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Introduction to Java async

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Working of async in java

In this article, we will discuss a callback method which is known as the async function in java. This function is also known as await in java. In java, to make or write asynchronous programming by starting a new thread by making it asynchronous themselves. The asynchronous callbacks are used only when the tasks are not dependent on each other, which might take some time for executing. So, in general, the async call can be explained by taking an example of online shopping where when we select some item and add it into the cart, then that item will not be blocked as it will also be available to others too where others don’t need to wait for the order of the item to finish. So, whenever we want to run any program that can be executed without blocking its execution, it is done using async programming.

1. completeableFutures

The completeableFutures is the java version of javascript promises known as completeableFutures which can implement two interfaces such as Future and CompletionStage, where a combination of these two interfaces completes this feature for writing or working with async programming. This feature provides many methods such as supplyAsync, runAsync, etc. These methods are used to start the asynchronous part of the code because supplyAsync method is used when we are doing something with the result, and if we do not want anything, we can use the runAsync method. There other different methods in completeableFutures such as thenCompose if we want to use multiple completeableFutures one after one or in simple when we want to use nested completeableFutures and if we want to combine the results of two completeableFutures, then there is a method named thenCombine method. So these all methods are handled in a completable future, which in turn has completion stage methods that hold all these methods.

Sample example: To create completeableFuture using no-arg constructor by the following syntax:

So to get the result, we have to use the get() method. So we can write it as

String result = completeableFuture.get()  where this gets () method will block until the Future completes, but this call will block it forever as Future is never completed. So we have to complete it manually by calling the below method.

Therefore the clients get specified results ignoring the subsequent calls. The program might look like below.

while (!completableFuture.isDone()) { System.out.println(“CompletableFuture is not finished yet…”); } long result = completableFuture.get();

2. EA Async

This is another feature in java for writing asynchronous code sequentially, which naturally provides easy programming and scales. This is Electronic Arts which got the async-await feature which is given to the java ecosystem through this ea-async library. This feature converts the runtime code and rewrites the call to await method, which works similarly as completableFuture. So we can implement the above completeableFuture code by using the EA-sync method known as the await method by making a call to the chúng tôi method for initializing Async runtime.

So let us consider an example of factorial of a number using both completeableFuture and EA sync.

while (!completableFuture.isDone()) { System.out.println(“The completeableFuture is not completed…”); } double res = completableFuture.get();

static { Async.init(); } public func_name(){….. same as above code of completeableFuture… double res Async.await(completableFuture);

From the above sample code, which is transformed code of completeableFuture code by using static block also for initializing the Async runtime so that the Async can transform the code of completeableFuture code during runtime and then to the await method, it can rewrite the calls which will now EA async will behave similarly to that of using the chain of completeableFuture or chúng tôi method. So now, when once the asynchronous execution of any method is completed, then the result from the Future method is passed to another method where the method is having the last execution using the CompleteableFuture.runAsync method.

In Java, as discussed above, there are many different ways for writing the asynchronous programming using various other methods.

Conclusion

In this article, we discussed java async where it is defined as a callback method that will continue the execution of the program without blocking by returning the calls to the callback function. This article saw how asynchronous programming is written in java using different features such as CompleteableFutures, EA async, Future Task, Guava, etc. In this article, we have seen two among these features for making the callback functions asynchronous by using various methods provided by the given respective features.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Java async. Here we discuss how asynchronous programming is written in java using different features such as CompleteableFutures, EA async, Future Task, Guava, etc. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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What Are The Key Features Of Java?

This article will help you understand what the key features of Java Programming language are.

The Key features of Java Programming Language are −

Java is Easy to Understand

Java’s base is similar to that of C and C++ languages and it includes many important features of these languages. It removes many drawbacks and complexities of C or C++. So if one has good understanding of either C or C++, then Java language will be very familiar and easily understandable.

Java is an object oriented programming language

Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is an approach to standardize the programs by creating partitioned memory area for both data and function. The approach was developed to increase programmer’s productivity and also to overcome the traditional approach of programming.

Java supports several OOP features like Objects, Class, Data Abstraction, Encapsulation, Data Hiding, Inheritance and Polymorphism.

Java programs are both compiled and interpreted

It is normal for a computer language to either be compiled or interpreted during execution. But Java language is an exception as its programs are both compiled and interpreted. The Java Compiler (JAVAC) compiles the java source code and converts it into the bytecode. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) then executes this bytecode and converts it into machine-dependent form.

