q_values, epochs=1, verbose=0) #update the target network weights by copying from the main network def update_target_network(self): self.target_network.set_weights(self.main_network.get_weights()Now we train our network after defining the values of hyper-params

num_episodes = 500 #number of episodes to train agent on num_timesteps = 20000 #number of timesteps to be taken in each episode (until done) batch_size = 8 #taking batch size as 8 num_screens = 4 #number of past game screens we want to use dqn = DQN(state_size, action_size) #initiating the DQN class done = False #setting done to false (start of episode) time_step = 0 #begining of timestep for i in range(num_episodes): #reset total returns to 0 before starting each episode Return = 0 #preprocess the raw image from game state = preprocess_state(env.reset()) for t in range(num_timesteps): env.render() #render the env time_step += 1 #increase timestep with each loop #updating target network if time_step % dqn.update_rate == 0: dqn.update_target_network() #selection of action based on epsilon-greedy strategy action = dqn.epsilon_greedy(state) #saving the output of env after taking 'action' next_state, reward, done, _ = env.step(action) #Pre-process next state next_state = preprocess_state(next_state) #storing transition to be used later via replay buffer dqn.store_transistion(state, action, reward, next_state, done) #updating current state to next state state = next_state #calculating total reward Return += reward if done: print('Episode: ',i, ',' 'Return', Return) #if episode is completed terminate the loop break #we train if the data in replay buffer is greater than batch_size #for first 1-batch_size we take random actions dqn.train(batch_size)Results – Agent learned to play the game successfully.

DDPG (Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient)DQN works only for discrete action space but it’s not always the case that we need discrete values. What if we want continuous action output? to overcome this situation, we start with DDPG (Timothy P. Lillicrap 2023) to deal with when both state and action space is continuous. The idea of replay buffer, target functions, loss functions will be taken from DQN but with novel techniques which I will explain in this section.

Now, we move on to the core Actor-critic method. The original paper explains this concept quite well, but here is a rough idea. The actor takes a decision based on a policy, critic evaluates state-action pair, and gives it a Q value which is assigned to each pair. If the state-action pair is good enough according to critics, it will have a higher Q value (more preferable) and vice versa.

Critic Network

#creating class for critic network class CriticNetwork(nn.Module): def __init__(self, beta): super(CriticNetwork, self).__init__() #fb, insta as state of 2 dim self.input_dims = 2 #hidden layers with 256 N self.fc1_dims = 256 #hidden layers with 256 N self.fc2_dims = 256 #fb, insta spends as 2 actions to be taken self.n_actions = 2 # state + action as fully connected layer chúng tôi = nn.Linear( 2 + 2, self.fc1_dims ) #adding hidden layers chúng tôi = nn.Linear(self.fc1_dims, self.fc2_dims) #final Q value from network self.q1 = nn.Linear(self.fc2_dims, 1) #using adam optimizer with beta as learning rate self.optimizer = optim.Adam(self.parameters(), lr=beta) #device available to train on CPU/GPU self.device = T.device('cuda' if T.cuda.is_available() else 'cpu') #assigning device self.to(self.device) #Creating Critic Network with state and action as input def CriticNetwork(self, state, action): #concatinating state and action before feeding to Neural Net q1_action_value = self.fc1(T.cat([state, action], dim=1 )) q1_action_value = F.relu(q1_action_value) #adding hidden layer q1_action_value = self.fc2(q1_action_value) q1_action_value = F.relu(q1_action_value) #getting final Q value q1 = self.q1(q1_action_value) return q1Now we move to actor-network, we created a similar network but here are some key points which you must remember while making the actor.

Weight initialization is not necessary but generally, if we provide initialization it tends to learn faster.

Choosing an optimizer is very very important and results can vary from the optimizer to optimizer.

Now, how to choose the last activation function solely depends on what kind of action-space, you are using, for example, if it is small and all values are like [-1,-2,-3] to [1,2,3] you can go ahead and tanh (squashing) function, but if you have [-2,-40,-230] to [2,60,560] you might want to change the activation function or create a wrapper.

Actor-Network

class ActorNetwork(nn.Module): #creating actor Network def __init__(self, alpha): super(ActorNetwork, self).__init__() #fb and insta as 2 input state dim self.input_dims = 2 #first hidden layer dimension self.fc1_dims = fc1_dims #second fully connected layer dimension self.fc2_dims = fc2_dims #total number of actions self.n_actions = 2 #connecting fully connected layers chúng tôi = nn.Linear(self.input_dims, self.fc1_dims) chúng tôi = nn.Linear(self.fc1_dims, self.fc2_dims) #final output as number of action values we need (2) chúng tôi = nn.Linear(self.fc2_dims, self.n_actions) #using adam as optimizer self.optimizer = optim.Adam(self.parameters(), lr=alpha) #setting up device (CPU or GPU) to be used for computation self.device = T.device('cuda' if T.cuda.is_available() else "cpu") self.to(self.device) #connecting the device def forward(self, state): #taking state as input to our fully connected layer prob = self.fc1(state) #adding activation layer prob = F.relu(prob) #adding second layer prob = self.fc2(prob) prob = F.relu(prob) #fixing each output between 0 and 1 mu = T.sigmoid(self.mu(prob)) return muNote: We used 2 hidden layers since our action space was small and our environment was not very complex. Authors of DDPG used 400 and 300 neurons for 2 hidden layers but we can increase at the cost of computation power.

Just like gym env, agent has some conditions too. We initialized our target networks with same weights as our original (A-C) networks. Since we are chasing a moving target, target networks create stability and helps original networks to train.

We initialize all the basic requirements, as you might have noticed we have a loss function parameter too. We can use different loss functions and choose whichever works best (can be L1 smooth loss), paper used mse loss, so we will go ahead and use it as default.

Here we include the ‘choose action’ function, you can create an evaluation function as well to cross-check values that outputs action space without noise.

‘Update parameter’ function, now this is where we do soft (target networks) and hard updates (original networks, complete copy). Here it takes only one parameter Tau, this is similar to how we think of learning rate.

