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LAS VEGAS — First, the bad news: The economy’s state is as bad as you think it is, or maybe even worse.

That’s got enterprise IT managers feeling like they’re falling into a black hole — where they’re trying to contend with increasing traffic demands but declining budgets, researchers at IDC said.

Yet IDC says there’s still reason for optimism with some key opportunities for IT in the current recession.

That’s the message coming from a briefing session held today by the firm’s analysts during the Interop conference here, at which they examined the challenges facing IT budgets.

IDC analyst Abner Germanow started off the session on a grim note, however, saying that in his view, the recession is far from over. It doesn’t look as bad as the Great Depression, he said, but things are still worse than anything most people have seen in their lifetimes.

Underscoring the state of the economy is the state of the networking switch market. “Over the last five years, we’ve roughly seen 15 percent [compound annual] growth,” he said. “Last quarter, we saw a drop of 23 percent on a year-over-year basis.”

Germanow also shed some light on what type of switch ports that enterprises are buying. While 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) is emerging, the reality is the bulk of all Ethernet ports shipped are still Fast Ethernet, which promises speeds of only 100Mbps.

“Fast Ethernet still hasn’t gone away, and still represents two-thirds of all ports shipped,” Germanow said.

Escaping the IT “black hole”

That’s potentially problematic: With much of enterprise bandwidth trapped in the 100Mbps realm, IT administrators are feeling increasingly trapped.

That’s where the black hole analogy comes in, Germanow said, adding that he commonly hears enterprise IT managers worrying about having limited options as budgets fall but network traffic rises.

And IDC agrees that they’re in a bind: The firm predicts growth in IT staff will be flat over the next three years. At the same time, however, the firm predicts that the number of interactions with customers over the same period will grow 800 percent.

What Germanow expects will now happen is that the trend of doing more with less will really break out.

“The notion that you can just continue to do what you used to do is flawed,” he said.

Fortunately, he also sees the pace of new technology developments helping to pull IT staff and enterprise users out of the black hole, he said.

“The bottom line is innovation will continue, and in fact, I think it will accelerate,” Germanow said. “The innovation that we’re seeing is focused on efficiency and helping people deal with the fact that they have fewer staff and more interactions.”

Part of IT innovation in networking is a move toward greater modularity. Some of that modularity comes from using off-the-shelf merchant silicon like CPUs/microprocessors instead of vendors’ application-specific integrated circuit (ASICs).

Following the same trend of modularity, Germanow also sees a shift to Linux for networking vendors.

“The number of networking vendors on Linux is probably half the show floor,” he pointed out.


For networking vendors, video represents an opportunity and a challenge.

“Our prediction for 2009 is we predict it will be the year of the great enterprise video experiment,” Germanow said. “The experimentation is happening on every level, from Skype to full telepresence — and everything in between.”

Germanow added that the trend will prompt the evolution of new business models and business justification for video. But other changes are afoot as well: He noted that voice and video demands make existing networks insufficient, since voice and video require greater bandwidth and lower latency.

“The degree that video traffic grows will dictate the growth of the networking market, and that’s the bottom line of what we’re looking at today,” Germanow said.

Article courtesy of chúng tôi

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Pros And Cons Of Mixed Economy

Introduction Definition: Mixed Economy

In a mixed economy, the participants have their own self-interests but none can exist without the other. As demand and supply decide the market function, there is an invisible force that runs the markets in a mixed economy. The director of demand arises from the consumer’s end. So, in a mixed economy, like the free market economy, the consumer is the king.

In a mixed economy, however, there is government intervention in areas that are related to social welfare and community service. For example, the areas of healthcare, military, and education can be under government control. These areas are reserved because they are directly related to social welfare and security.

Advantages of Mixed Economy Most Demanding Market

The mixed economy delivers the goods and services in the most demanding market. This helps the demand and supply equation decide the price rather than any central authority. As mixed economies do not have central planners they can thrive naturally.

Higher Chances of Innovation Most Competitive and Efficient Producers

The mixed economy favors the most efficient producer. As the consumer demands the best products via competition, only the most competitive and efficient producers occupy the market. As the market share of good products increases, consumers get to avail and consume the best products at cheaper yet affordable prices.

