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Introduction to ES6 Proxy

The ES6 proxy is between the code and an object using as an ES6 proxies site, but we can use a proxy to do meta-programming activities like intercepting a call to examine or change the properties of an object with certain properties or methods called as the functions which are defined as the handler with certain properties or methods are called and functions defined in the handler offer access to the target.

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What is an ES6 proxy?

The ES6 proxy is placed between the middle of the code and an object. We can use a proxy to do meta-programming activities like intercepting a call to examine or change the properties of an object. When it comes to ES6 proxies, it has followed the certain nomenclature is used like a target. The proxy will virtualize the original object.

How to use Proxies?

The Proxies are generally meant by the specific computing terms like intermediaries between the objects with which we can communicate. Then the proxy server is meant by the device that sits between the web browser like (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, and so on) also the webserver like (Apache, Nginx, IIS, and so on) whereas the webpage is to be stored in the cookies and histories. The client requests and the response answers can be modified by using the proxy server. It can be boosted and efficient by caching frequently visited items and providing them to numerous users.

It has a number of proxy trap types like mainly get and set methods are the most useful traps. The other traps like proxy and supplement proxy handler codes. A Proxy is an object that wraps around another object (target) and intercepts the target object’s basic operations. Property search, assignment, enumeration, and function invocations are examples of basic operations.

How does ES6 Proxy work?

Generally, the ES6 module is a container for a group of JavaScript codes that can be related to one another. Especially the module’s variables and functions should be exported so that they can be accessible from the other files. However, in ES6 scripts, the modules can only be used in the strict mode. This means that the variables and functions are declared in a module that cannot be globally accessible. Mainly it focuses on the target and handler; the target is the original object that can be used for proxy wanted, and the handler is the kind of the object that can be defined the specified operations will be more intercepted and redefined the intercepted operations.

Target:

The proxy will virtualize the original object. And this could be a source JavaScript object and like the jQuery library, native objects, like arrays, or even other proxies which may be used on the servers.

Handler:

An object that can be used for to implement the proxy’s behavior. Now we’ll make a handler object that will intercept all get operations.

Traps:

Examples of ES6 Proxy

Different examples are mentioned below:

Example #1

Code:

function mthd1(x, y) { var a = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor( y.prototype, ‘constructor’ ); y.prototype = Object.create(x.prototype); var handler = { construct: function(target, args) { var obj = Object.create(y.prototype); this.apply(target, obj, args); return obj; }, apply: function(target, c, args) { x.apply(c, args); y.apply(c, args); } }; var prx = new Proxy(y, handler); a.value = prx; Object.defineProperty(y.prototype, ‘constructor’, a); return prx; } var v = function(n) { this.n = n; }; var w = mthd1(v, function(n, sno) { this.sno = sno; }); w.prototype.cty = ‘T’; var ins = new w(‘ins’, 32); document.getElementById(“one”).innerHTML = ins.cty; document.getElementById(“one”).innerHTML = ins.n; document.getElementById(“one”).innerHTML = ins.sno; let trg = {}; let prx = new Proxy(trg, {}); prx.tst = 3; alert(trg.tst); alert(prx.tst); for(let k in prx) alert(k);

Output:

In the above example, we used the Proxy object and the handler concept to create and handle user datas. It can be mainly classified to the object wrapping and intercept operations like reading and writing properties and other features. Basically, it handles the object them on its own; it allows for to transparently objects handled them.

Example #2

const hnd = { get: function(a, b) { return b in a ? a[b] : 45; } }; const obje = new Proxy({}, hnd); obje.x = 1; obje.y = undefined; document.getElementById(“one”).innerHTML = obje.x, obje.y; document.getElementById(“one”).innerHTML  = ‘z’ in obje, obje.z; const target = {}; const ins = new Proxy(target, {}); ins.e = 73; document.getElementById(“one”).innerHTML = target.e;

Output:

In the above example, we used the same Proxy object with all the html dom elements in the stack. The default value is whenever the property name is not in the object creation. It will be used as the get() handler method. Mainly, we are using native import JavaScript objects for which the proxy will be forwarded to all the user operations that are applied to it on the programming logic, including both UI and backend validations. And also, please note that while we use any looping conditional statements, the javascript objects work as a no-op, and it does not mean the native browser objects like DOM Elements.