It is used to soft update our target networks and in the paper, they found the best tau to be 0.001 and it usually is the best across different papers.

class Agent(object): #binding everything we did till now def __init__( self, alpha , beta, input_dims= 2, tau, env, gamma=0.99, n_actions=2, max_size=1000000, batch_size=64): #fixing discount rate gamma self.gamma = gamma #for soft updating target network, fix tau chúng tôi = tau #Replay buffer with max number of transitions to store self.memory = ReplayBuffer(max_size) #batch size to take from replay buffer self.batch_size = batch_size #creating actor network using learning rate alpha self.actor = ActorNetwork(alpha) #creating target network with same learning rate self.target_actor = ActorNetwork(alpha) #creating critic network with beta as learning rate self.target_critic = CriticNetwork(beta) #adjusting scale as std for adding noise self.scale = 1.0 self.noise = np.random.normal(scale=self.scale,size=(n_actions)) #hard updating target network weights to be same self.update_network_parameters(tau=1) #this function helps to retrieve actions by adding noise to output network def choose_action(self, observation): self.actor.eval() #get actor in eval mode #convert observation state to tensor for calcualtion observation = T.tensor(observation, dtype=T.float).to(self.actor.device) #get the output from actor network mu = self.actor.forward(observation).to(self.actor.device) #add noise to our output from actor network mu_prime = mu + T.tensor(self.noise(),dtype=T.float).to(self.actor.device) #set back to training mode self.actor.train() #get the final results as array return mu_prime.cpu().detach().numpy() #training our actor and critic network from memory (Replay buffer) def learn(self): #if batch size is not filled then do not train if self.memory.mem_cntr < self.batch_size: return #otherwise take a batch from replay buffer state, action, reward, new_state, done= self.memory.sample_buffer(self.batch_size) #convert all values to tensors reward = T.tensor(reward, dtype=T.float).to(self.critic.device) done = T.tensor(done).to(self.critic.device) new_state = T.tensor(new_state, dtype=T.float).to(self.critic.device) action = T.tensor(action, dtype=T.float).to(self.critic.device) state = T.tensor(state, dtype=T.float).to(self.critic.device) #set netowrks to eval mode self.target_actor.eval() self.target_critic.eval() self.critic.eval() #fetch the output from the target network target_actions = self.target_actor.forward(new_state) #get the critic value from both networks critic_value_ = self.target_critic.forward(new_state, target_actions) critic_value = self.critic.forward(state, action) #now we will calculate total expected reward from this policy target = [] for j in range(self.batch_size): target.append(reward[j] + self.gamma*critic_value_[j]*done[j]) #convert it to tensor on respective device(cpu or gpu) target = T.tensor(target).to(self.critic.device) target = target.view(self.batch_size, 1) #to train critic value set it to train mode back self.critic.train() self.critic.optimizer.zero_grad() #calculate losses from expected value vs critic value critic_loss = F.mse_loss(target, critic_value) #backpropogate the values critic_loss.backward() #update the weights self.critic.optimizer.step() self.critic.eval() self.actor.optimizer.zero_grad() #fetch the output of actor network mu = self.actor.forward(state) self.actor.train() #using formula from DDPG network to calculate actor loss actor_loss = -self.critic.forward(state, mu) #calculating losses actor_loss = T.mean(actor_loss) #back propogation actor_loss.backward() #update the weights self.actor.optimizer.step() #soft update the target network self.update_network_parameters() #since our target is continuously moving we need to soft update target network def update_network_parameters(self, tau=None): #if tau is not given then use default from class if tau is None: tau = self.tau #fetch the parameters actor_params = self.actor.named_parameters() critic_params = self.critic.named_parameters() #fetch target parameters target_actor_params = self.target_actor.named_parameters() target_critic_params = self.target_critic.named_parameters() #create dictionary of params critic_state_dict = dict(critic_params) actor_state_dict = dict(actor_params) target_critic_dict = dict(target_critic_params) target_actor_dict = dict(target_actor_params) #update critic network with tau as learning rate (tau =1 means hard update) for name in critic_state_dict: critic_state_dict[name] = tau*critic_state_dict[name].clone() + (1-tau)*target_critic_dict[name].clone() self.target_critic.load_state_dict(critic_state_dict) #updating actor network with tau as learning rate for name in actor_state_dict: actor_state_dict[name] = tau*actor_state_dict[name].clone() + (1-tau)*target_actor_dict[name].clone() self.target_actor.load_state_dict(actor_state_dict)The most crucial part is the learning function. First, we feed the network with samples until it fills up to the batch size and then start sampling from batches to update our networks. Calculate critic and actor losses and then just soft update all the parameters.

env = OurCustomEnv(sales_function, obs_range, act_range) agent = Agent(alpha= 0.000025, beta =0.00025, tau=0.001, env=env, batch_size=64, n_actions=2) score_history = [] for i in range(10000): obs = env.reset() done = False score = 0 while not done: act = agent.choose_action(obs) new_state, reward, done, info = env.step(act) agent.remember(obs, act, reward, new_state, int(done)) agent.learn() score += reward obs = new_state score_history.append(score)Just after some training, our agent performs very well and exhausts almost complete budget.

Reinforcement Learning Libraries in PythonThere are plenty of libraries offering implemented RL algorithms like –

Stable Baselines

TF Agents

Keras-RL

Keras-RL2

PyQlearning

We will explore a bit on Stable Baselines and how to use them through an example.

Installation

pip install stable-baselines[mpi] import gym from stable_baselines import DQN env = gym.make('MountainCar-v0') agent = DQN('MlpPolicy', env, learning_rate=1e-3) agent.learn(total_timesteps=25000)Now we need an evaluation policy

mean_reward, n_steps = evaluate_policy(agent, agent.get_env(), n_eval_episodes=10) agent.save("DQN_mountain_car_agent") #we can save our agent in the disk agent = DQN.load("DQN_mountain_car_agent") # or load it

Training the Agent

state = env.reset() for t in range(5000): action, _ = agent.predict(state) next_state, reward, done, info = env.step(action) state = next_state env.render()This gives us a rough idea, how to use create agents to train in our environment. Since RL is still a heavily research-oriented field, libraries updates fast. Stable baselines has the largest collection of algorithms implemented with additional features. It is suggestive to start with baselines before moving to other libraries.

Challenges in Reinforcement LearningReinforcement Learning is very easily prone to errors, local maxima/minima, and debugging it is hard as compared to other machine learning paradigms, it is because RL works on feedback loops and small errors propagate in the whole model. But that’s not it, we have the most crucial part which is assigning the reward function. Agent heavily depends upon the reward as it is the only thing by which it gets feedback. One of the classical problems in RL is exploration vs exploitation. Various novel methods are used to suppress this, for example, DDPG is prone to this issue so authors of TD3 and SAC (both are improvements over DDPG) used two additional networks (TD3) and temperature parameter(SAC) to deal with the exploration vs exploitation problem and many more novel approaches are being worked upon. Even from all the challenges, Deep RL has lots of applications in real life.

