Trending March 2024 # Jmeter Elements: Thread Group, Samplers, Listeners, Configuration # Suggested April 2024 # Top 7 Popular

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What is Element in JMeter?

The different components of JMeter are called Elements. Each Element is designed for a specific purpose.

The figure below gives some common elements in JMeter.

Studying all the components in one go is an invitation to confusion and boredome. Here, we will discuss the must-know components before you can start Testing in JMeter.

Remaining components will be discussed as when they are used in the succeeding tutorials. The elements discussed in this tutorial are

Thread Group


As we know already that JMeter supports testing HTTP, FTP, JDBC and many other protocols.

We already know that Thread Groups simulate user request to the server

But how does a Thread Group know which type of requests (HTTP, FTP etc.) it needs to make?

The answer is Samplers

The user request could be FTP Request, HTTP Request, JDBC Request…Etc.

FTP request:

Let’s imagine you want to performance test an FTP server. You can use an FTP request sampler in JMeter to do this task. This controller lets you send an FTP “download file” or “upload file” request to an FTP server.

For example, if you want to download a file “Test.txt” from an FTP server under test, you need to configure some parameters in JMeter as the figure below

HTTP request:

This sampler lets you send an HTTP/HTTPS request to a web server.

Consider the example below. JMeter sends an HTTP request to Google website and retrieve HTML files or image from this website.

In the tutorial JMeter Performance Testing, we will explain more about this HTTP request.

JDBC request:

This sampler lets you execute Database Performance Testing. It sends a JDBC Request (an SQL query) to a database.

For example, a database server has a field test_result stored in a table name test_tbl. You want to query this data from the database server; you can configure JMeter to send a SQL query to this server to retrieve data.

BSF Sampler:

This sampler allows you to write a sampler using a BSF scripting language.

Here is an example of BSF Sampler in JMeter

Access Log Sampler:

This sampler allows you to read access logs and generate HTTP requests. The log could be image, Html, CSS…

SMTP Sampler:

If you want to test a mail server, you can use SMTP sampler. This sampler is used to send email messages using the SMTP protocol.


Listeners: shows the results of the test execution. They can show results in a different format such as a tree, table, graph or log file

Graph result listeners display the server response times on a Graph

View Result Tree show results of the user request in basic HTML format

Table Result show summary of a test result in table format

Log show summary of a test results in the text file

Configuration Elements

set up defaults and variables for later use by samplers.

The figure below shows some commonly used configuration elements in JMeter

CSV Data Set Config:

Suppose you want to test a website for 100 users signing-in with different credentials. You do not need to record the script 100 times! You can parameterization the script to enter different login credentials. This login information (e.g. Username, password) could be stored in a text file. JMeter has an element that allows you to read different parameters from that text file. It is “CSV Data Set Config”, which is used to read lines from a file, and split them into variables.

This is an example of CSV Data. It’s a text file which contains user and password to login your target website

HTTP Cookie Manager

Let’s understand this with an example –

You log in with your user and password.

Your username and password will be stored in your computer as cookies.

Next time, when you visit chúng tôi you don’t need to do log in again because your browser will use your cookies as user data to log in.

HTTP Cookie Manager also has the same feature as a web browser. If you have an HTTP Request and the response contains a cookie, the Cookie Manager automatically stores that cookie and will use it for all future requests to that particular website.

HTTP request default

This element lets you set default values that your HTTP Request controllers use.

For example,

You would have to manually enter server name = chúng tôi for all these 100 requests

No need to type 100 times!

This element will be explained in detail in tutorial JMeter Performance Testing

Login Config Element

The Login Config Element lets you add or override username and password settings in samplers.

For example, you want to simulate one user login to website chúng tôi with user and password. You can use the Login Config Element to add this user and password setting in a user request

The Login Config Element vs. the CSV data Config

Login Config Element CSV Data Config

Used to simulate one user login Used to simulate multiple user login

Suitable for login parameter only (user and password) Suitable for large numbers of parameters

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Check Average Of Odd Elements Or Even Elements Are Greater In Java

In Java, Array is an object. It is a non-primitive data type which stores values of similar data type.