No Loopholes like that of a Free-Market Economy

A mixed economy is also great because it removes the loopholes of a free-market economy. As government controls the important resources and manages industries that are unavoidable for social wellbeing, the citizens get proper care and nourishment in areas like healthcare and education.

Also, as the government controls the defense, there is hardly any chance of mismanagement due to a lack of interest. This assures the safety and security of the economy from external threats.

No Gap Between Rich and Poor

The mixed economy also deletes the gap between rich and poor as the government tends to actively control this process. So, unlike the free market where the deprived ones get less care, they get enough attention in a mixed economy.

Fear of Big Firms’ Monopolistic Behavior

Firstly, if the control of the government over the economy fails totally, the big firms may start monopolistic behavior. This can be detrimental to society in the long run.

Issues for the Welfare of Society

Moreover, a lack of government responsibility can also create issues for the welfare of society. For example, if the healthcare system in an economy fails, it may create burdens on the shoulders of the citizens. If the defense is provided with less importance, the safety and security of the economy may get compromised.

Excessive Freedom

If excessive freedom is allowed in a mixed economy, the poor and deprived citizens may feel the burden. The wealth accumulation gap may widen leading to dents in social harmony. Therefore, the freedom offered to businesses must be observed very carefully which is not quite possible in a mixed economy.

Issues of Central Planning

The central planning available in mixed economies may lead to troubles too. For example, if the defense system is turned into a subsidized monopoly, it may become a social bottleneck. It can not only create issues of corruption but can turn into oligarchy or subsidized monopolies. If such a system is continued for a long time, it may hurt the economy by making the economy weaker and fragile.

Better Access to Government Via Successful Lobbies

In mixed economies, the bigwigs can have better access to government resources via successful lobbies. So, they may get first preference in all areas of business and trade. This may hurt the economy over a longer period of time.

Moreover, these big firms may need to be bailed out during economic downturns which can strain the resources of the economy away from other needful areas.


The rise of mixed economies has become especially notable due to globalization. As the corporate firms have turned global, the need for economies to be mixed has gained momentum. A mixed economy supports businesses and international relations better. That is why a mixed economy has become the choice of many in the contemporary world.


1. Why is the mixed economy thought to be the best form of the economy?

Ans. The mixed economy combines the best qualities of free market and command economies. This results in a system that is most stringent for all sections of society. The businessmen can freely run businesses while the other sections of the society can benefit from government intervention in needed areas. Being effective for everyone helps the mixed economy gain the most reputation among economists.

2. Is government intervention an important part of mixed economies?

Ans. Yes. Government intervention is an unavoidable feature of mixed economies. Without government intervention, the economies would turn completely into free-market economies which have many loopholes. Government intervention is also required to balance the requirements of all citizens. Hence, government regulations should be an integral part of mixed economies.

3. Give some examples of mixed economy countries.

Ans. Most countries in the world are now mixed economies. For example, the US, the UK, Germany, Ireland, France, etc., are mixed economies. Moreover, many developing nations such as India, and Brazil are also taking big leaps to become mixed economies. Globalization is making countries increasingly mixed economies.

Global Economic Winners: African Economy Booms

In May 2000, The Economist magazine declared that Africa was “the hopeless continent.” Eleven years later, in 2011, it referred to Africa as “the hopeful continent.” And on October 20, 2012, the magazine stated: “In recent years investors have been piling into Lagos and Nairobi as if they were Frankfurt and Tokyo of old.”

Clearly, gloomy skepticism has given way to glowing optimism about Africa, and for good reason—over the past 10 years, many of the economies within Africa are outpacing economies anywhere else in the world. In fact, according to the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) World Economic Outlook released in October 2012, 11 of the world’s 20 fastest-growing economies are in Africa, and this booming economic growth has helped create the fastest-growing middle class in the world.

Of course, the major trends driving this growth—changing policy environments, a growing middle class that expects equitable social and economic policies, high commodity prices, robust domestic demand, and rapid mass urbanization—have not affected all countries on the continent equally. Here’s a quick look at five economies that have especially benefited from recent developments, and those that pose some of the best potential for the future.