ConclusionWe learned what is reinforcement learning, how we model problems into RL. Created environments using OpenAI Gym, wrote agents from scratch, and also learned how to use already build RL libraries like stable baselines. Although it has some challenges, it still helps in major fields like Robotics, Healthcare, etc. I hope you gained some knowledge or refreshed some concepts from this guide. Thanks to Phil, Andrej Karpathy, Sudarshan for their marvelous work through books and blogs.

Reach out to me via LinkedIn (Nihal Singh)

The media shown in this article are not owned by Analytics Vidhya and are used at the Author’s discretion.

## Comprehensive Guide To Devops Principles

Introduction to DevOps Principles

Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

It has some core key aspects and three effective ways in which they can be framed in incremental ways:

Flow-Flow of work should be from left to right and understandable as well.

Feedback- Continuous Improvement should occur with every release or a DevOps lifecycle. This can be achieved using feedback loops.

Foster- FosterDevelop an environment and try to adapt it. Generate Experimentation and Risk-taking ability. Repetition of the same activity and practice to attain the goal with grace.

Let’s walk through some in-depth DevOps Principles and Practices with real lie examples and scenarios. DevOps is not only a framework or methodology. It possesses many more facts and processes, such as agile, lean, and ITSM.

Compared with Agile, DevOps has made a tremendous change that has helped reduce the chaos between IT and development teams by breaking them into small teams, more frequent software releases, frequent deployments, and continuous incremental improvements. DevOps also includes Lean principles such as increasing flow and reducing the IT Value stream. It also requires an Agile method for all service and project management processes to help remove bottlenecks and achieve faster lead and cycle time.

Principles of DevOps How First Principle and Practice Work in Real Life?

Continuous Integration – Every day, developers commit codes in a shared repository which is a good development practice.

Continuous Delivery – Any software should be releasable throughout its lifecycle.

Continuous Deployment – Every change in each development phase should pass all automated tests during production.

Value Stream Mapping – A lean tool that helps depict the entire flow of information, material, and works across functional silos, including quality and time.

Theory of Constraints – A methodology for identifying the most limiting factor to achieve a milestone and then systematically improving the constraint until it is no longer the limiting factor.

How Feedback as a Second Principle and Practice Works?

Production Logs: Logs are saviors or rescues to escape everyday errors.

Automated Testing: Manual testing sometimes does not produce much of what we expect at the End phase.

Dashboards: Dashboards such as JIRA and KANBAN for entire project management or to keep track of each team developer’s development work.

Monitoring or Event Management: Ansible tools to monitor the overall system configuration and health check of the builds.

Process Measurements: How to measure the flow of the entire process from development to deployment.

How does Foster help in Attaining DevOps Principles and Practices?

Practices and self-feedback include continuous learning and experimentation.

Experimentation and learning

The Deming Cycle[feedback loop]

Using failure to improve resiliency

A collaborative effort for learning

Adopting the Environment is the most important factor to foster with DevOps as it never stops.

DevOps Tools CapabilityDevOps tools deliver the following things which can be listed as follows:

Self Service Projects via project configuration portals.

Dependency analysis and impact analysis.

We have automated builds, testing, and deployment. Quality code and its enhancement across environments and servers.

Optimization of ResourcesAnother essential aspect and principle of DevOps is the Optimization of Resources. How can it be done?

By Proper scaling of the entire infrastructure.

Re-designing of the entire global services from stacked resources instead of using and wasting new ones.

Also, to transform a solution, it is required to apply agendas across vendors to operate the overall cost for application per user or transaction. Foundation or base is also one of the critical aspects of some reasonable values of DevOps; we can put time and effort into creating an excellent new application environment, redeploying the application, and promoting the application to a new lifecycle phase.

One notion of getting it answered is it includes some difficult aspects to follow, such as

Get the right people together.

Get everyone on the same page with sync.

Build capabilities that lead to lasting change.

Focus on critical behaviors.

Experiment and Learn.

Ultimately, DevOps enables companies to deliver better software faster by improving flow, shortening and amplifying feedback loops, and fostering a culture of continuous improvement and development.

Conclusion – DevOps PrinciplesLastly, a conclusion can be made saying that the focus to be kept should be DevOps only. Creating a complex application will help shape an organization with a transformation based on the time-space trade-off required for integrating business, process, and event processors.

Recommended ArticlesThis has been a guide to the DevOps Principles. Here we discuss its principles, tools capability, and optimization of DevOps. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Definition of Agile DevOps

DevOps Tools

ITIL vs DevOps

AngularJS Unit Testing

## A Comprehensive Beginners Guide To Linear Algebra For Data Scientists

Introduction

One of the most common questions we get on Analytics Vidhya is,

How much maths do I need to learn to be a data scientist?

Even though the question sounds simple, there is no simple answer to the the question. Usually, we say that you need to know basic descriptive and inferential statistics to start. That is good to start.

But, once you have covered the basic concepts in machine learning, you will need to learn some more math. You need it to understand how these algorithms work. What are their limitations and in case they make any underlying assumptions. Now, there could be a lot of areas to study including algebra, calculus, statistics, 3-D geometry etc.

If you get confused (like I did) and ask experts what should you learn at this stage, most of them would suggest / agree that you go ahead with Linear Algebra.

But, the problem does not stop there. The next challenge is to figure out how to learn Linear Algebra. You can get lost in the detailed mathematics and derivation and learning them would not help as much! I went through that journey myself and hence decided to write this comprehensive guide.

If you have faced this question about how to learn & what to learn in Linear Algebra – you are at the right place. Just follow this guide.

And if you’re looking to understand where linear algebra fits into the overall data science scheme, here’s the perfect article:

Table of contents

Motivation – Why learn Linear Algebra?

2.3. Planes

3.3 Representing in Matrix form

4.2.3 Use of Inverse in Data Science

5.2 Use of Eigenvectors in Data Science: PCA algorithm

Singular Value Decomposition of a Matrix

End Notes

1. Motivation – Why learn Linear Algebra?I would like to present 4 scenarios to showcase why learning Linear Algebra is important, if you are learning Data Science and Machine Learning.

Scenario 1:What do you see when you look at the image above? You most likely said flower, leaves -not too difficult. But, if I ask you to write that logic so that a computer can do the same for you – it will be a very difficult task (to say the least).

You were able to identify the flower because the human brain has gone through million years of evolution. We do not understand what goes in the background to be able to tell whether the colour in the picture is red or black. We have somehow trained our brains to automatically perform this task.