As per the problem statement we have to find the sum of all even and odd numbers in a given array and compare them to see which one is greater.

Note − The array must be an integer array.

Let’s explore the article to see how it can be done by using Java programming language.

To Show You Some Instances Instance-1 Suppose the original array is {14, 49, 55,67, 72, 82}

After finding average of sum of even and odd, result will be −

Average of even numbers are: 56.0 Average of odd numbers are: 57.0 Average of odd elements is greater. Instance-2 Suppose the original array is {17, 49, 12, 36, 25, 56}

After finding average of sum of even and odd, result will be −

Average of even numbers are: 34.0 Average of odd numbers are: 30.0 Average of even elements is greater. Instance-3 Suppose the original array is {7, 29, 32, 86, 22, 51}

After updating the array with its next element − {22, 33, 44, 55, 11}

Average of even numbers are: 46.0 Average of odd numbers are: 29.0 Average of even elements is greater. Algorithm

Step 1 − Declare and initialize an integer array.

Step 2 − Take a for loop and inside it check for the condition of even and odd.

Step 3 − Also perform addition of counted even and odd.

Step 4 − Check if the sum of even is greater or sum of odd is greater.

Step 5 − Print the result.


To get the length of an array (number of elements in that array), there is an inbuilt property of array i.e length.

Below refers to the syntax of it −


Where ‘array’ refers to the array reference.

Multiple Approaches

We have provided the solution in different approaches.

By Using Static Initialization of Array

By Using User Defined Method

Let’s see the program along with its output one by one.

Approach-1: By Using Static Initialization of Array Example

In this approach, array elements will be initialized in the program. Then as per the algorithm check the average of odd elements or even elements are greater.

public class Main{ public static void main(String args[]){ int arr[]={ 14, 49, 55,67, 72, 82 }; int n = arr.length; int oddSum=0, evenSum=0, evenCount=0, oddCount=0; for(int i=0; i<n; i++){ if(arr[i]%2==0){ evenSum=evenSum+arr[i]; evenCount++; } else { oddSum=oddSum+arr[i]; oddCount++; } } double avgOdd=oddSum/oddCount; double avgEven=evenSum/evenCount; System.out.println("Average of even numbers are: "+avgEven); System.out.println("Average of odd numbers are: "+avgOdd); System.out.println("nAverage of even elements is greater."); } else { System.out.println("Average of odd elements is greater."); } } } Output Average of even numbers are: 56.0 Average of odd numbers are: 57.0 Average of odd elements is greater. Approach-2: By Using User Defined Method Example

In this approach, array elements will be initialized in the program. Then call a user-defined method by passing the array as a parameter and inside method as per the algorithm to check the average of odd elements or even elements is greater.

public class Main{ public static void main(String args[]){ int arr[]={44, 44, 55, 66, 72, 80}; avg(arr); } public static void avg(int []arr){ int n = arr.length; int oddSum=0, evenSum=0, evenCount=0, oddCount=0; for(int i=0; i<n; i++){ if(arr[i]%2==0){ evenSum=evenSum+arr[i]; evenCount++; } else { oddSum=oddSum+arr[i]; oddCount++; } } double avgOdd=oddSum/oddCount; double avgEven=evenSum/evenCount; System.out.println("Average of even numbers are: "+avgEven); System.out.println("Average of odd numbers are: "+avgOdd); System.out.println("Average of even elements is greater."); } else { System.out.println("Average of odd elements is greater."); } } } Output Average of even numbers are: 61.0 Average of odd numbers are: 55.0 Average of even elements is greater.

In this article, we explored how to check the average of odd elements or even elements are greater by using Java programming language.

Configuration Files And Key Features Of Nginx Unit

Introduction to NGINX Unit

Nginx unit supports the restful json API services; we can deploy the configuration changes by using the nginx unit without disrupting the services of running applications on multiple frameworks and languages. It is a polyglot app server defining the reverse proxy and a static file server available on UNIX and Linux-like systems. The team members of nginx build it.