Africa’s southernmost country has a mature economy with strong industrial, financial, and transportation sectors. With GDP estimated at $408 billion and per capita income estimated at $11,000 for 2012, the country sits firmly in the World Bank’s Upper-Middle-Income category, along with Brazil and China. In 2010, South Africa joined the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), an association of top emerging economies distinguished by their fast growth and burgeoning influence in regional and global matters.

Despite its developed infrastructure and abundant natural resources, South Africa does face challenges in the areas of governance and inequality. Protests, strikes, and instability have hindered foreign investment in the country. And compared to Africa’s Middle-Income Economies—or MICs, as defined by the World Bank—South Africa’s 2.6% economic growth rate is sluggish. (This has partially been because closer ties to the global economy and substantial exposure to the Euro zone mean South Africa has been more affected by the global economic slowdown.)

That said, the country is a major regional powerhouse. It has large investments in neighboring countries. And South African companies—particularly its financial services, retail, fast food, supermarket, service station, and textile firms—are flooding the continent with consumer goods and services. This has given the country an outsize influence on the continent, and a firm stake in the success of economies across Africa.

Nigeria, in West Africa, tops most lists of African countries to watch over the next decade. Traditionally known as “the sleeping giant of Africa,” the country has a huge population of more than 167 million, over 50% of which lives in urban areas like Lagos and Kano. According to the state-run Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), Nigeria is Africa’s largest oil producer, exporting 2.5 million barrels per day. Economically, it has registered a solid 7% growth rate for the last decade, and politically, with its second civilian transfer of power in less than a decade, the country has begun to consolidate its democratic reforms.

In many ways, Nigeria’s current status resembles that of Brazil before political and social reforms turned around its economy in the 1990s. Nigeria may be able to replicate Brazil’s success by adopting similar policies, including investing in infrastructure, reducing poverty and inequality, and reforming institutions.

According to an October 2012 report by Standard Chartered Research, Nigeria’s challenge is to replicate its success in technology (mobile telephony) in the utilities, refining, and agricultural sectors. The report urges Nigeria to move away from the “system of patronage” that has held the country back for decades. It also calls for greater emphasis on diversification and long-term planning that will change Nigeria from an “allocation” to a “production” state. The report states that, “Oil and gas, even given Nigeria’s vast resources, are not going to determine development in the future.”

Nonetheless, there is a great deal of optimism surrounding Nigeria. The Economist even suggested recently that Nigeria’s economy, messy as it still is, has the potential to overtake South Africa within a few years.

Angola is sub-Saharan Africa’s third-largest economy after South Africa and Nigeria, with a GDP of $107 billion and per capita income of $8,200. Since the end of the civil war in 2002, Angola’s economy has been growing much faster than the continent’s two powerhouses, and the World Bank recently reclassified it as an Upper-Middle-Income economy. Unlike South Africa, however, Angola has a young economy that lacks diversification. And the country is still recovering from that 27-year-long civil war, which devastated its economy and people.

Angola is the continent’s second largest exporter of oil. Its economy was expanding at a rate of 15% before the global recession of 2009. Despite the current contraction, its economy is still expected to expand by 6.8 % this year thanks to the export of oil and diamonds, as well as uranium, iron ore, gold, and copper. (Most of Angola’s oil goes to China; Angola is China’s biggest trading partner on the continent.)

Another emerging African “lion” is West Africa’s Ghana, which is still classified as a Lower-Middle-Income country by the World Bank. Its economy grew at 14.3% in 2011, making it one of the fastest-growing economies in the world (and tops on the African continent), though the World Bank expects its growth to slow to 7.5% for 2012.

Ghana’s growth can largely be attributed to increased oil production, although diamond, iron ore, and cocoa exports also contributed to the bottom line. After decades of mismanagement, Ghana began to turn its economy around in the early 1990s, when it instituted wide-ranging economic reforms with the support of the IMF and World Bank. In 2007, oil was discovered, which led to faster economic growth. Today, Ghana has been a stable democracy since 1992, and is considered a model for prudent political and economic reform.

Ethiopia is an example of a non-resource-rich country with an economy that nonetheless grew at an average of 11% between 2004 and 2011. According to the World Bank, this is based on its government’s public sector investments in agriculture, industrialization, and infrastructure. Government investments in hydropower have made Ethiopia a net exporter of electricity to neighboring countries such as South Sudan and Djibouti. And with a population of 85 million, Ethiopia is sub-Saharan Africa’s second most populous country, after Nigeria.

