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Introduction to Kotlin Unit

Kotlin unit is one of the return types and it returns null as the value similar to void but Unit is used to return type of any function that does not return any values and it is the optional one so the values are mentioned as the Unit in the return type apart from void Unit is the real class and is also called as Singleton so with only one instance is acceptable for accessing the application wherever its needed unit also the kotlin library so that unit will be applicable for argument type of the one value.

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Syntax of Kotlin Unit

Kotlin has many default keywords, classes and methods for implementing the application. Like that unit is one of the class types and it is used in the object class which means it is in the singleton class having only one object.

{ } —method overridden and declarations— }

The above codes are the basic syntax for to utilising the unit keyword and it is used in the return type of the classes and functions on the script.

How does Unit work in Kotlin?

The unit in kotlin it corresponds to the void return type which is similar to the java language. Generally, void means it returns null has the value and it passed as the argument type and return type. Unit is the return type of any function that does not return any meaningful values and it is optional to mention the Unit as the return type in the kotlin functions.

Mostly unlike void as the return type and unit is the real class which is mentioned as the singleton instance with only one instance for to call entire areas in the application. And also Unit is equivalent to the void type in the java language so we can explicitly add the unit as the return type for functions that returns null as the value and argument which is used with the other areas of the kotlin codes.

Mainly the Unit class can’t extend with other types and classes which is needed or not there is no option to perform this feature so it fully acts as the private modifiers. So that Unit is the default return type and it is declared as the optional therefore the function is also valid and calls in other areas. The unit has executed all types of jvm and js for common types with only one value using the Unit object.

Examples of Kotlin Unit

Given below are the examples mentioned:

Example #1

Code:

class TouristMonths { val mnths = listOf(“January”, “February”,”March”,”April”,”May”,”June”,”July”,”August”,”September”,”October”,”November”,”December”) val elects = listOf(“Ups”,”Inverters”,”Gadgets”,”Desktop PCs”,”Microwave Oven”,”Fridge”,”Washing Machine”,”mobile”) val lap = listOf(“Dell latitude”, “dell inspiron”,”sony”,”acer”,”samsung”,”lenovo”,”apple”) val placesvisited = listOf( States(“Delhi”, listOf(Tourist(“Noida”, lap), Tourist(“Darjeeling”, mnths))), States(“Tamilnadu”, listOf(Tourist(“Chennai”, elects)))) } data class Customers( val custname: String, val custid: Int ) enum class Banks ( val names: String, val id:Int, val sno:Int ) { First(“PNB”,1,123), Second(“IOB”,2,466), Third(“SBI”,3,7898), Four(“RBL”,4,7885), Five(“Indian”,5,798), Six(“Indusland”,6,124453), Seven(“HDFC”,7,984); } fun operations(): Unit { println(“Your kotlin unit first example “) } println(“Welcome To My Domain your listed banks are as follows:”) operations() var trt=TouristMonths() println(“#############################################################”) println(“Welcome To My Our tourist services”) println(“Its the first example that related to the kotlin Unit example”) println(“#############################################################”) println(“First we passed the input as Arrays”) val arnum = arrayOf(8, 3, 4, 2,1,5,9,7,6) arnum.forEach { println(it) } val usr = arrayOf(Customers(“sivaraman”, 32), Customers(“raman”, 23), Customers(“arunkumar”, 16)) usr.forEach { println(it) } println(“We used forEach loop for handling collection datas”) val inp = listOf(1, 4, 3, 2) inp.forEach{println(it)} val numusras = listOf(Customers(“xx”, 42), Customers(“yy”, 44), Customers(“xx zz”, 46)) numusras.forEach { println(it) } println(“We used forEach loop with collection class called HashMap and its methods”) val hshmap = hashMapOf(32 to “kunju”, 12 to “moanan”, 54 to “sevela” ) hshmap.forEach{ println(it) } val map2 = hashMapOf(“kumar” to Customers(“kumar”, 15), “arun” to Customers(“arun”, 16), “arun kumar” to Customers(“arun kumar”, 16)) map2.forEach{ println(it) } }

In the above example, we used kotlin codes but return type as Unit on the output console screen. Here we used some enums, classes and classes like collections. Using enums we can declare the values and utilised the values in the main method wherever requires. The list interface is the collection interface and it stores and retrieves the datas.