But making a computer do the same task is not an easy task, and is an active area of research in Machine Learning and Computer Science in general. But before we work on identifying attributes in an image, let us ponder over a particular question- How does a machine stores this image?

You probably know that computers of today are designed to process only 0 and 1. So how can an image such as above with multiple attributes like colour be stored in a computer? This is achieved by storing the pixel intensities in a construct called Matrix. Then, this matrix can be processed to identify colours etc.

So any operation which you want to perform on this image would likely use Linear Algebra and matrices at the back end.

Scenario 2:If you are somewhat familiar with the Data Science domain, you might have heard about the world “XGBOOST” – an algorithm employed most frequently by winners of Data Science Competitions. It stores the numeric data in the form of Matrix to give predictions. It enables XGBOOST to process data faster and provide more accurate results. Moreover, not just XGBOOST but various other algorithms use Matrices to store and process data.

Scenario 3:Deep Learning- the new buzz word in town employs Matrices to store inputs such as image or speech or text to give a state-of-the-art solution to these problems. Weights learned by a Neural Network are also stored in Matrices. Below is a graphical representation of weights stored in a Matrix.

Scenario 4:Another active area of research in Machine Learning is dealing with text and the most common techniques employed are Bag of Words, Term Document Matrix etc. All these techniques in a very similar manner store counts(or something similar) of words in documents and store this frequency count in a Matrix form to perform tasks like Semantic analysis, Language translation, Language generation etc.

So, now you would understand the importance of Linear Algebra in machine learning. We have seen image, text or any data, in general, employing matrices to store and process data. This should be motivation enough to go through the material below to get you started on Linear Algebra. This is a relatively long guide, but it builds Linear Algebra from the ground up.

2. Representation of problems in Linear AlgebraLet’s start with a simple problem. Suppose that price of 1 ball & 2 bat or 2 ball and 1 bat is 100 units. We need to find price of a ball and a bat.

Suppose the price of a bat is Rs ‘x’ and the price of a ball is Rs ‘y’. Values of ‘x’ and ‘y’ can be anything depending on the situation i.e. ‘x’ and ‘y’ are variables.

Let’s translate this in mathematical form –

2x + y = 100 ...........(1)

Similarly, for the second condition-

x + 2y = 100 ..............(2)

Now, to find the prices of bat and ball, we need the values of ‘x’ and ‘y’ such that it satisfies both the equations. The basic problem of linear algebra is to find these values of ‘x’ and ‘y’ i.e. the solution of a set of linear equations.

Broadly speaking, in linear algebra data is represented in the form of linear equations. These linear equations are in turn represented in the form of matrices and vectors.

The number of variables as well as the number of equations may vary depending upon the condition, but the representation is in form of matrices and vectors.

2.1 Visualise the problemIt is usually helpful to visualize data problems. Let us see if that helps in this case.

Linear equations represent flat objects. We will start with the simplest one to understand i.e. line. A line corresponding to an equation is the set of all the points which satisfy the given equation. For example,

Points (50,0) , (0,100), (100/3,100/3) and (30,40) satisfy our equation (1) . So these points should lie on the line corresponding to our equation (1). Similarly, (0,50),(100,0),(100/3,100/3) are some of the points that satisfy equation (2).

Now in this situation, we want both of the conditions to be satisfied i.e. the point which lies on both the lines. Intuitively, we want to find the intersection point of both the lines as shown in the figure below.

Let’s solve the problem by elementary algebraic operations like addition, subtraction and substitution.

2x + y = 100 .............(1)

x + 2y = 100 ..........(2)

from equation (1)-

y = (100- x)/2

put value of y in equation (2)-

x + 2*(100-x)/2 = 100......(3)

Now, since the equation (3) is an equation in single variable x, it can be solved for x and subsequently y.

That looks simple – let’s go one step further and explore.

2.2 Let’s complicate the problemNow, suppose you are given a set of three conditions with three variables each as given below and asked to find the values of all the variables. Let’s solve the problem and see what happens.

x+y+z=1.......(4)

2x+y=1......(5)

5x+3y+2z=4.......(6)

From equation (4) we get,

z=1-x-y....(7)

Substituting value of z in equation (6), we get –

5x+3y+2(1-x-y)=4

3x+y=2.....(8)

Now, we can solve equations (8) and (5) as a case of two variables to find the values of ‘x’ and ‘y’ in the problem of bat and ball above. Once we know‘x’ and ‘y’, we can use (7) to find the value of ‘z’.

As you might see, adding an extra variable has tremendously increased our efforts for finding the solution of the problem. Now imagine having 10 variables and 10 equations. Solving 10 equations simultaneously can prove to be tedious and time consuming. Now dive into data science. We have millions of data points. How do you solve those problems?

We have millions of data points in a real data set. It is going to be a nightmare to reach to solutions using the approach mentioned above. And imagine if we have to do it again and again and again. It’s going to take ages before we can solve this problem. And now if I tell you that it’s just one part of the battle, what would you think? So, what should we do? Should we quit and let it go? Definitely NO. Then?

Matrix is used to solve a large set of linear equations. But before we go further and take a look at matrices, let’s visualise the physical meaning of our problem. Give a little bit of thought to the next topic. It directly relates to the usage of Matrices.

2.3 PlanesA linear equation in 3 variables represents the set of all points whose coordinates satisfy the equations. Can you figure out the physical object represented by such an equation? Try to think of 2 variables at a time in any equation and then add the third one. You should figure out that it represents a three-dimensional analogue of line.

Basically, a linear equation in three variables represents a plane. More technically, a plane is a flat geometric object which extends up to infinity.

As in the case of a line, finding solutions to 3 variables linear equation means we want to find the intersection of those planes. Now can you imagine, in how many ways a set of three planes can intersect? Let me help you out. There are 4 possible cases –

No intersection at all.

Planes intersect in a line.

They can intersect in a plane.

All the three planes intersect at a point.

Can you imagine the number of solutions in each case? Try doing this. Here is an aid picked from Wikipedia to help you visualise.

So, what was the point of having you to visualise all graphs above?

Normal humans like us and most of the super mathematicians can only visualise things in 3-Dimensions, and having to visualise things in 4 (or 10000) dimensions is difficult impossible for mortals. So, how do mathematicians deal with higher dimensional data so efficiently? They have tricks up their sleeves and Matrices is one such trick employed by mathematicians to deal with higher dimensional data.

Now let’s proceed with our main focus i.e. Matrix.