New Proxy to intercept the operation

We can use a proxy for to intercept the multiple user operations mainly used as the following methods like,

get (getting property values)

apply (calling a function)

But it does not perform any single operation for calling the methods that can be intercepted. This is why method calls are split into two steps: first, we can use get to obtain a function, and then it can apply it for specific operations.

Conclusion

A proxy object which “traps” for invocations and users performed the multiple operations made to its target object. And which it can be subsequently passed through the no-operations and handled more elegantly. It can erect an impenetrable barrier around the target object, redirecting to all the operations specified mapping to the handler.

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Learn How Does Pagination Works In Angular Material?

Introduction to Bouncy numbers

Angular material also provides us one of the most useful features which can be built very fast by using it, and that is Pagination. Angular material provides us with a build module that can be imported inside our application and can be used directly to create the pagination inside our application. The basic purpose of pagination is to divide the data into different pages when the number or volume of data is going to be very large. It helps to divide and show data on the various pages, it increases the readability of the data and makes it easier to deal with a large amount of data. In the coming section of the tutorial, we will see how we can implement pagination inside our application using the material library in the build module, to make it more easy, quick, fast, and under stable by the beginners.

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Syntax:

As we have seen we can build the pagination using modules and directives available in the material library, let’s take a closer look at the syntax of pagination given by the material library see below;

How does pagination work in Angular material?

Pagination helps us to divide our data into equal size into each of the pages, it helps us to show data in a good manner. Also, we can easily navigate to any of the ages we want. we can also specify the limit of data on each page, with few changes to the properties of the pagination. In this section we will see how we can implement pagination in our existing application and what all configurations are required to make this work, let’s get started;

1) MatPaginatorModule : In order to implement pagination we will import the ‘MatPaginatorModule’ inside in our root module or any of the child module in order to use this inside the application. For reference please follow the below code of using this see below;

e.g.:

import {MatPaginatorModule} from '@angular/material/paginator';

2) MatPaginator: This component from the material library is responsible to provide the navigation in the pagination. It has few properties which can be used to implement pagination, let’ get started to see below;

pageSizeOptions: number[]: This will display all the page size options to the user, it is an array of age size.

pageSize: number: This will decide how much data will be displayed on each page, the default is 50.

length: number: Number of data that need to be paginated.

pageIndex: number : default is 0.

It also contains few methods which are mentioned below;

firstPage: will move to the first page.

getNumberOfPagaes: this will return the number of pages.

hasPreviousPage: Check if the previous page exists return type is Boolean.

hasNextPage: return Boolean, check if has next page.

previousPage: move to the previous page.

nextPage: Move to the next page.

Now let’s get started with the steps that need to be taken in order to step up our angular material project initially for beginners see below;

1) First install the angular CLI which enables us to download the required packages and library for our project. You can download it by typing the below command on your command make sure you have already installed node see below;

e.g.:

npm install -g @angular/cli) The above command will install the CLI globally in our system hence we can use it globally when required.

3) Now in this step we will try to create the new angular project from scratch, this project will not be a material project that we have to add later by installing the material dependency inside our project. so just execute the below command on your command Promat and press enter see below;

e.g.:

>> ng new my-first-project

This command will create the project with the name my-first-project, you can create your project with any name mentioned.

4) Just to make sure try one command which is mentioned below to install all the required library into our project,

e.g.:

5) Now you can test and run your project by typing the simple command which is mentioned below. This is just to make sure that we are on the right track and our project has been created without any error or bugs inside it.

e.g.:

ng serve

6) go on browser and try to run the application with the below URL :

e.g.:

By default, the angular project runs on port 4200, you can change it as per your need if required.