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What is NGINX Unit? Using NGINX Unit

Nginx unit is the most popular reverse proxies and web server; it offers infinite configurability and high-performance commonly used components in modern stacks like Kubernetes. Now the team of nginx is offering the unit of nginx, which was used to solve modern development processes and challenges.

It contains a layer of consistent networking. The networking layer will need to be treated in a cohesive and challenging way when every application includes a network component slightly configured differently. Nginx unit is a growing trend that is lifting the concerns of networking for the individual application, and it will make the responsibility of the layer of infrastructure. It will consolidate the concerns of networking by exposing the common API. Clear separation is provided by the Nginx unit between the application processes and the networking layer. It will make it possible to change the configuration of the network without restarting the hosted application. We can say that changes in networking are applied to the running system without defining the downtime.

We can combine this ability for applying the changes on the live system by using a consistent network configuration that the application was hosted on a unit of nginx. Below is the part of the nginx configuration file.


location / { fastcgi_pass localhost:9000; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string; }


We can install it in a second, and it will start using a single command. Also, we can host the application on nginx by using a single configuration update. It will not require databases, agents, control planes, and a dedicated cluster for running. When comparing the amount of work with cloud deployment, we can get the Kubernetes cluster up and running.

NGINX Unit Configuration Files

It will contain the declarative model for everyday use cases; it is away from the model of imperative configuration instead of exposing the declarative configuration model. We can say that the model is less configurable than the traditional configuration file of nginx. But the nginx unit is doing an excellent job in routing and the security options. The declarative configuration module makes the nginx unit approachable for configuring the cloud services.

Below is the configuration file of nginx as follows:


server { location / { fastcgi_pass localhost:9000; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string; } ; root /images }

This format of configuration is very familiar to the developers of the languages of curly quote languages. The nginx file syntax is not confirming the general standard. If suppose we want to update the file regularly, we can write the sed command to edit the raw text. Using regular expressions for modifying the configuration files is not a pleasant experience. We will find a regex that matches what we had expected. It addresses the same by using the configuration of JSON.

Every modern computing platform contains a rich CLI tool backed by a well-structured API. It’s straightforward to take the functionality for granted for finding the sed against the configuration file, and then we restart the service.

NGINX Unit Key Features

Different key features are mentioned below. First, the configuration will be managed dynamically by using HTTP.

1. Flexibility: Configuration update is performed runtime using granularly with zero interruption. The nginx unit request will be routed between local apps, upstream servers, and static contents. Filtering requests and dispatching are used in the matching rules, allowing regular expressions. We can use the nginx unit app in multiple languages and versions.

2. Performance: Request will be processed by thread synchronously with the efficient loops. Data copy operations and the sys call will be kept at the minimum necessary. App processes and routers will rely upon low latency.

3. IPC built and queues of lock-free over in our shared memory. Multi-thread processing of requests is supported in python and java. The number of app processes will be defined statistically.

5. Condition of low resources and crashes of the app will be handled gracefully. Different types of apps will be isolated into the process, which is separate.

6. Apps will be containerized additionally by using the namespace and the isolation file system. It will contain the file serving the benefits of static.

7. Supported App Languages: It will support the languages of binary compiled by using the embedded library. We can use overloading into the module of HTTP. We can use PHP, javascript, Perl, ruby, and python.

8. When it does not provide any CLI tool, it will expose all the configurations using HTTP API.

9. It will provide flexibility for choosing how to expose the API. We can say that we can use the scripting tool of our choice for interacting.

10. There is no longer ambiguity in the configuration data structure; it is easier to update the updated values programmatically.


Nginx is fully configured and highly efficient at runtime; it is beneficial and essential in restful JSON APIs. The configuration access is json based, accessed by the control socket, and manageable using HTTP. We are using a curl query with an nginx unit for controlling API.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to NGINX Unit. Here we discuss the introduction using the NGINX unit, configuration files, and critical features. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Test Bias With Minority Group

Psychologists use testing and assessment in a variety of contexts for a variety of purposes, including but not limited to job placement, diagnosing psychological disorders for mental health treatment, verifying health insurance coverage, conducting focus groups for market research, informing legal decisions and government policies, and developing measures to reliably assess personality characteristics.