3. MatrixMatrix is a way of writing similar things together to handle and manipulate them as per our requirements easily. In Data Science, it is generally used to store information like weights in an Artificial Neural Network while training various algorithms. You will be able to understand my point by the end of this article.

Technically, a matrix is a 2-D array of numbers (as far as Data Science is concerned). For example look at the matrix A below.

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Generally, rows are denoted by ‘i’ and column are denoted by ‘j’. The elements are indexed by ‘i’th row and ‘j’th chúng tôi denote the matrix by some alphabet e.g. A and its elements by A(ij).

In above matrix

A12 = 2

To reach to the result, go along first row and reach to second column.

3.1 Terms related to MatrixOrder of matrix – If a matrix has 3 rows and 4 columns, order of the matrix is 3*4 i.e. row*column.

Square matrix – The matrix in which the number of rows is equal to the number of columns.

Diagonal matrix – A matrix with all the non-diagonal elements equal to 0 is called a diagonal matrix.

Upper triangular matrix – Square matrix with all the elements below diagonal equal to 0.

Lower triangular matrix – Square matrix with all the elements above the diagonal equal to 0.

Scalar matrix – Square matrix with all the diagonal elements equal to some constant k.

Identity matrix – Square matrix with all the diagonal elements equal to 1 and all the non-diagonal elements equal to 0.

Column matrix – The matrix which consists of only 1 column. Sometimes, it is used to represent a vector.

Row matrix – A matrix consisting only of row.

Trace – It is the sum of all the diagonal elements of a square matrix.

3.2 Basic operations on matrixLet’s play with matrices and realise the capabilities of matrix operations.

Addition – Addition of matrices is almost similar to basic arithmetic addition. All you need is the order of all the matrices being added should be same. This point will become obvious once you will do matrix addition by yourself.

Suppose we have 2 matrices ‘A’ and ‘B’ and the resultant matrix after the addition is ‘C’. Then

Cij = Aij + Bij

For example, let’s take two matrices and solve them.

A =

1 0

2 3

B =

4 -1

0 5

Then,

C =

5 -1

2 8

Observe that to get the elements of C matrix, I have added A and B element-wise i.e. 1 to 4, 3 to 5 and so on.

Scalar Multiplication – Multiplication of a matrix with a scalar constant is called scalar multiplication. All we have to do in a scalar multiplication is to multiply each element of the matrix with the given constant. Suppose we have a constant scalar ‘c’ and a matrix ‘A’. Then multiplying ‘c’ with ‘A’ gives-

c[Aij] = [c*Aij]

Transposition – Transposition simply means interchanging the row and column index. For example-

AijT= Aji

Transpose is used in vectorized implementation of linear and logistic regression.

Code in python

Code in R

View the code on Gist.

Output

[,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 11 12 13 [2,] 14 15 16 [3,] 17 18 19View the code on Gist.

t(A) [,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 11 14 17 [2,] 12 15 18 [3,] 13 16 19Matrix multiplication

Matrix multiplication is one of the most frequently used operations in linear algebra. We will learn to multiply two matrices as well as go through its important properties.

Before landing to algorithms, there are a few points to be kept in mind.

The multiplication of two matrices of orders i*j and j*k results into a matrix of order i*k. Just keep the outer indices in order to get the indices of the final matrix.

Two matrices will be compatible for multiplication only if the number of columns of the first matrix and the number of rows of the second one are same.

The third point is that order of multiplication matters.

Don’t worry if you can’t get these points. You will be able to understand by the end of this section.

Suppose, we are given two matrices A and B to multiply. I will write the final expression first and then will explain the steps.

I have picked this image from Wikipedia for your better understanding.

In the first illustration, we know that the order of the resulting matrix should be 3*3. So first of all, create a matrix of order 3*3. To determine (AB)ij , multiply each element of ‘i’th row of A with ‘j’th column of B one at a time and add all the terms. To help you understand element-wise multiplication, take a look at the code below.

import numpy as np

B=np.arange(31,40).reshape(3,3)

A.dot(B)

AB= array([[2250, 2316, 2382], [2556, 2631, 2706], [2862, 2946, 3030]]) B.dot(A) BA= array([[2310, 2406, 2502], [2526, 2631, 2736], [2742, 2856, 2970]])So, how did we get 2250 as first element of AB matrix? 2250=21*31+22*34+23*37. Similarly, for other elements.

Code in R

View the code on Gist.

A*B [,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] 220 252 286 [2,] 322 360 400 [3,] 442 486 532Notice the difference between AB and BA.

Properties of matrix multiplication

Matrix multiplication is associative provided the given matrices are compatible for multiplication i.e.

ABC = (AB)C = A(BC)

C=np.arange(41,50).reshape(3,3)

temp1=(A.dot(B)).dot(C)

array([[306108, 313056, 320004], [347742, 355635, 363528], [389376, 398214, 407052]])temp2=A.dot((B.dot(C)))

array([[306108, 313056, 320004], [347742, 355635, 363528], [389376, 398214, 407052]])2. Matrix multiplication is not commutative i.e. AB and BA are not equal. We have verified this result above.

Matrix multiplication is used in linear and logistic regression when we calculate the value of output variable by parameterized vector method. As we have learned the basics of matrices, it’s time to apply them.

3.3 Representing equations in matrix formLet me do something exciting for you. Take help of pen and paper and try to find the value of the matrix multiplication shown below

It can be verified very easily that the expression contains our three equations. We will name our matrices as ‘A’, ‘X’ and ‘Z’.

It explicitly verifies that we can write our equations together in one place as

AX = Z

Next step has to be solution chúng tôi will go through two methods to find the solution.

4. Solving the ProblemNow, we will look in detail the two methods to solve matrix equations.

Row Echelon Form

Inverse of a Matrix

4.1 Row Echelon formNow you have visualised what an equation in 3 variables represents and had a warm up on matrix operations. Let’s find the solution of the set of equations given to us to understand our first method of interest and explore it later in detail.

I have already illustrated that solving the equations by substitution method can prove to be tedious and time taking. Our first method introduces you with a neater and more systematic method to accomplish the job in which, we manipulate our original equations systematically to find the solution. But what are those valid manipulations? Are there any qualifying criteria they have to fulfil? Well, yes. There are two conditions which have to be fulfilled by any manipulation to be valid.

Manipulation should preserve the solution i.e. solution should not be altered on imposing the manipulation.

Manipulation should be reversible.

So, what are those manipulations?

We can swap the order of equations.

We can multiply both sides of equations by any non-zero constant ‘c’.