Java programs are platform independent

This is the most significant feature of Java, as being platform independent means one program compiled on one machine can get executed on any other machines without changing anything. This is achieved because of the BYTE code concept. As mentioned before, the JAVAC compiles the java source code and converts it into the bytecode. It doesn’t convert the source code into machine code like that of the C/C++ compiler. This bytecode is further converted into machine-dependent form by another software called JVM. This JVM can execute bytecode on any platform, regardless of the original machine bytecode.

Java is an Interactive language

Why Java is considered to be Interactive? Because Character User Interface (CUI) and Graphical User Interface (GUI) both are supported by Java. The interactive performance of graphical applications increases while using Java. Example of such a software where Java based designing is used is Android Studio.

Java is a multithreaded language

A thread is an independent path taken while a program is being executed. Multithreaded means handling multiple paths or tasks simultaneously of the same program. Due to share the same memory space. Thus performance of complicated applications is boosted.

High performance

Being a language which is both compiled and interpreted, Java is faster than many traditional interpreted programming languages. This is because the Java bytecode is very close to the native code. Although, Java is still a bit slower than other compiled languages like C++. To understand this, let’s look at what Interpreter and Compiler means.

The software, by which the conversion of the high level instructions is performed line by line to machine level language, is known as an Interpreter. If an error is found on any line, the execution stops till it is corrected. This process of correcting error is easier but the program takes longer time to execute successfully.

Whereas, if all the instructions are converted to machine level language at once and all the errors are listed together, then the software is known as Compiler. This process is much faster but sometimes it becomes difficult to correct all the errors together in a program.

Security

Java Programming language is more secured than C or C ++ language, as one can’t explicitly create pointers in Java as compared to C or C++. Thus one can’t gain access to a particular variable if it is not initialized properly. Java also supports access modifiers, which can check memory access and also prevent viruses from entering an applet.

Robust

Java is capable of handling runtime errors, has a strong memory management system. It helps in eliminating errors in code during compilation time and runtime. Java falls under garbage collected language category, as the JVM automatically de-allocates the memory blocks unlike that of C or C++.

Java also supports exception handling which identifies runtime errors and eliminates them. The JVM terminates the program immediately as soon as it encounters any runtime error. This prevents causing any harm to the underlying system.

Dynamic and Extensible

Dynamic and extensible means one can add classes and add new methods to classes with the help of Object Oriented Programming. This is available in JAVA. It makes easier for programmers to expand their own classes and ever modify them. Java is highly dynamic in nature as it can adapt to its evolving environment.

Distributed

Java is considered to be distributed as it encourages users to create distributed applications. A distributed application consists of at least one local or remote clients who communicates using at least one server on several machines linked through a network. With the help of such an application, one can conduct business operations from anywhere in the world. A programmer sitting on one machine can access a program which is running on another machine from any geographical location.

Working Of The Jquery Param() With Examples

Introduction to jQuery param()

In jQuery, param() is a function defined as the Ajax method, which is used for representing the continuous string of an object or an array; while making the Ajax request, the URL can use these serialized or continuous string values for calling the request. In general, we can define-param() function as a function for converting to the continuous string from the provided elements internally and if in case any plain object is passed which would properties like name or value that contains the input elements along with these properties and this function has the options to disable globally by setting the traditional value to true.

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Working of the jQuery param() with Examples

In this article, we will see the param() function of jQuery, which is an Ajax method for making the Ajax request; we need to use these serialized string obtained after applying this function to the elements internally, which contain the return value as a continuous string of an array or object. In jQuery, the param() function is used by the URL for making the Ajax request by converting the elements into the continuous string as the output of this param() function, or we can say this function returns the serialized string representation of an array or plain object.

Let us see syntax and examples of how to use this function:

Syntax:

$.param(object, traditional_style)

Parameters:

Object: This parameter is used to specify the string or object that needs to be serialized. This parameter needs to be specified compulsory.

Traditional: This parameter is used to specify the serialization styles of param() function that is required to use or not the traditional shallow style, which is a Boolean value to be specified, and this parameter is optional.

This function returns the converted serialized string representation of an array or an object that is passed to this function.

Let us consider an example of how to declare the param() function.

Example #1

Code:

Educba Training Institute <script src= EDUCBA Jquery $(document).ready(function() { jqpmobj = new Object(); jqpmobj.Fullword = “EDUCBA “; jqpmobj.Firstword = “Jquery “; jqpmobj.Secondword = “Param() “; jqpmobj.Thirdword = “Function “; jqpmobj.Wordcolor = “Blue”; $(“div”).text($.param(jqpmobj)); }); });

Output:

In the output, we can see each word is separated by “%20&” because we are specifying both for Fullwords and single word spaces are replaced by this in the above output. So in the above code, we have passed the object “jqpmobj”, so we must specify any name or value properties, and here it is “Fullword” or “Firstword”, etc. So this param() function when objects are passed these names or values parameters are added to the URL string, which is dynamically modified with the history API.