7) Now everything is set we have our angular project now we will add the material library to our project just by running the below command on the command prompt;

e.g.:

ng add @angular/material

Examples of Bouncy numbers

Here are the following examples mentioned below.

1) chúng tôi code:

2) chúng tôi code:

] export class DempPaginationModule {}

3) chúng tôi code:

export class DemoPagination {}

4) chúng tôi code:

Output:

Conclusion – Bouncy numbers

By the use of pagination, we can easily manage our data and show it to the user in a good manner without keep on scrolling another whole page if we have thousands of data available. It can directly be used with a few changes and configurations inside the existing code, is easy to maintain, and is readable by the developers.

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How Println Works In Kotlin With Examples?

Introduction to Kotlin println

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Syntax

The kotlin language uses many default keywords, variables, and functions to implement the mobile-based applications, with some pre-defined keywords, including the functions. Like that, println() is the default function for handling and print the statements, which the coder declares.

{ val variablename= values println(“coder statements and ${variablename}””) var var2= values println(“coder statements and $var2”) }

The above codes are the basic syntax for utilising the println() method and its statements used by the kotlin language. Then, based on the user scenario, we can print the outputs on the console screen.

How does println work in Kotlin?

Using the println() method, the coder prints the statements and the outputs the programmer enters, and it depends on the application point of view. The programmer entered all the codes like keywords, variables, functions, and classes that have both primary and secondary classes. Some nested classes concept implements the parent class with the child class, and then it’s called by the specific packages. For each method, both default and customized methods used the println() statements.

The println() method has similar to the print() method but some difference is there like print() method prints the string inside of the quotes and println() method print the strings inside the quotes which is similar like print() method but the mouse cursor which automatically moves to the next line of the console screen. We can use the expressions and catch the exceptions and errors instance whenever it requires like the try-catch statement is used for handling the exceptions block, but the catch and finally blocks to capture and print the exceptions using the print and println() method. And also, when we want to print the variable inside the println() method, we can use the dollar($) symbol followed by either var and val names along with inside of the double-quoted string literals.

Examples of Kotlin println

Given below are the examples of Kotlin println:

Example #1

Code:

import java.util.Scanner class examp1{ fun demo() { val strinp="Welcome To My Domain its the first example that related to the kotlin println() statement" mlist.add("Please add the first input") mlist.add("Please add the second input") mlist.add("Please add the third input") mlist.add("Please add the fourth input") mlist.add("Please add the fifth input") println("Please follow the below loop iteration") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } println("Thank you users your mutablelist datas are entered successfully") println(mlist[1]) mlist.add(1,"June") println("We can modify the first mutable list value as mlist.add(1,"June")") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } mlist.add("July") println("Again we can add one more list values mlist.add("July")") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } mlist.addAll(2,finp1) println("We can add all the list values into the single list: mlist.addAll(1,finp1)") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } mlist.addAll(finp) println("We can add all the values and make it to the single list: mlist.addAll(finp)") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } mlist.remove("July") println("We can remove the specified values: mlist.remove("July")") for(vlist in mlist){ println(vlist) } } } val num = 41.83 println("Your input num is:") println("$num") println("num = $num") println("${num + num}") println(41.83) val sc = Scanner(System.`in`) print("Please enter your input number: ") var il:Int = sc.nextInt() println("You entered input is: $il") var ob=examp1() ob.demo() }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

import java.util.Date import java.text.SimpleDateFormat class Exam2() { var id: Int = 0 var sname: String = "" var city: String = "" fun demo2(){ val sinp="41,Sivaraman, Chennai" println(sinp) } } enum class Second(var sec: String) { demo("Welcome To My Domain its the second example that related to the kotlin println()"){ override fun sample() { println("Thank you users have a nice day") } }, demo1("We can override the sample method"){ override fun sample() { println("Current month is june") } }, demo2("Again we override the sample method"){ override fun sample() { println("Next month is july") } }; abstract fun sample() fun demo1(svalues: String): String{ return "Have a Nice day users" } } val inp1 = Exam2() var sinp=inp1.demo2() println(SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-ddX").parse("2024-06-22+00")) println("Welcome To My Domain its the second example that related to the kotlin println() method, $sinp") println("Hello users") println(41) println(1234567L) println(0b01001111) println(41.32) println(41.762F) println('a') println(true) println() var st = "Hello users thank you for spenting ur time with us" println(st) println(st) }