We can multiply an equation by any non-zero constant and then add to other equation.

These points will become more clear once you go through the algorithm and practice it. The basic idea is to clear variables in successive equations and form an upper triangular matrix. Equipped with prerequisites, let’s get started. But before that, it is strongly recommended to go through this link for better understanding.

I will solve our original problem as an illustration. Let’s do it in steps.

Make an augmented matrix from the matrix ‘A’ and ‘Z’.

What I have done is I have just concatenated the two matrices. The augmented matrix simply tells that the elements in a row are coefficients of ‘x’, ‘y’ and ‘z’ and last element in the row is right-hand side of the equation.

Multiply row (1) with 2 and subtract from row (2). Similarly, multiply equation 1 with 5 and subtract from row (3).

In order to make an upper triangular matrix, multiply row (2) by 2 and then subtract from row (3).

Now we have simplified our job, let’s retrieve the modified equations. We will start from the simplest i.e. the one with the minimum number of remaining variables. If you follow the illustrated procedure, you will find that last equation comes to be the simplest one.

z=1

Now retrieve equation (2) and put the value of ‘z’ in it to find ‘y’. Do the same for equation (1).

Isn’t it pretty simple and clean?

Let’s ponder over another point. Will we always be able to make an upper triangular matrix which gives a unique solution? Are there different cases possible? Recall that planes can intersect in multiple ways. Take your time to figure it out and then proceed further.

Different possible cases-

It’s possible that we get a unique solution as illustrated in above example. It indicates that all the three planes intersect in a point.

We can get a case like shown below

Note that in last equation, 0=0 which is always true but it seems like we have got only 2 equations. One of the equations is redundant. In many cases, it’s also possible that the number of redundant equations is more than one. In this case, the number of solutions is infinite.

There is another case where Echelon matrix looks as shown below

Let’s retrieve the last equation.

0*x+0*y+0*z=4

0=4

Is it possible? Very clear cut intuition is NO. But, does this signify something? It’s analogous to saying that it is impossible to find a solution and indeed, it is true. We can’t find a solution for such a set of equations. Can you think what is happening actually in terms of planes? Go back to the section where we saw planes intersecting and find it out.

Note that this method is efficient for a set of 5-6 equations. Although the method is quite simple, if equation set gets larger, the number of times you have to manipulate the equations becomes enormously high and the method becomes inefficient.

Rank of a matrix – Rank of a matrix is equal to the maximum number of linearly independent row vectors in a matrix.

A set of vectors is linearly dependent if we can express at least one of the vectors as a linear combination of remaining vectors in the set.

4.2 Inverse of a MatrixFor solving a large number of equations in one go, the inverse is used. Don’t panic if you are not familiar with the inverse. We will do a good amount of work on all the required concepts. Let’s start with a few terms and operations.

Determinant of a Matrix – The concept of determinant is applicable to square matrices only. I will lead you to the generalised expression of determinant in steps. To start with, let’s take a 2*2 matrix A.

For now, just focus on 2*2 matrix. The expression of determinant of the matrix A will be:

det(A) =a*d-b*c

Note that det(A) is a standard notation for determinant. Notice that all you have to do to find determinant in this case is to multiply diagonal elements together and put a positive or negative sign before them. For determining the sign, sum the indices of a particular element. If the sum is an even number, put a positive sign before the multiplication and if the sum is odd, put a negative sign. For example, the sum of indices of element ‘a11’ is 2. Similarly the sum of indices of element ‘d’ is 4. So we put a positive sign before the first term in the expression. Do the same thing for the second term yourself.

Now take a 3*3 matrix ‘B’ and find its determinant.

I am writing the expression first and then will explain the procedure step by step.

Each term consists of two parts basically i.e. a submatrix and a coefficient. First of all, pick a constant. Observe that coefficients are picked from the first row only. To start with, I have picked the first element of the first row. You can start wherever you want. Once you have picked the coefficient, just delete all the elements in the row and column corresponding to the chosen coefficient. Next, make a matrix of the remaining elements; each one in its original position after deleting the row and column and find the determinant of this submatrix . Repeat the same procedure for each element in the first row. Now, for determining the sign of the terms, just add the indices of the coefficient element. If it is even, put a positive sign and if odd, put a negative sign. Finally, add all the terms to find the determinant. Now, let’s take a higher order matrix ‘C’ and generalise the concept.

Try to relate the expression to what we have done already and figure out the final expression.

Code in python

arr = np.arange(100,116).reshape(4,4)

array([[100, 101, 102, 103], [104, 105, 106, 107], [108, 109, 110, 111], [112, 113, 114, 115]])np.linalg.det(arr)

-2.9582283945788078e-31Code in R

View the code on Gist.

[,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] -0.16208333 -0.1125 0.17458333 [2,] -0.07916667 0.1250 -0.04583333 [3,] 0.20791667 -0.0125 -0.09541667 #Determinant -0.0004166667Minor of a matrix

Let’s take a square matrix A. then minor corresponding to an element A(ij) is the determinant of the submatrix formed by deleting the ‘i’th row and ‘j’th column of the matrix. Hope you can relate with what I have explained already in the determinant section. Let’s take an example.

To find the minor corresponding to element A11, delete first row and first column to find the submatrix.

Now find the determinant of this matrix as explained already. If you calculate the determinant of this matrix, you should get 4. If we denote minor by M11, then

M11 = 4

Similarly, you can do for other elements.

Cofactor of a matrix

In the above discussion of minors, if we consider signs of minor terms, the resultant we get is called cofactor of a matrix. To assign the sign, just sum the indices of the corresponding element. If it turns out to be even, assign positive sign. Else assign negative. Let’s take above illustration as an example. If we add the indices i.e. 1+1=2, so we should put a positive sign. Let’s say it C11. Then

C11 = 4

You should find cofactors corresponding to other elements by yourself for a good amount of practice.

Cofactor matrix

Find the cofactor corresponding to each element. Now in the original matrix, replace the original element by the corresponding cofactor. The matrix thus found is called the cofactor matrix corresponding to the original matrix.

For example, let’s take our matrix A. if you have found out the cofactors corresponding to each element, just put them in a matrix according to rule stated above. If you have done it right, you should get cofactor matrix

Adjoint of a matrix – In our journey to find inverse, we are almost at the end. Just keep hold of the article for a couple of minutes and we will be there. So, next we will find the adjoint of a matrix.

Suppose we have to find the adjoint of a matrix A. we will do it in two steps.

In step 1, find the cofactor matrix of A.