The American Psychological Association’s (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2002) and the Standards for Education and Psychological Testing give guidelines for the ethical conduct of psychological testing and evaluation with racial/ethnic minorities.

Test Bias Types of Test Biases

following are the general categories of test bias

Construct- Validity Bias − This refers to whether a test directly measures what it was designed to measure. On an intelligence test, for illustration, scholars who are learning English will probably encounter words they have yet to learn. Accordingly, test results may reflect their fairly weak English- language chops rather than their academic or intellectual capacities.

Content- Validity Bias − This bias occurs when the content of a test is comparatively more delicate for one group of scholars than for others. For example, it can do when members of a pupil group, similar to various young groups, have not been given the same occasion to learn the material being tested, when scoring is illegal to a group (for illustration, the answers that would make sense in one group’s culture are supposed incorrect), or when questions are articulated in ways that are strange to certain scholars because of verbal or artistic differences. Item-selection bias, a subcategory of this bias, refers to individual test particulars more suited to one group’s language and artistic behaviors.

Test Bias with a Minority Group

The assessment process involving ethnical minorities has numerous avenues by which bias can crop. The impulses can do because of differences in culture or race and minority group status. Although culture has been defined in numerous ways, it generally refers to the behavior patterns, symbols, institutions, values, and mortal products of a society. On the other hand, race can be used to describe a racial, public, or artistic group. One’s race generally conveys a social-cerebral sense of “peoplehood” in which group members share a social and artistic heritage transmitted from one generation to another.

Moreover, racial group members frequently feel an interdependence of fate with others in the group. In addition to culture and race, members of racial minority groups also witness minority group status that involves a history of race or racial relations. This history has affected interpersonal relations, prospects, and performances. Therefore, to completely understand racial minority groups, their responses, and the assessment process, culture, race, and minority group status must be anatomized. Concern with test and dimension bias is not simply a matter of being “politically correct” or eternalized by ethnics disgruntled by their issues on colorful tests and measures. Bias does live in numerous of our assessment instruments and procedures.

Cultural bias in testing occurs if an assessment unfairly measures scholars’ skills and knowledge without considering scholars’ understanding of artistic traditions. When assessments do not consider scholars’ artistic differences, they fail to measure scholars’ capacities directly and can lead to opinions grounded on inaccurate data. Cultural bias in testing can occur when the annotator or the testing accouterments do not consider scholars’ lack of knowledge of semantics and experiences within a particular artistic group.

The Impact of cultural bias in testing is that a disproportionate number of scholars from minority artistic backgrounds have appertained to special education services. Also, when measuring proficiency in a language, scholars can be inaptly labeled as impaired because the test results indicate a language impairment. Still, the distinction in data may be due to artistic differences. The main specific of artistic test bias is that the tests are made up of a homogenous group of people who do not represent the cultural diversity of the scholars who take the test. In addition, the test itself could be culturally prejudiced because of the content of test particulars, the formatting of the test, or the terrain in which the assessment is being given.

One effect of cultural bias in testing is maintaining ethical conceptions by unfairly representing data as a suggestion of intelligence or capability. As a result, testing results unfairly measure scholars of color, scoring lower when the fault lies in prejudiced testing, not furnishing accurate measures of scholars’ capacities. As a result, scholars of color are placed in special education programs at a disproportionate rate. Likewise, prejudiced standardized testing perpetuates misconceptions about marginalized people and good academic achievement prospects.

Steps to Reduce Test Biases

Given that test results continue to be extensively used when making important opinions about scholars, test inventors and experts have linked several strategies that can reduce, if not exclude, test bias and unfairness. Many representative exemplifications include

Seeking diversity in the test- development staffing and training test inventors and songwriters to be apprehensive of the eventuality of artistic, verbal, and socioeconomic bias.