Output:

In the second example, we used the date format package utilised in the kotlin codes with some operations like integer, string, float, double and boolean datatype values printed on the output console.

Example #3 import java.util.Scanner try { val inpread = Scanner(System.`in`) println("Welcome To My Domain its the third example that related to the kotlin println()") println("Please enter your inputs") var id = inpread.nextInt() println("Your input id is "+id) demo(41,83,lamb) val inpdata = 12 / 4 println(inpdata) } catch (e: NullPointerException) { println(e) } finally { println("finally block always executed whenever try is executing") } println("Have in Nice Day users please try again") } val result = in1 + in2 println(result) }

Output:

In the final example, we used the try-catch block for handling the exceptions and performed the arithmetic operations using the lambda expressions.

Conclusion

In kotlin language, we used many default methods, classes, and keywords to implement the application. So all the programming logic will be implemented using some codes like classes and methods eventhough some additional operations are performed, results are printed on the output console by using the print() and println() methods.

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How Function Works In Scala With Examples

Definition of Scala Function

As the name suggests, Scala Function means a piece of code supposed to do a function. Like any other programming language scala, Function works in the same way. The function is nothing but a way to writing our logic in a separate part, or we can say a function is a group of statements that are responsible for performing some specific task. The function can be used where we have the same logic or repetitive code, so instead of writing the code again and again, we can create one function and call that from everywhere. Scala function is also responsible for performing a specific task.

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How to Define Functions in Scala? defname_of_function ([parametre_list]) : [return_type] = { }

Scala Function contained 6 parts while defining; let’s discuss them one by one.

def: It is a keyword that is available in scala. If you want to define any function, we have to use this keyword at the beginning.

name_of_function: This is the user-defined name of the function. It should be similar to the logic or task that the function is going to execute while calling. Also, it should be in a camel-case (lower).

return_type: return type means what we are expecting from the function in return after executing. It can be anything, but it is optional. In java, the default return type is void, and in scale, it is Unit if we do not specify.

parametre_list: This stands for what we are providing to our function while calling. We have to specify the data type of the parameters as well while declaring inside the square brackets []. We will see them into the practice syntax below.

 =: This can be used with the return type component. It specifies, if the = is there, it means our function is going to return some value. If not, then no value we want. It is like a default return type function.

function logic: Inside this, we write the whole logic that we want to perform on the calling of function. We can also call the different functions inside this function. Remember body should be enclosed with the {} curly braces.

defcalculateSum ([a:Int, b: Int]) : Int = { return a + b; }

This way, we can define it.

How does Function work in Scala?

The function is used to perform the task. To use any function, we need to call it. Scala provides us with different ways to call a function, i.e. we can call them directly or by using the class instance.

[instance].name_of_function

or

function(list_parameter)

In scala, we have two types of functions like any other programming language.

Parameterized functions: In this type of function, we pass the list of parameters.

Non-Parameterized functions: In this type of function, we do not pass any parameters to function. That will be empty. Also, we can pass any user-defined value as a parameter also.

Let’s take one example to understand its working;

object Main extends App{ calculateSum(10, 20) defcalculateSum(a : Int, b : Int){ var result = a + b ; println("Result is  :: "+ result) } }

Above we have defined one function name calculateSum, and it is taking two variables, a and b. Both are of the Integer type. Inside the function body, we have written the logic that we want to perform. We are adding these two values, a and b, holding the value into the third variable named result. After that, we are just printing the value that we obtained. But now we have to call this function, so in the above line, we are calling the function b its name and parameter specified. The number of Parameters we passed and the number defined in the function signature should be the same; otherwise, it will give a compile-time error.