Example #2

Code:

val mnthstrs = "January is the first month, February is the second month, march is the third month, april is the fourth month, may is the fifth month, june is the sixth month, july is the seventh month, august is the eight month, September is the ninth month, october is the tenth month, November is the eleventh month, december is the twelth month" fun operations(): Unit { println("The month details are: " + mnthstrs) } fun main() { println("Welcome To My Domain its the second example that related to the kotlin unit") operations() }

Output:

Example #3

Code:

fun firstMethod(str:String): Unit{ println("Your first kotlin method for the Unit concept") println(str) } println("Your second method for the Unit") demo(str1) } println("Welcome To My Domain its the third example that related to the kotlin Unit") secondMethod("Your input key is string: Thank you users for spending the time",::firstMethod) }

Output:

In the final example, we used Unit type to convert the values to the string type. Here we used both Unit and another datatype as the parameter and it will call in the main.

Conclusion

In kotlin language has a lot of concepts and features for implementing the applications with more sophisticated. Like that Unit is one of the kotlin concepts and it is used in the various areas of the script and it combines with the other data types to perform the user operations in the task.

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How Println Works In Kotlin With Examples?

Introduction to Kotlin println

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Syntax

The kotlin language uses many default keywords, variables, and functions to implement the mobile-based applications, with some pre-defined keywords, including the functions. Like that, println() is the default function for handling and print the statements, which the coder declares.

{ val variablename= values println(“coder statements and ${variablename}””) var var2= values println(“coder statements and $var2”) }

The above codes are the basic syntax for utilising the println() method and its statements used by the kotlin language. Then, based on the user scenario, we can print the outputs on the console screen.

How does println work in Kotlin?

Using the println() method, the coder prints the statements and the outputs the programmer enters, and it depends on the application point of view. The programmer entered all the codes like keywords, variables, functions, and classes that have both primary and secondary classes. Some nested classes concept implements the parent class with the child class, and then it’s called by the specific packages. For each method, both default and customized methods used the println() statements.

The println() method has similar to the print() method but some difference is there like print() method prints the string inside of the quotes and println() method print the strings inside the quotes which is similar like print() method but the mouse cursor which automatically moves to the next line of the console screen. We can use the expressions and catch the exceptions and errors instance whenever it requires like the try-catch statement is used for handling the exceptions block, but the catch and finally blocks to capture and print the exceptions using the print and println() method. And also, when we want to print the variable inside the println() method, we can use the dollar($) symbol followed by either var and val names along with inside of the double-quoted string literals.

Examples of Kotlin println

Given below are the examples of Kotlin println:

Example #1

Code:

import java.util.Scanner class examp1{ fun demo() { val strinp="Welcome To My Domain its the first example that related to the kotlin println() statement" mlist.add("Please add the first input") mlist.add("Please add the second input") mlist.add("Please add the third input") mlist.add("Please add the fourth input") mlist.add("Please add the fifth input") println("Please follow the below loop iteration") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } println("Thank you users your mutablelist datas are entered successfully") println(mlist[1]) mlist.add(1,"June") println("We can modify the first mutable list value as mlist.add(1,"June")") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } mlist.add("July") println("Again we can add one more list values mlist.add("July")") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } mlist.addAll(2,finp1) println("We can add all the list values into the single list: mlist.addAll(1,finp1)") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } mlist.addAll(finp) println("We can add all the values and make it to the single list: mlist.addAll(finp)") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } mlist.remove("July") println("We can remove the specified values: mlist.remove("July")") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } } } val num = 41.83 println("Your input num is:") println("$num") println("num = $num") println("${num + num}") println(41.83) val sc = Scanner(System.`in`) print("Please enter your input number: ") var il:Int = sc.nextInt() println("You entered input is: $il") var ob=examp1() ob.demo() }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