In step 2, just transpose the cofactor matrix.

The resulting matrix is the adjoint of the original matrix. For illustration, lets find the adjoint of our matrix A. we already have cofactor matrix C. Transpose of cofactor matrix should be

Finally, in the next section, we will find the inverse.

4.2.1 Finding Inverse of a matrixDo you remember the concept of the inverse of a number in elementary algebra? Well, if there exist two numbers such that upon their multiplication gives 1 then those two numbers are called inverse of each other. Similarly in linear algebra, if there exist two matrices such that their multiplication yields an identity matrix then the matrices are called inverse of each other. If you can not get what I explained, just go with the article. It will come intuitively to you. The best way to learning is learning by doing. So, let’s jump straight to the algorithm for finding the inverse of a matrix A. Again, we will do it in two steps.

Step 1: Find out the adjoint of the matrix A by the procedure explained in previous sections.

Step2: Multiply the adjoint matrix by the inverse of determinant of the matrix A. The resulting matrix is the inverse of A.

For example, let’s take our matrix A and find it’s inverse. We already have the adjoint matrix. Determinant of matrix A comes to be -2. So, its inverse will be

Now suppose that the determinant comes out to be 0. What happens when we invert the determinant i.e. 0? Does it make any sense? It indicates clearly that we can’t find the inverse of such a matrix. Hence, this matrix is non-invertible. More technically, this type of matrix is called a singular matrix.

Keep in mind that the resultant of multiplication of a matrix and its inverse is an identity matrix. This property is going to be used extensively in equation solving.

Inverse is used in finding parameter vector corresponding to minimum cost function in linear regression.

4.2.2 Power of matricesWhat happens when we multiply a number by 1? Obviously it remains the same. The same is applicable for an identity matrix i.e. if we multiply a matrix with an identity matrix of the same order, it remains same.

Lets solve our original problem with the help of matrices. Our original problem represented in matrix was as shown below

AX = Z i.e.

What happens when we pre multiply both the sides with inverse of coefficient matrix i.e. A. Lets find out by doing.

A-1 A X =A-1 Z

We can manipulate it as,

(A-1 A) X = A -1Z

But we know multiply a matrix with its inverse gives an Identity Matrix. So,

IX = A -1Z

Where I is the identity matrix of the corresponding order.

If you observe keenly, we have already reached to the solution. Multiplying identity matrix to X does not change it. So the equation becomes

X = A -1Z

For solving the equation, we have to just find the inverse. It can be very easily done by executing a few lines of codes. Isn’t it a really powerful method?

Code for inverse in python

arr1 = np.arange(5,21).reshape(4,4)

np.linalg.inv(arr1)

4.2.3 Application of inverse in Data ScienceInverse is used to calculate parameter vector by normal equation in linear equation. Here is an illustration. Suppose we are given a data set as shown below-

Team League Year RS RA W OBP SLG BA G OOBP OSLG

ARI NL 2012 734 688 81 0.328 0.418 0.259 162 0.317 0.415

ATL NL 2012 700 600 94 0.32 0.389 0.247 162 0.306 0.378

BAL AL 2012 712 705 93 0.311 0.417 0.247 162 0.315 0.403

BOS AL 2012 734 806 69 0.315 0.415 0.26 162 0.331 0.428

CHC NL 2012 613 759 61 0.302 0.378 0.24 162 0.335 0.424

CHW AL 2012 748 676 85 0.318 0.422 0.255 162 0.319 0.405

CIN NL 2012 669 588 97 0.315 0.411 0.251 162 0.305 0.39

CLE AL 2012 667 845 68 0.324 0.381 0.251 162 0.336 0.43

COL NL 2012 758 890 64 0.33 0.436 0.274 162 0.357 0.47

DET AL 2012 726 670 88 0.335 0.422 0.268 162 0.314 0.402

HOU NL 2012 583 794 55 0.302 0.371 0.236 162 0.337 0.427

KCR AL 2012 676 746 72 0.317 0.4 0.265 162 0.339 0.423

LAA AL 2012 767 699 89 0.332 0.433 0.274 162 0.31 0.403

LAD NL 2012 637 597 86 0.317 0.374 0.252 162 0.31 0.364

It describes the different variables of different baseball teams to predict whether it makes to playoffs or not. But for right now to make it a regression problem, suppose we are interested in predicting OOBP from the rest of the variables. So, ‘OOBP’ is our target variable. To solve this problem using linear regression, we have to find parameter vector. If you are familiar with Normal equation method, you should have the idea that to do it, we need to make use of Matrices. Lets proceed further and denote our Independent variables below as matrix ‘X’.This data is a part of a data set taken from analytics edge. Here is the link for the data set.

so, X=

734 688 81 0.328 0.418 0.259

700 600 94 0.32 0.389 0.247

712 705 93 0.311 0.417 0.247

734 806 69 0.315 0.415 0.26

613 759 61 0.302 0.378 0.24

748 676 85 0.318 0.422 0.255

669 588 97 0.315 0.411 0.251

667 845 68 0.324 0.381 0.251

758 890 64 0.33 0.436 0.274

726 670 88 0.335 0.422 0.268

583 794 55 0.302 0.371 0.236

676 746 72 0.317 0.4 0.265

767 699 89 0.332 0.433 0.274

637 597 86 0.317 0.374 0.252

To find the final parameter vector(θ) assuming our initial function is parameterised by θ and X , all you have to do is to find the inverse of (XT X) which can be accomplished very easily by using code as shown below.

First of all, let me make the Linear Regression formulation easier for you to comprehend.

f θ (X)= θT X, where θ is the parameter we wish to calculate and X is the column vector of features or independent variables.

import numpy as np

#you don’t need to bother about the following. It just #transforms the data from original source into matrix

Df1 = df.head(14)

Y=Df1['OOBP']

X = np.asmatrix(X)

x= np.transpose(X)

T= x.dot(X)

inv=np.linalg.inv(T)

theta=(inv.dot(X.T)).dot(Y)

Imagine if you had to solve this set of equations without using linear algebra. Let me remind you that this data set is less than even 1% of original date set. Now imagine if you had to find parameter vector without using linear algebra. It would have taken a lots of time and effort and could be even impossible to solve sometimes.

One major drawback of normal equation method when the number of features is large is that it is computationally very costly. The reason is that if there are ‘n’ features, the matrix (XT X) comes to be the order n*n and its solution costs time of order O( n*n*n). Generally, normal equation method is applied when a number of features is of the order of 1000 or 10,000. Data sets with a larger number of features are handled with the help another method called Gradient Descent.