Now we will see an example with creating three objects and to display the decoded object, which is done using decodeURIComponent() in the below code.

Example #2

$(document).ready(function() { var com_obj1= new Object ({ p: [ 7, 1, 6 ] }); var com_obj2= new Object ({ p: { q: 7, r: 1, s: 6}, t: [ 3, 9] }); var com_obj3 = new Object({ p: {u: 4, v: 4}, w:[2, 8] }); var x = decodeURIComponent( $.param(com_obj1)); $(“#p1”).text(x); var y = decodeURIComponent( $.param(com_obj2)); $(“#p2”).text(y); var z = decodeURIComponent( $.param(com_obj3)); $(“#p3”).text(z); }); });

Output:

In the above code, we can see we are using the decoseURIComponent(), which is used for decoding the objects so which is a bit complex so; in the above code also we can see we are creating 3 objects and the decoded codes are as shown in the above screenshot of the output.

Conclusion

In this article, we conclude that the jQuery provides a function called param(), which is used for representing the array of objects in a serialized way. In this article, we saw how to declare and use the param() function with syntax and examples. In this article, we also saw an example with the simple creation of the object, and then in another example, we also saw the creation of complex objects and decoding the objects using param() and decodeURIComponent() function.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to jQuery param(). Here we discuss the introduction and working of the jQuery param() with examples, respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Working Of Jquery Reference In Jquery With Examples

Definition of jQuery Reference

In Jquery, reference is defined as a set provided by jquery which contains jquery events used for triggering methods, selectors, and properties, which are defined for selecting and converting HTML elements provided few methods for handling events for such selections which when the events are triggered when the methods are executed and this jquery reference have the ability where to make the navigation (top, down, right and left) of the HTML elements along with supporting of jquery effects such as sliding or fading or showing or any kind of animations in the web pages using HTML elements are all defined and are provided by the jquery reference in Jquery.

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Working of Reference in jQuery Examples

In the below section let us take one by one element of the jquery reference that contains methods, events, effects, selectors, utilities, etc along with examples:

Events Example

Code:

#circle { width: 150px; height: 150px; border-radius: 50%; background-color: green; margin: 200px 200px 200px 200px; } });

Output:

jQuery Reference manipulation methods Example

Code:

$(document).ready(function () { $(‘p’).append(‘Educba ‘); }); div{ border: 2px solid; background-color:blue; margin: 5px 0 5px 0; font-size:20px; }

Output:

In the above program, we can see we are using append(), prepend(), after(), and before() method where we have added the content after the h1 element which shown in cyan color, then we are adding content before second div tag which is shown in yellow color, then we add the content at beginning of the paragraph which gives prepended paragraph and then the paragraph content is appended with the word “Educba” and prints complete sentence “Welcome to Educba”. There are many such methods used for constructing such web pages.

Selectors

In jquery, it provides the main function which is used only when we are using jquery codes as we know before writing jquery code we start with $ symbol so this is called as factory function which has the syntax as “$()” where we can pass any name or element name, id, class, etc of tags that are defined in the HTML structure.

Example

Code:

<script type = “text/javascript” #circle { width: 150px; height: 150px; border-radius: 50%; background-color: green; margin: 10px; } .educbaclass { margin:50px; border :10px solid; } }); $(“p”).css(“background-color”, “yellow”);

In the above program, we can see we have declared a div tag and defined with id name as “circle” so we are using the selector on div tags which has id. Similarly, we have also defined a class name for paragraph “p” and we can see in the above code we are printing that selected paragraph with different CSS styles which can be done not only by the CSS syntax in HTML structure but also using jquery selector and function CSS() on paragraph tag. Therefore there are many such selectors that are used in jquery reference such as selecting multiple elements, selecting all the elements of DOM using universal selector, etc.

In jquery reference, there are effects which are used for animation effects in web pages such as animate(), fadIn(), fadeout(), hide(), show(), etc. In traversing reference can be used for movement of elements such as up, down, right, left, etc.

Conclusion Recommended Articles

This is a guide to jQuery Reference. Here we also discuss the Definition and Working of jQuery Reference in jQuery with Examples along with different examples and its code implementation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

What Are The Class Implementations Of List Interface In Java?