import java.util.Date import java.text.SimpleDateFormat class Exam2() { var id: Int = 0 var sname: String = "" var city: String = "" fun demo2(){ val sinp="41,Sivaraman, Chennai" println(sinp) } } enum class Second(var sec: String) { demo("Welcome To My Domain its the second example that related to the kotlin println()"){ override fun sample() { println("Thank you users have a nice day") } }, demo1("We can override the sample method"){ override fun sample() { println("Current month is june") } }, demo2("Again we override the sample method"){ override fun sample() { println("Next month is july") } }; abstract fun sample() fun demo1(svalues: String): String{ return "Have a Nice day users" } } val inp1 = Exam2() var sinp=inp1.demo2() println(SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-ddX").parse("2024-06-22+00")) println("Welcome To My Domain its the second example that related to the kotlin println() method, $sinp") println("Hello users") println(41) println(1234567L) println(0b01001111) println(41.32) println(41.762F) println('a') println(true) println() var st = "Hello users thank you for spenting ur time with us" println(st) println(st) }

Output:

In the second example, we used the date format package utilised in the kotlin codes with some operations like integer, string, float, double and boolean datatype values printed on the output console.

Example #3 import java.util.Scanner try { val inpread = Scanner(System.`in`) println("Welcome To My Domain its the third example that related to the kotlin println()") println("Please enter your inputs") var id = inpread.nextInt() println("Your input id is "+id) demo(41,83,lamb) val inpdata = 12 / 4 println(inpdata) } catch (e: NullPointerException) { println(e) } finally { println("finally block always executed whenever try is executing") } println("Have in Nice Day users please try again") } val result = in1 + in2 println(result) }

Output:

In the final example, we used the try-catch block for handling the exceptions and performed the arithmetic operations using the lambda expressions.

Conclusion

In kotlin language, we used many default methods, classes, and keywords to implement the application. So all the programming logic will be implemented using some codes like classes and methods eventhough some additional operations are performed, results are printed on the output console by using the print() and println() methods.

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How Schema Works In Mongodb?

Definition of MongoDB schema

MongoDB schema basically used in command-line tool or we can use it programmatically in our application at a module level. As we already know MongoDB is schema-less, at the time of creating any objects we cannot create any schema in MongoDB. We can enforce the schema for collection in MongoDB by using the MongoDB atlas cluster, for enforcing the document schema we need first to connect the database and collection. We can also create schema structure of collection by using create collection command, also we can check the index and collection field in MongoDB.

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Syntax:

Below is the syntax of the MongoDB schema.

1) To show the schema of index collection –

2) To show the schema of collections –

for (var key (Used to show key fields) in schematodo (Used to display schema field of collections)) { print (key, typeof key) ; }

3) Schema structure of document –

}

Parameter Description:

1) Name of collection – This is defined as the name of collection from which we have checked the schema structure of collection and indexes. We can check the schema structure of any collection in MongoDB.

2) getIndices – This is the method in MongoDB used to display schema structure of all indexes from specified schema which was we have used in our command.

3) findOne – This method is used to find single documents from collections. Using this method we also find all collection fields in MongoDB.

4) schematodo – This is used to display the schema structure of database collection in MongoDB. Using schematodo we can display all fields from collections.

5) Key – This parameter is defined as print the field from the specified collection which was we have used in our query.

6) Type of key – This parameter is defined as a type of key which was we have used in the query to display the schema structure.

7) Properties – This parameter is defined as the property of the document field which was we have used in our query.

8) Field name – This is defined as the name of the field which was we have used in our query. Using field name we can retrieve the document structure.

9) BSON type – This is defined as the document type which was we have used in the collection.

How schema works in MongoDB?

MongoDB is schema-less structure but we can enforce the collection by defining the document schema.

Schema is nothing but regular documents which was adhered to like the same specification of JSON schema.