With that population expected to reach 100 million by 2023, Ethiopia represents a huge market that is expected to drive economic integration in the region and growth for its neighbors. In addition, the country has been praised for making progress in all areas of the Millennium Development Goals (ending poverty, hunger, and disease). The Ethiopian government estimates that poverty declined from 38.7% in 2004 to 29.6% in 2011. As a result, Ethiopia has laid the foundations for sustainable growth and even emerging economy status.

While these five economies represent some of the brightest spots on the continent, others are waiting in the wings, particularly those that are rich in resources. The World Bank notes that the combined benefits of a peace dividend and iron ore exports in Sierra Leone, for example, have led to a 25% growth rate over the course of 2012. Similarly, in Niger, uranium and oil exports have led to a 15% growth rate this year.

According to the October 2012 edition of Africa’s Pulse, a World Bank publication, at least 10 countries are expected to join the 21 in sub-Saharan Africa that the bank classifies as MICs. Among those predicted to be upwardly mobile are Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda, where the discovery and development of new reserves of oil, gas, and other minerals, is expected to accelerate growth.

Terra Lawson-Remer, a Fellow for Civil Society, Markets & Democracy at the Council for Foreign Relations in Washington, D.C., cautions not to paint Africa’s growth story with “too broad a brush stroke.” She notes that most of the countries that have registered rapid growth rates are resource-rich, and have benefited from high commodity prices in recent years.

Emira Woods, co-director of Foreign Policy in Focus at the Institute for Policy Studies, also cautions against focusing too much on growth rather than equity. She notes that, “We are seeing growing inequality both within and among countries.” This inequality is compounded by the rising expectation among the poor for wealth-sharing that, if not met, could lead to political instability.

“This is the reason we have protests in Nigeria, Tahrir Square [in Egypt], Sudan, and Tunisia,” Woods said. “The current labor uprising in South Africa also shows evidence of the problem of expectations [and] of inequality.”

Nevertheless, there are strong signs for the continent as a whole. Lawson-Remer suggests the downturn in Europe’s economic fortunes means that “capital looking for investments has to go elsewhere.” Thanks to Africa’s growing economies, high rate of return, and abundance of natural and human resources, Western conglomerates like IBM, Nokia, and Nestlé are investing heavily. And China’s interest shows no sign of waning. The country’s trade with Africa is expected to hit $220 billion in 2012—a 25% growth rate annually—and its former vice-minister of commerce, Wei Jianguo, told China Daily that Africa will surpass the U.S. and the E.U. to become China’s largest trading partner.

Woods argues that, across the continent, technological development will be the “way of the future.” She points to innovations such as mobile banking and the massive penetration of mobile phone technology, as positive developments. “The combination of the fast-growing youth bulge—workers aged 16 to 30—and technological innovations are positive and bode well for the continent,” Woods said.

Considering these factors, there is reason to believe that, despite challenges, Africa will continue to produce dynamic, emerging market economies. South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Angola, and Ethiopia may just be the first wave—with many more to follow.

Check Out The Way To Enable Whatsapp Web Dark Mode

Check Out The Way to Enable WhatsApp Web Dark Mode

Also Read: How To Create A WhatsApp Broadcast List

WhatsApp Web Version & Everything Around The Feature

Recently, WABetaInfo (WhatsApp news for iOS, Android and Windows) talked about the still-under-development-stage that claims to have found a way for users to enable the dark mode of the web version of WhatsApp.

At the end of Feb 2023 also, WABetaInfo released the information about Android & iOS getting Dark Theme feature as well as the company trying its best to provide bug-free experience for WhatsApp Web & desktop version.

How to Enable WhatsApp Web Dark Mode

So without further ado, let’s check out the steps:

Open WhatsApp on your smartphone & simultaneously, visit chúng tôi on your desktop browser.

Please know that chúng tôi is the official WhatsApp web version page.

Scan the QR code given on the official WhatsApp version page with your WhatsApp (mobile version)

The above path will help you have WhatsApp on your desktop browser within equal-to-none seconds. Now when you have your WhatsApp on the desktop, let’s start tweaking up a bit:

On the Desktop browser tab, press Ctrl + Shift + I & you will find an additional window opening up on the same window (Middle left corner).