This article will help you understand what the key features of Java Programming language are.

Let us revise what is Interface in Java.

INTERFACE

Similar to an object, an Interface is a blueprint of a class. It consists of static constants and abstract methods. It is a mechanism to achieve abstraction and multiple inheritance in Java. It is declared using the interface keyword. It provides total abstraction, meaning all methods in an interface must be declared with empty body, and all fields must be public, static and final by default.

Syntax

LIST INTERFACE

The List interface in Java is a way of storing the ordered collection. It is considered as a child interface of Collection. Duplicate values can be stored in a List interface. It preserves the insertion order, allowing inserting of elements and element position accessing. This interface is found in the chúng tôi package.

Syntax CLASS IMPLEMENTATION OF LIST INTERFACE

Let us discuss about the classes which implements the list interface. They are as follows −

AbstractList

The AbstractList class is used to create an unmodifiable list. To create such a list, one needs to extend this AbstractList class and implement the get() and size() methods only.

AbstractSequentialList

The AbstractSequentialList is used to implement the Collection interface and AbstractCollection class. It is similar to that of the AbstractList. It also creates an unmodifiable list.

ArrayList Example

Creation of List object using Array List Class

import

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public

class

ListObjArrayList

{

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

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args

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int

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}

}

Output [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10] 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 CopyOnWriteArrayList

This class implements the list interface. This class is an upgraded version of the ArrayList class where all modifications like add, set, remove, etc. are implemented by making a new copy of the list.

LinkedList

This class is implemented in the collection framework. It inherently implements the linked list data-structure. This class has characteristics of a linear data structure, where every element is a separate object with its individual data and address part. Each element is linked with the help of pointers and addresses. Insertion and deletion operations are easy to perform here, that’s why they are preferred over the arrays.

Example

Creation of List object using Linked List Class.

import

java

.

util

.

*

;

public

class

ListObjLinkedList

{

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

]

args

)

{

int

n

=

10

;

for

(

int

i

=

1

;

i

<=

n

;

i

++

)

{

link

.

add

(

i

)

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}

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.

out

.

println

(

link

)

;

link

.

remove

(

5

)

;

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.

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.

println

(

link

)

;

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(

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j

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link

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size

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++

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{

System

.

out

.

print

(

link

.

get

(

j

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+

” “

)

;

}

}

}

Output [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10] 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 Stack

This class is implemented in the collection framework and extends the vector class. It implements the Stack data structure. This class works on the principle Last in First out (LIFO). Other than the basic push and pop operations, this class also provides the empty, search and peek functions.

Example

Creation of List object using Stack Class

import

java

.

util

.

*

;

public

class

StackObj

{

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

]

args

)

{

int

n

=

10

;

for

(

int

i

=

1

;

i

<=

n

;

i

++

)

{

st

.

add

(

i

)

;

}

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.

out

.

println

(

st

)

;

st

.

remove

(

5

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.

out

.

println

(

st

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j

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size

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{

System

.

out

.

print

(

st

.

get

(

j

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+

” “

)

;

}

}

}

Output [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10] 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 Vector

This class is implemented in the collection framework. It implements grow able array of objects, which can also be called as a dynamic array. This array can grow or shrink as required. Vectors belong in Legacy classes of Java, but currently they are fully compatible with collections.

Example

Creation of List object using Vector Class

import

java

.

util

.

*

;

public

class

ListObjVector

{

public

static

void

main

(

String

[

]

args

)

{

int

n

=

10

;

for

(

int

i

=

1

;

i

<=

n

;

i

++

)

{

vec

.

add

(

i

)

;

}

System

.

out

.

println

(

vec

)

;

vec

.

remove

(

5

)

;

System

.

out

.

println

(

vec

)

;

for

(

int

j

=

0

;

j

<

vec

.

size

(

)

;

j

++

)

{

System

.

out

.

print

(

vec

.

get

(

j

)

+

” “

)

;

}

}

}

Output [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10] 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10

Top 5 Constructors Of Runtimeexception In Java

Introduction to Java RuntimeException

Exceptions are the ones thrown when any error is encountered while running a code in Java. RuntimeException in java is the one which is called the parent class of all the exceptions in the Java programming language, which will either crash or break down during the execution of the program or the application as and when they occur. But as compared to other exceptions, these are different and cannot be caught by specifying in the code like for others.

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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Working of RuntimeException in Java Constructors of RuntimeException in Java

Below are the constructors of RuntimeException:

Syntax:

public RuntimeException()

The cause here will not be initialized and can be done by calling to the class Throwable.initCause (java.lang.Throwable).