Examples of Scala Function

Examples of (simple function, parameterized function, etc.).

Example #1

This example shows the use of functions without parameters.

object Main extends App{ simpleFunction() defsimpleFunction(){ println("This is simple function") println( "without parameter. ") } }

Output:

Example #2

Code:

object Main extends App{ sum(20 , 50, 100) defsum(x: Int, y : Int, z: Int){ println("This is parameter function") var result = x + y +z println("result obtained is  :::"  +result) } }

Output:

Example #3

In this example, we are making a mixed parameter list of a function. This takes integer and string as well.

Code:

object Main extends App{ mixedFunction(20 , 50, 100, "Ajay", "Indore") defmixedFunction(x: Int, y : Int, z: Int, name: String, address: String){ println("This is parameter function") var result = x + y +z println("result obtained is  :::"  +result) println("Employee name  :: " + name) println("Employee address  :: " + address) } }

Example #4

In this example, we are taking a user-defined object and printing its value. We can take any value as a parameter.

Code:

object Main extends App{ var emp1 = new Employee("Amita", 20, 30, "Indore") employeeInfo(emp1) defemployeeInfo(emp : Employee){ println("In this we are taking one user defined parameter.") println("Passing a user value ::") } } class Employee(name: String, Id:Int, Age: Int, address: String){ }

Output:

Conclusion

Functions are used to avoid the redundant code or repetitive code. It makes our code looks simple and more understandable. Also, we can easily debug our code and identified the error, if any. These Scala functions are the same as any other programming language. Keep in mind the return type and parameter list or signature of the function while working with them.

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How Union Works In Linq With Examples?

Introduction to LINQ Union

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Syntax:

Let’s see the LINQ Union method syntax as follows,

If you are working with complex types of union collection, then you must make use of the IEqualityComparer interface to get an accurate result; otherwise, you will get only the incorrect result.

How does Union work in LINQ?

In LINQ Union method it only supports the method syntax; the query syntax will not be available in the union method. The Queryable and Enumerable classes will be acceptable in the union method. The Union operator or method is mainly used to combine the multiple collections into a single distinct collection; it returns only the unique elements; as a result, it removes the duplicate values from the collection. Let’s see one example as follows.

For Example,

Collection X= {20, 40, 60, 80, 100} Collection Y= {20, 40, 70} var _result = X.Union(Y);

The result is = {20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 100} in this resultant collection, the elements 20 and 40 appear in both the collection, so in the result, it returns only once because unique elements are only displayed it eliminates the duplications. Let’s see the working flow of the unique method as follows,

static public void Main() { string[] Department1 = { "JAVA", "DOTNET", "PHYTHON", "ANDROID" }; string[]Department2 = { "JAVA", "ANDROID", "DESIGNING" }; var unionResult = Department1.Union(Department2); foreach (var items in unionResult) { Console.WriteLine(items); } } string[]Department1 = { "JAVA", "DOTNET", "PHYTHON", "ANDROID" }; string[]Department2 = { "JAVA", "ANDROID", "DESIGNING" };

From this, we have to return only the unique elements from both the collections it removes the duplications from both collections, to get all the elements uniquely, we need to go with the Union () method,

var unionResult = Department1.Union(Department2);

It returns only the unique elements from the collection, in which it removes the repeated elements present in the collection it returns only once; let’s check the result here below,

Result is {"JAVA", "DOTNET","DESIGNING", "PHYTHON", "ANDROID"}; Usage of IEqualityComparer Interface

Here we introduce the IEqualityComparer Interface for the union method because the union method can’t be able to differentiate whether the two types are equal; it does not work with complex types of collection, so it returns the only incorrect result. For this purpose, we have to build a new comparer class to implement IEqualityComparer Interface to get an accurate result. IEqualityComparer Interface has two different methods, GetHashCode and Equals methods; we need to implement both methods compulsory. Let’s see one example for IEqualityComparer interface and lets us assume the Book Class contains BookID and BookName,

{ public bool Equals(Book x, Book y) { if (x.BookID == y.BookID && x.BookName.ToLower() == y. BookName.ToLower()) return true; return false; } public int GetHashCode(Student obj) { return obj. BookID.GetHashCode(); } }

Now can send the BookComparer class in the Union extension method to get the accurate results.