Go to the Elements tab where you will need to find the body class text code.

Nearby Body class, you will find a “web” that is the original theme of the WhatsApp web version page.

Now, in order to switch the original theme to dark theme, all we need to do is, change the web to Dark web & press ENTER. And simple as that.

The theme automatically will get converted to your favorite dark theme so start enjoying the moment.

The dark theme for WhatsApp web isn’t an update still as it’s a trick we are using for helping users get the benefit.

Wrapping Up

Like every other app we use every day, WhatsApp is one the most common ones & it feels good to use the dark theme mode on all the WhatsApp versions. For now, we are successfully able to use dark mode on mobile versions of WhatsApp, however, wasn’t possible for WhatsApp web until now.

Now, there are a few tweaks that can help us using WhatsApp web dark mode without much hassle.

Next Read:

How to Show or Hide WhatsApp Status from Specific Contacts

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Ankit Agarwal

How To Dark Mode Facebook Automatically On Your Pc And Phone

We’ve all been waiting for it, and it’s finally here – Facebook’s dark mode. Facebook has officially unveiled a native Dark Mode feature that can switch the app’s appearance from the tired whites to a classy black.

Gone are the days when you had to download external applications to change the theme, hoping the bright background whites won’t snap you out of your sleep. Here’s how you can turn it on automatically and make sure it reflects the appearance based on your device’s display settings. 

Facebook Dark Mode Explained

Being one of the most requested features, Facebook’s Dark Mode will now allow users to turn their app appearance completely dark, much like how your phone’s dark mode turns the background whites into blacks.

But in addition to that, it also allows users to automatically customize the app appearance (if they prefer) based on whether or not the Dark Mode/Theme is turned on. Let’s see the Dark Mode options in action to better understand them.

How to dark mode on Facebook on iPhone automatically

First up, open up the Facebook app and tap on the hamburger icon (three horizontal lines) at the bottom right of the screen.

On the following page, scroll down to the bottom and tap on Settings & Privacy to expand it.

If your app is updated, you should see a Dark mode option here. Tap on it.

On the following screen, you will see three options – On, Off, and System. When the dark mode is set to Off (default), the app will have the traditional white background. 

When it is set to On, the app will take on a dark appearance. If you choose this, it wouldn’t matter which system display mode you’re using. Facebook will always have a dark appearance.

Lastly, we have the System option. When this is selected, Facebook’s appearance will match your display settings automatically.

That means if you’re using the Light mode for the whole system, it will apply to the app as well. Conversely, if it is set to the Dark Mode, Facebook will have its Dark Mode on as well.

Here’s how you can switch between the Light and Dark mode on your iPhone:

Go to the Settings app and tap on Display & Brightness.

Here, under “Appearance”, choose Dark.

Alternatively, you can turn on Automatic so the Facebook dark theme will be applied automatically whenever your system is scheduled to go into Dark mode (in our example, it is at 10:00 PM).

How to dark mode on Facebook on Android automatically

The way to switch to dark mode on Facebook on Android automatically is similar to how it is on iPhone. Here’s how you can access Facebook’s Dark Mode settings page.

Open the Facebook app and tap on the hamburger icon (three horizontal lines at the top right corner).

Then scroll down and tap on Settings & Privacy.

Tap on Dark Mode.

This will bring up the three options that we saw before – On, Off (default), and Use system settings. When it’s Off, Facebook will never go dark. 

When it’s On, the app will stay dark regardless of any other settings.

And when you choose Use system settings, the app will behave according to your system appearance. So, if you have the dark mode on, it will be dark; with the light mode, it will turn to the traditional white, automatically.

If you’re not sure how to turn on/off the dark mode, or schedule it to turn on automatically on your Android, here are the steps for it:

Go to the Settings app, and tap on Display.

Here, under “Appearance”, toggle on/off Dark theme.

Alternatively, you can schedule your system’s Dark theme to turn on automatically at a specified time. This will mean that the Facebook app will also go into Dark Mode whenever your phone is scheduled to. To enable the schedule, tap on Dark theme.

And set the Start time and End time for your Dark theme.