2. RuntimeException (String msg): This also throws a new runtime exception but has the defined detail message we have provided in the Java code.

Syntax:

public RuntimeException (String msg)

Same as the above function, the cause will not be initialized by default, and the same can be done by calling Throwable.initCause (java.lang.Throwable). The msg here is the detail message, which will be saved to retrieve later by the Throwable.getMessage () method.

3. RuntimeException (String msg, Throwable cause): This throws a new runtime exception with the defined error message and its cause.

Syntax:

public RuntimeException (String message, Throwable cause)

Note that the msg here is not automatically included and has to be specified explicitly. Here, the cause is fetched from the Throwable.getCause () function, and here a null value is allowed, which symbolises that its cause does not exist or is unknown.

4. RuntimeException (String msg, Throwable cause, booleanenableSupp, booleanwritableStack): This gives a new runtime exception with the described error message in detail, its specific cause, enableSupp representing whether its suppression has been enabled or disabled, and the writableStack being its stack trace if it is enabled or disabled.

Syntax:

protected RuntimeException (String message, Throwable cause, booleanenableSuppression, booleanwritableStackTrace)

This gives a new runtime exception with the defined cause and a specified detail message, its cause, whether the suppression is enabled or disabled, and if the writable stack trace has been enabled or not. The message here is the specific message we are displaying, the cause indicating whether it exists or not, enableSuppression indicates whether suppression is allowed or not, and writableStackTrace specifies whether the stack trace should be writable or not.

5. RuntimeException (Throwable cause): This throws a new runtime exception with the given cause and specified detailed error message of the condition (cause==null ? null : cause.toString ()), which basically has the class and its particular cause message.

Syntax:

public RuntimeException (Throwable cause)

The cause is kept for later fetching by the Throwable.getCause () method, and when a null value is permitted, it indicates that its cause is not known.

How to Avoid RuntimeException in Java?

The method we do to avoid such exceptions is called exception handling. It is one of the most fundamental things a developer should keep in mind while coding as the entire code will be useless if an exception occurs and if it cannot handle the same.

We use certain clauses called the throw and throw to handle checked exceptions in Java. Runtime exceptions usually occur because of the input being given faulty and cause exceptions like ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException, IllegalArgumentException, NumberFormatException or a NullPointerException. Including these errors in code, handling does not make any change, but it can be used for the aske of documentation as a good practice.

public class AuthenticateUser extends RuntimeException { public AuthenticateUser (String msg) { super (msg); } } Examples

Below are the examples of 4 major kinds of Runtime exceptions:

Example #1 – ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException

This occurs when we request an index value of an array that is invalid or not available.

Code:

public class Main { public static void main (String[] args) { intip[] = {16, 17, 18, 19, 20}; for (inti=0; i<=ip.length; i++) System.out.println (ip[i]); } }

Output:

As seen in this example, in the input array has its index value from 0 to 4. But in this for loop, the length of the array retrieved will be 5, and when that is tried to access in the array, it will throw the ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException during RunTime of the code.

Example #2 – IllegalArgumentException

The cause of this exception is when the argument format provided is invalid.

Code:

public class Main { inti; public void getMark (int score) { throw new IllegalArgumentException (Integer.toString (score)); else i = score; } public static void main (String[] args) { Main t = new Main (); t.getMark (30); System.out.println (t.i); Main t1 = new Main (); t1.getMark (120); System.out.println (t1.i); } }

Output:

Example #3 – NumberFormatException

This exception is usually thrown when a string is to be converted to a numeric value like either float or integer value, but the form of the string given as input is either illegal or inappropriate.

Code:

public class Main { public static void main (String[] args) { inti = Integer.parseInt (null); } }

Output:

In this example, we are giving the input string to be parsed into an integer as null. Hence the number format exception is thrown.

Example #4 – NullPointerException

This exception occurs when a reference object that the variable is referring to is null.

Code:

public class Main { public static void main (String[] args) { Object reference = null; reference.toString (); } }

Output:

In this example, we are creating an object called reference having a null value. The same object is being called for an operation, and hence this error is thrown.

Conclusion: Runtime exceptions are thrown at runtime and hence difficult to be detected during compile time. They are difficult to handle, and the throws clause can only be used to define them but not catch them.

Recommended Article

This is a guide to Java RuntimeException. Here we discuss the Introduction and how to Avoid RuntimeException in Java, and it’s Working along with its examples. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –

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