We can also validate the schema in the MongoDB server. We can also use the type key to control the collection field value.

In MongoDB, document schema will represent any of the BSON type operators. We can define the schema structure of the following types.

10) UUID

To display the schema of indexes in MongoDB we need to first connect to the specific database. The below example shows that we need to connect the database to display the structure of indexes.

Code:

db.MongoDB_Update.getIndices ()

Figure – We need to connect the database to display the structure of indexes

In the above example when the first time execution of the query we have not connected to the database, so it will not show the result of the query. But after connecting to the specified database we can see the schema of indexes in MongoDB.

Binary encoded superset will support the additional data types in MongoDB.

We can enforce the document schema using MongoDB atlas. To create the enforcing schema first we need to connect the database and collections.

We don’t create a collection with schema in MongoDB, we can create an empty collection in MongoDB.

At the time of inserting documents, MongoDB automatically creates the schema for the collection.

We can say that MongoDB is schema-less database but we can implement our own class in our program to restrict the collection before inserting any data into the collection.

Example

Below example shows that enforce collection document schema using MongoDB atlas. We have used the below steps to enforce document schema.

1) Create a new application or open the existing application

Figure – Example to create new application to enforcing schema.

2) Add the collection and database

Figure – Example to add collection and database.

We have added the sample_training database and grades table to the application.

Figure – Check collection and database added to the application.

3) Generate schema

Figure – Generate schema.

4) Run the validation on generated schema

In the below example we have to check our validation on grades collection is working or not.

Figure – Example to run validation on schema.

5) Display the index schema details

In the below example, we have displayed the schema structure of indexes. We have displayed all the indexes structures from MongoDB_Update collections.

Code:

db.MongoDB_Update.getIndices ()

Figure – Example to display index schema structure details.

6) Display the schema fields from collections

In the below example, we have a display the schema of the collection. We can see that all the fields from MongoDB_Update fields will be displayed.

Code:

for (var key in schematodo) { print (key, typeof key) ; }

Figure – Example to Display the schema fields from collections.

Conclusion

Basically, MongoDB is schema-less database, we cannot create schema in MongoDB, but we enforce the collection documents in application code or using MongoDB atlas GUI tool. For generating schema first we need to connect to the specified database and collections in MongoDB.

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How Interpolate Function Works In Pandas?

Introduction to Pandas Interpolate

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Syntax and Parameters:

Pandas.interpolate(axis=0, method='linear', inplace=False,  limit=None, limit_area=None, limit_direction='forward', downcast=None, **kwargs)

Where,

Axis represents the rows and columns; if it is 0, then it is for columns, and if it is assigned to 1, it represents rows.

Limit represents the most extreme number of successive NaNs to fill. Must be more noteworthy than 0.

Limit direction defines whether the limit is in a forward or backward direction, and by default, it is assigned to the forward value.

Limit area represents None (default) no fill limitation. inside Only fill, NaNs encompassed by legitimate qualities (add). outside Only fill NaNs outside substantial qualities (extrapolate). On the off chance that cutoff is determined, sequential NaNs will be filled toward this path.

Inplace means to brief the ndarray or the nd dataframe.

Downcast means to assign all the data types.

How does Interpolate Function work in Pandas?

Now we see various examples of how the interpolate function works in Pandas.

Example #1: Using in Linear Method

Code:

import pandas as pd df = pd.DataFrame({"S":[11, 3, 6, None, 2], "P":[None, 5, 67, 4, None], "A":[25, 17, None, 1, 9], "N":[13, 7, None, None, 8]}) df.interpolate(method ='linear', limit_direction ='forward') print(df.interpolate(method ='linear', limit_direction ='forward') )

Output:

In the above program, we first import the panda’s library as pd and then create the dataframe. After creating the dataframe, we assign values to the dataframe and use the interpolate function to define the linear values in the forward direction. The program is implemented, and the output is as shown in the above snapshot.