In our example above, we’ve scheduled the Dark theme to turn on at 22:00. Therefore, with the “Use System Settings” option in Facebook’s dark mode, the app will switch to the dark mode at this time as well. 

How to dark mode on Facebook on PC

That’s about it. The Facebook page will turn dark, reducing glare and giving some respite to your eyes.

The Dark Mode on Facebook has been one of the long-awaited features that users will definitely be delighted to have. Not only does it give a break from the age-old whites that Facebook stuck with for so long, but is also easy on the eyes at night (and save your phone’s battery). 

Oneplus 7 Pro Dark Themes: Check Out What Swift Installer And Substratum Now!

OnePlus 7 Pro’s OxygenOS software is the closest to stock Android you can get from a non-Google vendor that is not riding on the back of Android One. Still, the theme options the device comes with are quite extensive.

The default Light theme can be tough on the eyes, which is why OnePlus also built in a system-wide dark theme that is hidden in the Display settings. However, if you want to customize your OnePlus 7 Pro and you are into Dark Themes, check out these options:

Swift Installer

Swift Installer is a personalization app that brings the best customization to app backgrounds, accents, notifications, and system icons on your OnePlus 7 Pro. As the name suggests, it has its own installer and color engine. Users can choose from an almost endless list of colors and even input their favorite hex color code for personalized dark accents and backgrounds.

You can install Swift on your rooted OnePlus 7 Pro in a few simple steps. If using any other Magisk module, you must use the Swift Installer Magisk module too and enable native Dark theme via the Display settings menu for the installer to work correctly.

Download: Swift Installer

Substratum Themes

If not Swift Installer, then you can go for the Substratum and its themes, of which there a lot of. You will need to root OnePlus 7 Pro for this too, like the Swift Installer. But worry not, rooting the 7 Pro is easy as OnePlus is easy on unlocking the bootloader of the device, but things do get a bit tricky when you have the T-Mobile variant.

To get going, install the Substratum app first of all, and then download the theme of your choice from below.

Flux – Substratum Theme

Another great theme you can turn for deep dark theming of the OS and even third-party apps is Flux. This theme needs the Substratum engine to work on your OnePlus 7 Pro and like Swift Installer, your device must also be rooted.

Flux brings a dark yet vibrant theme that is uniquely styled with a black background complemented by a blue accent, leaving your OnePlus 7 Pro with a fresh look.

Download: Flux

PitchBlack – Substratum Theme For Nougat/Oreo/Pie

PitchBlack another great theme that needs the Substratum installed for it to work. This app has some beautiful color combinations that will enhance the aesthetics of the OnePlus 7 Pro.

PictBlack also provides many apps and ROM support with themes that hit the right spot without being overwhelming.

Download: PitchBlack

PitchBlack S – Samsung Substratum Theme Oreo/OneUI

This app may specifically be for Samsung devices but if you have a rooted OnePlus 7 Pro and the Substratum theme installed, it will work just fine.

PitchBlack S won’t consume too much battery and give you access to pre-curated beautiful Samsung themes that are constantly updated for good measure.

Download: PitchBlack S

Swift Dark Substratum Theme

Swift Dark is loaded with 200 themes that are constantly updated to optimize your experience. It supports a big number of systems and you can customize it to preserve an app’s original accents and primary colors.

Again, make sure your OnePlus 7 Pro is rooted and running the Substratum theme before you install this app.

Download: Swift Dark

Swift Black Substratum Theme + Oreo & Samsung theme

Swift Black aims to deliver the purest of blacks in the realm of dark themes. Like its dark counterpart, this one has over 200 pure black overlay themes that you can avail once you download this app.

Make sure that you have the Substratum theme installed along with a rooted OnePlus 7 Pro.

Download: Swift Black

Death Red for Substratum

This Red theme will complement your OnePlus 7 Pro effortlessly. The red and black combination is especially with gamers and this app has some tastefully done overlays that you will not get enough of.

Keep in mind that this one is specifically for red lovers and we can’t be sure if the makers are planning to update more color combinations. Make sure you have a rooted OnePlus 7 Pro that runs Substratum and you’re good to go.

Download: Death Red

Which dark theme have you installed on your OnePlus 7 Pro?


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