BookList _1.Add(new BookClass { BookID = 1001, BookName = “The Writer” }); BookList _1.Add(new BookClass { BookID = 1002, BookName = ” Success ” }); BookList _1.Add(new BookClass { BookID = 1003, BookName = “Life Secret ” }); BookList _2.Add(new BookClass { BookID = 1002, BookName = “Success” }); BookList _3.Add(new BookClass { BookID = 1005, BookName = “Team Lead ” }); var _resultUnion = BookList _1.Union(BookList _2, new BookComparer()); foreach (BookClass res in _resultUnion) Console.WriteLine(res. BookName);

The result will be” The Writer, Success, Life Secret, Team Lead,” it returns only the unique elements from the collection, in which it removes the repeated elements.

Example

Code:

using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Linq; using System.Text; using System.Threading.Tasks; namespace Console_LINQUnion { class Linq_Union { internal class DoctorClass { public int DoctorID { get; set; } public string DoctorName { get; set; } } { public bool Equals(DoctorClass a, DoctorClass b) { if(a.DoctorID==b.DoctorID&&b.DoctorName.ToLower()==b.DoctorName.ToLower()) { return true; } return false; } public int GetHashCode(DoctorClass obj) { return obj.DoctorID.GetHashCode(); } } public class Program { public static void Main(string[] args) { DoctorList_1.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1001, DoctorName = "Smith" }); DoctorList_1.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1002, DoctorName = "Rio" }); DoctorList_1.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1003, DoctorName = "Dev" }); DoctorList_1.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1004, DoctorName = "Jack" }); DoctorList_1.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1005, DoctorName = "Ricky" }); DoctorList_2.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1002, DoctorName = "Rio" }); DoctorList_2.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1003, DoctorName = "Dev" }); DoctorList_2.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1007, DoctorName = "Peter" }); DoctorList_2.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1009, DoctorName = "Raj" }); DoctorList_2.Add(new DoctorClass { DoctorID = 1001, DoctorName = "Smith" }); var _resultUnion = DoctorList_1.Union(DoctorList_2, new DoctorComparer()); Console.WriteLine("USING LINQ-UNION WITH IEqualityComparer"); Console.WriteLine("List of Unique Doctor-Namesn"); foreach (DoctorClass val in _resultUnion) Console.WriteLine(val.DoctorName); Console.ReadLine(); } } } }

Output:

Conclusion

The article LINQ Union essentially used to combine the collection of elements and returns distinct elements; as a result, when working on complex types of huge data, we need to implement the IEqualityComparer Interface. I hope the article helps out without any doubt by seeing the examples programmatically.

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Examples On Does Any() Function Works In C++

Introduction to C++ any() Function

Bitset is one of the important class in the C++ library that helps to emulate strings or numbers in the form of a sequence of bits stored like an array where each of the bits is stored at consecutive positions in the array. Since the storage dataset used is an array, each bit can be referenced by a particular index that helps in fast access of elements. Any() method is one of the methods provided in Bitset Class to find if any of the bit present in the array is set that is its value is ‘1’. If none of the bit is set false is returned.

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Syntax:

Before C++11: bool any() const;

Since C++11: bool any() const noexcept;

This method requires no parameters to be passed while calling. Only the reference to one of the objects of Bitset class calls this method for the bitset representation object is holding.

Bool: Determines that the return type for this method is a Boolean, that is either true in case any one of the bit is set otherwise false.

Const: restricts any changes to this method by any of its child classes.