Example #2: Using in Backward Direction

Code:

import pandas as pd df = pd.DataFrame({"S":[11, 3, 6, None, 2], "P":[None, 5, 67, 4, None], "A":[25, 17, None, 1, 9], "N":[13, 7, None, None, 8]}) df.interpolate(method ='linear', limit_direction ='backward', limit = 1) print(df.interpolate(method ='linear', limit_direction ='backward', limit = 1) )

Output:

In the above program, we first import the panda’s library as before and then create the dataframe. After creating the dataframe and assigning values, we use the interpolate() function in the backward direction, and it shows all the linear values in the backward direction, as shown in the above snapshot.

In the first place, we create a pandas information outline df0 with some test information. We make a counterfeit informational index containing two houses and utilize a transgression, and a cos capacity to create some sensor read information for many dates. To create the missing qualities, we haphazardly drop half of the sections. A transgression and a cos work, both with a lot of missing information focus. Recall that it is critical to pick a sufficient introduction technique for each errand. For instance, on the off chance that you have to add information to figure out the climate, at that point, you cannot introduce the climate of today utilizing the climate of tomorrow since it is as yet obscure.

To insert the information, we can utilize the group by()- work followed by resample(). In any case, first, we have to change over the read dates to DateTime organization and set them as the file of our data frame. Since we must introduce each house independently, we must gather our information by ‘house’ before utilizing the resample() work with the alternative ‘D’ to resample the information to a day-by-day recurrence. In the event that we need to mean interject the missing qualities, we have to do this in two stages. To start with, we produce the basic information lattice by utilizing mean(). This produces the lattice with NaNs as qualities. A while later, we fill the NaNs with introduced esteems by calling the add() strategy on the read esteem segment.

Conclusion

Hence, I conclude by stating that anybody working with information realizes that genuine information is frequently sketchy, and tidying it takes up a lot of your time. One of the highlights I have learned how to acknowledge especially is the straightforward method of adding (or in-occupying) time arrangement information, which Pandas gives.

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How Settimeout Function Works In Node.js?

Introduction to chúng tôi timestamp

A timestamp is the numerical conversion of date and time value in an Integer like a number that is the time in milliseconds. Every technology and in every application, the most widely used functionality is the date object, which helps retrieve, share, save, and update the date values across the application. In NodeJS Timestamp, the Date and time fields come under the JavaScript Framework, where the Date Object of JavaScript is used without any external dependency and returns back time in milliseconds. In this topic, we are going to learn about chúng tôi timestamps.

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Syntax

Get Current Timestamp Value in the millisecond

var dateTimeStamp = Date.now(); console.log(" Current Timestamp :: " + dateTimeStamp);

How setTimeout Function Works in Node.js?

In NodeJS, Timestamp objects consisting of Date and Time fields are provided by the JavaScript framework itself and need not be imported explicitly in NodeJS code. As soon as JavaScript executes the Date.now() method, it calculates the Total number of Milliseconds which have been passed since Jan 1, 1970, as it’s the UNIX timestamp and picks the system timezone as default timezone and returns timestamp in milliseconds. It has been observed that Date.now() is not compatible with IE 8 or any lower versions, and so you might have created a new Date object and call getTime method instead of calling Date.now(). The JavaScript Timezone comes with lots of inbuilt methods which can be used in applications using JavaScript Framework. Playing around with time and date values and utilizing these values in UI fields, storing in the database or comparing time or Date across the application is one of the most common use cases in any application.

Examples of chúng tôi timestamp

Given below are the examples of chúng tôi timestamp:

Example #1 – Get Current Timestamp Value in the millisecond

Code:

var dateTimeStamp = Date.now(); console.log(" Current Timestamp :: " + dateTimeStamp);

Output:

Example #2 – Get Time in milliseconds from the specified Timestamp

Code:

var dateTimeStamp = Date.now(); var dateObject = new Date(dateTimeStamp); var timeInMs = dateObject.getTime(); console.log("Date Time in milliseconds :: " + timeInMs);

Output:

Example #3 – Get Today’s Date Value from the specified Timestamp

Code:

var dateTimeStamp = Date.now(); var dateObject = new Date(dateTimeStamp); var dateFromTS = dateObject.getDate(); console.log("Today's Date Value :: " + dateFromTS);

Output – Today’s Date Value:: 11

Note: Date is returned as an integer ranging from 1-31 

Example #4 – Get Month Value from the specified Timestamp

Code:

var dateTimeStamp = Date.now(); var dateObject = new Date(dateTimeStamp); var monthFromTS = dateObject.getMonth() + 1; console.log("Month Value is :: " + monthFromTS);

Output – Month Value is:: 8

Note: Month is returned as an integer ranging from 0-11, where 0 is for January and 11 for December. Make sure to account for this while displaying or using Month value.

Example #5 – Get Today’s Year in 4 digit format from the specified Timestamp

Code:

var dateTimeStamp = Date.now(); var dateObject = new Date(dateTimeStamp); var yearFromTS = dateObject.getFullYear(); console.log("Year in 4 digit Value :: " + yearFromTS);

Output:

Note: Year Value is returned as a 4 digit Integer always

Example #6 – Get Timestamp in Seconds

Code:

var timeInMS = Date.now(); var timeInSeconds = Math.floor(timeInMS/1000) console.log("Timestamp in MS :: " + timeInMS); console.log("Timestamp in Seconds :: " + timeInSeconds);

Output:

Example #7 – Get-Date in DD-MM-YYYY format from the current timestamp

Code:

var dateTimeStamp = Date.now(); var dateObject = new Date(dateTimeStamp); var yearFromTS = dateObject.getFullYear(); var monthFromTS = dateObject.getMonth() + 1; var dateFromTS = dateObject.getDate(); console.log("Date in DD/MM/YYYY :: " + dateFromTS + "/" + monthFromTS + "/" + yearFromTS);

Output:

Example #8 – Get-Date in UTC from the current timestamp

Code:

var dateTimeStamp = 1597049017329; var dateObject = new Date(dateTimeStamp); var utcYearFromTS = dateObject.getUTCFullYear(); var utcMonthFromTS = dateObject.getUTCMonth() + 1; var utcDateFromTS = dateObject.getUTCDate(); var utcTimeFromTS = dateObject.getUTCHours(); var utcMinutesFromTS = dateObject.getUTCMinutes(); console.log("UTC Date in DD/MM/YYYY HH:MM  " + utcDateFromTS + "/" + utcMonthFromTS + "/" + utcYearFromTS + " " + utcTimeFromTS + "hrs : " + utcMinutesFromTS + "minutes");

Output:

Example #9 – Get Offset in Timezone from Specified Timestamp

Code:

var dateTimeStamp = Date.now(); var dateObject = new Date(dateTimeStamp); var timeZoneOffsetValue = dateObject.getTimezoneOffset(); console.log("Offset :: " + timeZoneOffsetValue);

Output:

Note: The offset in a timezone is the difference between the system timezone (Local timezone) and the UTC timezone, and the value is returned in minutes

Other than these, more methods come along with the Date timestamp object in JavaScriptDate API, such as getDay, getHours, getMilliseconds, getTimezoneOffset etc.

Advantages Conclusion

Coming to an end to this Module, where we discussed how we could fetch date, time, day, year, month, and many more Time-related values in NodeJS from the timestamp. Also how Timestamp in NodeJS comes along with the JavaScript framework and is easy to use. So just keep playing around the date-time objects and be a perfect developer to develop any complex logic around date time.

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How Getorelse Function Works In Scala?

Definition of Scala getOrElse

This method is the part of option class in scala. Also, this method exists for both some and none class in scala. What it basically do is it just evaluates the value of the variable and return us the alternative value if the value is empty. This method works on two things success and fail. It will return us the actual value or the default value according to the response we get. This method is used to return an optional value.