Having test accouterments reviewed by experts trained in relating artistic bias and by representatives of culturally and linguistically different groups.

Ensuring that norming processes and sample sizes used to develop norm- substantiated tests are inclusive of different pupil groups and large enough to constitute a representative sample.

Barring particulars that produce the largest racial and cultural performance gaps and opting for particulars that produce the lowest gaps — a fashion known as “the golden rule.” (This particular strategy may be logistically delicate to achieve, still, given the number of racial, ethnical, and artistic groups that may be represented in any given testing population).

Webbing for and barring particulars, references, and terms more likely to be obnoxious to certain groups.

Rephrasing tests into a test taker’s native language or using practitioners to restate test particulars.

Including further “performance-grounded” particulars to limit the part language and word choice play in test performance.

Using multiple assessment measures to determine academic achievement and progress and avoiding using test scores to reject other information to make important opinions about scholars.


Despite Its character being a scientific and precise tool for dimension, cerebral testing is a culturally prejudiced procedure that results in differentiation against minority groups, particularly against minority scholars. Academic achievement and intelligence tests, the two types of tests most constantly used in public seminaries, assume that all people have the same behaviors tapped by the questions on the tests. They also presume that there is uniformity of academy classes in this country and that all who take the tests have the same installation with the English language. This cultural bias is compounded by other factors, similar to the item selection process, the content of the particulars, and the responses considered respectable to those particulars.

Sap Crm Web Ui: Configuration, Application & Enhancement Tools


SAP CRM has many standard roles defined (for e.g., Sales Professional) and applications within these roles (for e.g., Account Management)

In general scenario, companies do not use the standard applications as it is and go for minor or major enhancements

Considering this, SAP CRM has been implemented with tools for the enhancement of SAP standard applications. Using these tools, it is possible to change the views, add fields, add tables, etc. into the existing applications

These tools mainly includes:

Web UI Configuration Tool

Application Enhancement Tools (AET)

Web UI Configuration Tool

The layout displayed for any view in SAP CRM is maintained as Web UI Configuration

These configurations are identified using 4 parameter values

Thus, you can enhance the Web UI Configurations with new layouts using different parameter values

The fields displayed in the Web UI comes from the database structures defined in the data dictionary

As per the requirement not all the fields are displayed in all the screens

It is possible to modify the screens using Web UI Configuration tool

With this tool, it is possible to remove some fields from the screens

Also it allows to add a field available in the data dictionary structure to the screen

On all the pages in the CRM Web UI, there is a button to go to “Web UI tool”

There are pre-defined roles needed to make this button available

Thus, in order to see this button and to do modifications in this tool, user must have sufficient authorizations

Buttons on Web UI page Lets study them below

Configurable Area : This highlights the area in screen that are configurable

Configure page : This opens the pop-up to configure the current page:

Configuration View for Work Centre page


With this, user can set own layout of the view

This affects individual user and not applicable to whole application

Print Page : To take print out of current page

In order to create a new layout, it is possible to use “New” button to create a blank form

Also you can use copy the existing configuration and then modify it as required

Web UI Configuration Tool supports drag-n-drop feature to add the fields to the layout

It also provides ability to set different properties of a field

In few cases, implementations of these enhancements also include ABAP programming in the Web UI Components

Configuration View for Form View in Overview Page – I

Available Configurations (screenshot above)

A configuration is identified with a unique combination of following fields:

Role Configuration Key

Component Usage

Object Type

Object Subtype

Depending upon different combination there can multiple configurations available for a view

Selecting a row in this assignment block updates the “Current configuration design” to show the layout designed under selected configuration

Buttons to work on configuration (see above screenshot): These are the buttons to modify the “Current configuration design” for selected configuration in “Available Configurations”

Add Caption: With button it is possible to add the caption on the Form view in an overview page

Add Line: This button appends a row in the “Current configuration design” area

Move Up: This button is to move a selected field one row above its current row

Move Down: This button is to move a selected field one row below its current row

Show Available Fields:(Fig. 3) it shows all the fields that are available to be added to the layout so that it is visible on the application

Show Field Properties:(Fig. 3) it shows you can see and set properties of the field selected on the layout

In edit mode, it is possible to modify some of these properties

Configuration View for Form View in Overview Page – II

This tool supports addition or removal of fields (available in the data dictionary) from the view layout

With this tool it is not possible to add the fields into the data dictionary structures and tables such that they reflect in your CRM.