5. Eigenvalues and EigenvectorsEigenvectors find a lot of applications in different domains like computer vision, physics and machine learning. If you have studied machine learning and are familiar with Principal component analysis algorithm, you must know how important the algorithm is when handling a large data set. Have you ever wondered what is going on behind that algorithm? Actually, the concept of Eigenvectors is the backbone of this algorithm. Let us explore Eigen vectors and Eigen values for a better understanding of it.

Let’s multiply a 2-dimensional vector with a 2*2 matrix and see what happens.

This operation on a vector is called linear transformation. Notice that the directions of input and output vectors are different. Note that the column matrix denotes a vector here.

I will illustrate my point with the help of a picture as shown below.

In the above picture, there are two types of vectors coloured in red and yellow and the picture is showing the change in vectors after a linear transformation. Note that on applying a linear transformation to yellow coloured vector, its direction changes but the direction of the red coloured vector doesn’t change even after applying the linear transformation. The vector coloured in red is an example of Eigenvector.

Precisely, for a particular matrix; vectors whose direction remains unchanged even after applying linear transformation with the matrix are called Eigenvectors for that particular matrix. Remember that the concept of Eigen values and vectors is applicable to square matrices only. Another thing to know is that I have taken a case of two-dimensional vectors but the concept of Eigenvectors is applicable to a space of any number of dimensions.

5.1 How to find Eigenvectors of a matrix?Suppose we have a matrix A and an Eigenvector ‘x’ corresponding to the matrix. As explained already, after multiplication with matrix the direction of ‘x’ doesn’t change. Only change in magnitude is permitted. Let us write it as an equation-

Ax = cx

(A-c)x = 0 …….(1)

Please note that in the term (A-c), ‘c’ denotes an identity matrix of the order equal to ‘A’ multiplied by a scalar ‘c’

We have two unknowns ‘c’ and ‘x’ and only one equation. Can you think of a trick to solve this equation?

In equation (1), if we put the vector ‘x’ as zero vector, it makes no sense. Hence, the only choice is that (A-c) is a singular matrix. And singular matrix has a property that its determinant equals to 0. We will use this property to find the value of ‘c’.

Det(A-c) = 0

Once you find the determinant of the matrix (A-c) and equate to 0, you will get an equation in ‘c’ of the order depending upon the given matrix A. all you have to do is to find the solution of the equation. Suppose that we find solutions as ‘c1’ , ‘c2’ and so on. Put ‘c1’ in equation (1) and find the vector ‘x1’ corresponding to ‘c1’. The vector ‘x1’ that you just found is an Eigenvector of A. Now, repeat the same procedure with ‘c2’, ‘c3’ and so on.

Code for finding EigenVectors in python

import numpy as np

arr = np.arange(1,10).reshape(3,3)

np.linalg.eig(arr)

Code in R for finding Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors:

View the code on Gist.

Output

147.737576 5.317459 -3.055035 [,1] [,2] [,3] [1,] -0.3948374 0.4437557 -0.74478185 [2,] -0.5497457 -0.8199420 -0.06303763 [3,] -0.7361271 0.3616296 0.66432391 5.2 Use of Eigenvectors in Data ScienceThe concept of Eigenvectors is applied in a machine learning algorithm Principal Component Analysis. Suppose you have a data with a large number of features i.e. it has a very high dimensionality. It is possible that there are redundant features in that data. Apart from this, a large number of features will cause reduced efficiency and more disk space. What PCA does is that it craps some of lesser important features. But how to determine those features? Here, Eigenvectors come to our rescue.Let’s go through the algorithm of PCA. Suppose we have an ‘n’ dimensional data and we want to reduce it to ‘k’ dimensions. We will do it in steps.

Step 1: Data is mean normalised and feature scaled.

Step 2: We find out the covariance matrix of our data set.

Now we want to reduce the number of features i.e. dimensions. But cutting off features means loss of information. We want to minimise the loss of information i.e. we want to keep the maximum variance. So, we want to find out the directions in which variance is maximum. We will find these directions in the next step.

Step 4: We will select ‘k’ Eigenvectors corresponding to the ‘k’ largest Eigenvalues and will form a matrix in which each Eigenvector will constitute a column. We will call this matrix as U.

Now it’s the time to find the reduced data points. Suppose you want to reduce a data point ‘a’ in the data set to ‘k’ dimensions. To do so, you have to just transpose the matrix U and multiply it with the vector ‘a’. You will get the required vector in ‘k’ dimensions.

6. Singular Value DecompositionSuppose you are given a feature matrix A. As suggested by name, what we do is we decompose our matrix A in three constituent matrices for a special purpose. Sometimes, it is also said that svd is some sort of generalisation of Eigen value decomposition. I will not go into its mathematics for the reason already explained and will stick to our plan i.e. use of svd in data science.

Svd is used to remove the redundant features in a data set. Suppose you have a data set which comprises of 1000 features. Definitely, any real data set with such a large number of features is bound to contain redundant features. if you have run ML, you should be familiar with the fact that Redundant features cause a lots of problems in running machine learning algorithms. Also, running an algorithm on the original data set will be time inefficient and will require a lot of memory. So, what should you to do handle such a problem? Do we have a choice? Can we omit some features? Will it lead to significant amount of information loss? Will we be able to get an efficient enough algorithm even after omitting the rows? I will answer these questions with the help of an illustration.

Look at the pictures shown below taken from this link

We can convert this tiger into black and white and can think of it as a matrix whose elements represent the pixel intensity as relevant location. In simpler words, the matrix contains information about the intensity of pixels of the image in the form of rows and columns. But, is it necessary to have all the columns in the intensity matrix? Will we be able to represent the tiger with a lesser amount of information? The next picture will clarify my point. In this picture, different images are shown corresponding to different ranks with different resolution. For now, just assume that higher rank implies the larger amount of information about pixel intensity. The image is taken from this link

It is clear that we can reach to a pretty well image with 20 or 30 ranks instead of 100 or 200 ranks and that’s what we want to do in a case of highly redundant data. What I want to convey is that to get a reasonable hypothesis, we don’t have to retain all the information present in the original dataset. Even, some of the features cause a problem in reaching a solution to the best algorithm. For the example, presence of redundant features causes multi co-linearity in linear regression. Also, some features are not significant for our model. Omitting these features helps to find a better fit of algorithm along with time efficiency and lesser disk space. Singular value decomposition is used to get rid of the redundant features present in our data.

7. End notesRelated

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