After C++11 this method does not throw any exception, can be inferred using noexcept keyword mentioned in its declaration.

How any() Function Works in C++?

A bitset helps to emulate an array of bool where each bit is stored in such a way to use memory efficiently as memory consumed to store a bitset is far less than the storage of Boolean array or vector. Thus it can be inferred the information stored using bitset is stored in a compressed manner, thus helps in enhancing the performance of the array and vector operations on it. The only limitation of using bitset is the size of the array needs to be declared at compile time.

1. Each bit in bitset array can easily be accessed using indexes for eg, obj[3] points to the element stored at index 3 in the bitset from right side.

2. Bitset also gives constructor to get the bitset representation of given string and numbers. Thus one can easily use this class to store the information. It provides various methods to perform operations on the bits such as :-

Count

All

Any

Test

Set

3. When Any() method is triggered for a bitset object, the compiler traverse the whole array of bitset from 0 to N index, where N is declared at compile-time, and checks if the bit is set i.e the value of the bit at that index is 1. If yes it breaks the loop and returns true Boolean otherwise False Boolean. Any() method working is same as loop given below:-

for(int i=0;i<bitsObj.size();i++){ if(bitsObj.test(i)){ return true; break; } else{ return false; } } Advantage of any() Function in C++

All the bitwise operations on bitset can be performed without any type of conversion or casting, which helps enhance the performance and efficiency.

Examples to Implement of C++ any() Function Example #1

Let us consider one simple example to understand how any function in bitset works.

Code :

using namespace std; int main() { bool result1 = obj1.any(); if (result1) cout << obj1 << ” has one of its bits set” << endl; else cout <<  ” None of the bits is set in “<< obj1 << endl; bool result2 = obj2.any(); if (result2) cout << obj2 << “  has one of its bits set” << endl; else cout << “None of the bits is set in ” << obj2 << endl; return 0; }

Output :

Explanation: Here since obj1 10010 has a bit set at 1 and 4th index thus any method returns true for it. But in case of obj2 000000 has none of its bits as set returns false.

Example #2

Code :

using namespace std; #define M 32 int main() { cout << “Bitset representation of uninitialised obj1 is ” <<obj1 << endl; cout << “Bitset representation of 16 is ” <<obj2 << endl; cout << “Bitset representation of “00010” is ” <<obj3 << endl; cout << endl; bitarr[3] = 1; bitarr[2] = bitarr[3]; cout << “Bitset representation of array with 2nd 3rd bbits set is “<< bitarr << endl; cout << “Lets check if any of the bit is set in above 4 bitset representations: “; if( obj1.any()) cout<< “obj1: ” <<“TRUE”<<endl ;else cout << “FALSE” <<endl; if( obj2.any()) cout<< “obj2: ” <<“TRUE”<<endl ;else cout <<“FALSE” <<endl; if( obj3.any()) cout<< “obj3: ” <<“TRUE” <<endl;else cout<<  “FALSE” <<endl; if( bitarr.any()) cout<< “bitarr: ” <<“TRUE”<<endl; else  cout<< “FALSE” <<endl; cout << endl; return 0; }

Output:

Explanation: In the above-given example, M defines the length of the bitset array for all the given bitset objects. Since obj1 is uninitialized thus its value is by default initialized to 0. Second object obj2 is a number -16 that is converted using bitset constructor to its bitset representation. The third object is in the form of bits 00010 and has bit set at index 1. And the fourth index is a bitset array uninitialized, thus stores 0 value in the start but its 2nd and 3rd bit is set at runtime. Any() method is used to find if any of the bit in the given objects is set or not.

Conclusion

Bitset representation plays an important role as it helps to work with bits representation of string or numbers. And Since the machine understands the language of “0” and “1”, working with this representation improves the performance. Any() is one of the methods provided in this class to find if any of the bit is set in the given bitset object.

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This is a guide to C++ any(). Here we discuss the Introduction to C++ any() Function and its Examples along with Code Implementation and Output. you can also go through our suggested articles to learn more –

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