Configuration screen for table view has a different layout, where user needs to set the available columns and properties of these columns

Configuration View for Table View

Security Concerns

End users should not have access to perform these settings in the configuration tool. Only super users or developers are provided with these roles

Any change made is visible to all the users accessing the application

On top of the changes implemented in the UI Configuration tool, end users can do settings for personalization of the view. Personalization settings are applicable to the individual user and are not shared among the end users

As per the requirement, personalization can be controlled within the customizing setting

This means that there are customizing settings with which developers can restrict users from personalization of the views

After applying this setting, personalization button will not be available for the end users

Application Enhancement Tool (AET)

Application Enhancement Tool is a comprehensive tool for the enhancement of the SAP standard applications such that the modifications till the database level are implemented by the tool itself and there is almost no coding effort.

This tool is also integrated with the Web UI Configuration tool.

Similar to the UI Configuration tool, first you need to select the configurable area (highlighted in blue) from the application

This will open UI Configuration tool in the same window as shown below

UI Configuration Tool for AET

We need to select a relevant button for AET enhancements (highlighted above)

Display Enhancements: Enables you to see already existing enhancements. It is possible to select an enhancement and to modify it

“Create Field” button can be used to create a new field in the select view

Following is the display of existing field and table enhancements:

Display Enhancement View

This view is having buttons for View & Table enhancements in respective assignment blocks:

New: Using this button it is possible to create new fields and also to create tables

Using the hyperlink in first column (Enhancement Id) it is possible to edit an existing enhancement

Enhancing View

Select Business Object part

Depending upon the object selected, the database tables and the structures will be selected.

While creating a field, you need to set properties of the field:

Set properties of the new field

According to the properties selected the field will be generated and different layers will be enhanced for the new field

“Enable Export Mode” button can be used so that the framework picks properties from the Data Element used in the field definition

In Expert Mode, we need to set value for the Data Element field

In data element definition, it is possible to set properties like Label (Description)

Thus different properties of the field are to be set automatically using data element definition in data dictionary

Set properties of the new field – Expert Mode enabled

Similarly we can create table fields using the AET

For table, we need to specify the details of the table as a whole and also the individual fields to be generate for the table

Set properties of the new field – Expert Mode enabled

Creating a Table View using AET

Once field or table is generated using the AET, the application will restart and the user can then use the new field or table

These fields and table will also have updated the required database tables

This means that when you enter value for these fields and perform save, the value will get stored in the database

Creating a Table View using AET

Essential Elements Of A Successful Self Published Book

While the publishing industry is not going to die anytime soon, the ability to self publish books is quickly becoming a disruptive force that is opening up a world of opportunity to people. However, it’s not as simple as slapping together a PDF, designing a cover in Microsoft paint and throwing something up on Amazon.

1. Platform

Everything starts with your platform. You can’t write a book in a vacuum, throw it on Kindle, and hope that people who know nothing about your work will find out about your book. Seth Godin says we’re obsessed with interrupting strangers. However, a platform gives us the opportunity to build a relationship with an audience and to create a book specifically for them. That’s who a book needs to be written for. They’re going to be the ones who buy your book and tell other people about your book. Your platform is the foundation for a successful self published book.

Unless you’re a celebrity, if you don’t have a platform, start here. If you’ve spent the last 4 years writing a book, and you don’t have a platform, you’re facing an uphill battle to sell the book. Start a blog, podcast, web show, and build your small army. Give them the book for free if you have to.