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Below is the syntax for getOrElse methods as per the scala doc. This method will return us the optional value if the value is coming out to be empty otherwise it will give us the evaluates values or the actual value obtained. We will also see one practice example for better understand of syntax:

Example:

val myVar = toInt("200").getOrElse(10)

In the above line of syntax, we are declaring our variable and here we are trying to type case the string into integer and passing one default value to the getOrElse if the value is empty.

How getOrElse Function Works in Scala?

As we know getOrElse method is the member function of Option class in scala. This method is used to return an optional value. This option can contain two objects first is Some and another one is None in scala. Some class represent some value and None is represent a not defined value. All these classes can be found in the scala. Option package.

Some of the extended class,syper types of option values are as follow see below;

1. Exteded class available in scala for getOrElse method;

IterableOnce[A]

Product

Serializable

2. Linear type available in scala for getOrElse method;

AnyRef

Any

io.Serializable

Product

Equal

3. Some of the known sub classes available in scala for getOrElse method;

None Some

Now we will see one practical example and understand how it internally works;

object Main extends App{ valx:Option[Int] = Some(100) println("value for x is :: " + x.getOrElse(0) ) }

In this example, we are creating one Option variable and assigning it a value 100 by using Some class in scala. After this we are using the getOrElse method get the value of the variable. But here we have initialized some value to the variable so the output will be 100 here. If we have not initialized the value the output would be the default value that we have assigned to the getOrElse method. In order to use this method, the variable should be the instance of Option here because we can use this method as the optional value for variable in scala.

This method is used as an optional value provider in the scala if the input is empty.

We can provide any alternative value by using this method.

This method first evaluates the value and then return us the actual or we can say the calculated value.

While using Option class one thing we have to keep in mind is we have two Object Some and None. Some takes value and None means not defined value.

This method follows the success and failure approach which means success if value present fail if not present.

Examples of Scala getOrElse

Following are the examples are given below:

Example #1

In this example we are using the option class in scala to make use of getOrElse method. We have created two Integer variable for this to test.

Code:

object Main extends App{ valy:Option[Int] = None valx:Option[Int] = Some(100) val result1 =   x.getOrElse(0) val result2 =   y.getOrElse(0) println("value for the variable one is  :::") println(result1) println("value for the variable two is  :::") println(result2) }

Output:

Example #2

In this example we are creating the string objects and using getOrElse method with them here.

object Main extends App{ valy:Option[String] = None valx:Option[String] = Some("Hello some value here!!") val result1 =   x.getOrElse("No value provided !!") val result2 =   y.getOrElse("No value provided !!") println("value for the variable one is  :::") println(result1) println("value for the variable two is  :::") println(result2) }

Output:

Example #3

In this example, we are using more than one variable with getOrElse method n scala. By using some and none both class because we cannot directly call them on the normal variable it is not the function for them.

Code:

object Main extends App{ val variable1:Option[Int] = Some(90) val variable2:Option[Int] = Some(90) val variable3:Option[Int] = Some(90) val variable4:Option[Int] = Some(90) val variable5:Option[Int] = None val variable6:Option[Int] = None val variable7:Option[Int] = None val variable8:Option[Int] = None val result1 = variable1.getOrElse(0) val result2 = variable2.getOrElse(1) val result3 = variable3.getOrElse(2) val result4 = variable4.getOrElse(3) val result5 = variable5.getOrElse(4) val result6 = variable6.getOrElse(5) val result7 = variable7.getOrElse(6) val result8 = variable8.getOrElse(7) println("value for the variable one is  :::") println(result1) println("value for the variable two is  :::") println(result2) println("value for the variable three is  :::") println(result3) println("value for the variable four is  :::") println(result4) println("value for the variable five is  :::") println(result5) println("value for the variable six is  :::") println(result6) println("value for the variable seven is  :::") println(result7) println("value for the variable eight is  :::") println(result8) }

Output:

Conclusion

So getOrElse method can we used as an optional or a default value if the input provided is empty. We can use this in a scenario where we have to give some default value for the empty input. Also, it is very easy to use, readable and under stable by the developer, and also it is available for both Some and none class of Option in scala.

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