2. Something to Say

When you write a book, intention and motive play a big role. If the only reason you’re writing it is to make money or inflate your ego, it will water down your work. Don’t write anything just because you think it will sell well. Don’t forget that just because it’s words on a screen or page, it doesn’t mean your reader can’t feel what you’re thinking. When I spoke with Guy Kawasaki about his latest book, he told me “write the book because you have something to say.”  Even if there are books on similar subjects, don’t forget that nobody can say it the way you can. Why do you think there are so many books on social media? Don’t get caught up in the echo chamber. Have an opinion and your book will stand out.

Treating it As If You’re Working With a Publisher

This is where the highest quality self published books are separated from the ones that get buried.

3. Editing 

There’s a reason that a publisher had multiple editors looking at your book before it hits the shelf. Despite that I’ve still seen print books with typos in them.  Whatever you do, hire an editor. Even if you’re the best proofreader in the world, it’s hard to see your mistakes when you’re so closely tied to the work. The same person who won’t complain too much about a typo in a free blog post, will go nuts over typos in a 99 cent book. This is just one of the many areas where you can overcome the stigma of being self published.

4. Layout/ Cover Design

Amazon is a highly visual medium. When you’re browsing books. the first thing you see his the cover. If you’re a skilled graphic designer or artist, then you may be able to design your own cover. If not, hire a freelance designer.  You wouldn’t show up in blue jeans and a t-shirt to your wedding. If your book matters to you, which I ‘m assuming it does, invest in the cover design.

5. Marketing Plan 

“Book Promotion is a Marathon not a Sprint” – Carrie Wilkerson, The Barefoot Executive 

You’ve built a platform. You’ve written the greatest book in the world and it’s as polished as a brand new BMW on the dealer’s lot. Your job is far from over and the real work is about to start. If you’ve done it right, the marketing started the day you started writing the book. While surprises are nice for birthday parties, they don’t work that well for book launches.


When the book launches you’ll need people to help you spread the word. These days that could be bloggers, friends of yours with big fan bases, or even college professors. A friend of mine wanted to write a book about getting into medical school. Given that he had no platform, I told him the best promoters would be the directors of admission at every medical school in the country. Promoters can be just about anybody who would benefit from the book. Recruit them before you need them. If you’ve built your platform, recruit 20 people. The key here is to find people who are truly engaged with you. You’re better off with 10 promoters who will go out of their way to help you, then 100 who are just looking for a free book.


On Amazon book reviews matter. The number of reviews on a book are an indicator of social proof. Who do you get to write you reviews? The people you recruited as promoters are a perfect start.  As you get more reviews, the visibility of your book rises.


There are many thoughts on this. Some people use it to discount their books and offer lower price points. Others give away their books for free. If you sign up for KDP, Amazon allows you to give away copies of your book for 5 days in any 90 day period. But during that time you’re also limited to only selling your book on Amazon. However, giving away your book during that free period can lead to thousands of people finding out about your work, and it is a great way to raise awareness of your book and generate lots of reviews. In my own experience, I used all 5 days at once, and found this to be the most effective approach.


Chances are you won’t be on Oprah with your self published book. Even many traditionally published authors are not finding the success with the mainstream media that they used to. For an in-depth look into this, I recommend reading The Tim Ferriss effect by Michael Ellsberg.

Blogs, podcasts, and other channels are the new media outlets.

Write a guest post for a site like Search Engine Journal where thousands of people might see it. Keep in mind, that the content of the post must be relevant to the audience and if it’s just a pitch for your book, it will bomb.

Search the iTunes store for podcasts that are relevant to your book. Reach out to the host of the show and ask if they’re looking for new guests.

All these online outlets have an unlimited inventory of content slots that need to be filled.  If you can provide good content for them you’re doing them a favor. This post by Ryan Holiday goes into explicit detail about how to land media coverage for your book or project.

While traditional publishing still lends a layer of credibility to your work, self publishing is creating opportunities for people like never before. It probably won’t be too long before the stigma goes away. I loved Guy Kawasaki’s an analogy of comparing self published authors to artisan beer brewers. You’ll never hear somebody say Budweiser is better because it was made in a giant factory.  You can stop waiting to be picked. You can share your message with the world. Just don’t assume it’s going to be easy.

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