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Introduction to Jenkins Interview Questions And Answers

Jenkins is a software tool that is used for continuous integration of the development process. It is an open-source tool, readily available and written in Java. It is used as an automation tool to automate all the tasks in the software development process like coding, testing, and deployment. Jenkins can be used with almost all the plugins to make continuous integration smooth and working. Jenkins itself is not doing anything like checking code or testing, it just gives commands to plugins to run after completion of a particular task. It means Jenkins form a process of tasks to be done and that process of tasks is referred to as pipeline or Jenkins pipeline. When one task gets successfully completed in the pipeline then other tasks will get started and so on.

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Jenkins is just an orchestrator, which makes the life of the developer easier to keep track of successful builds and integrate changes continuously and rectify the defects on time. Jenkins is also referred as CI tool (Continuously integrated tool). Continuous integration is a process where every team member is working on different modules and at the end of the day everyone is committing their changes in SCM (Source code management, where the code is centralized for a team) and to check the integrated code working fine or tested on daily basis.

So you have finally found your dream job in Jenkins but are wondering how to crack the 2023 Jenkins Interview and what could be the probable Jenkins Interview Questions. Every interview is different and the scope of a job is different too. Keeping this in mind we have designed the most common Jenkins Interview Questions and Answers to help you get success in your interview.

Below are some of the Jenkins Interview Questions that are frequently asked in the interview are as follows:

Part 1 – Jenkins Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Jenkins interview questions and answers.

1. Define the process of Jenkins?

Please start with the brief introduction about Jenkins as explained above in the introduction section. The process of Jenkins is as follows:

In the Source code management repository, developers need to commit their code on daily basis or as per the team’s instructions because Jenkins checks the repository changes at regular intervals. SCM can be GIT, SVN, and TFS. GIT and SVN are widely used nowadays.

After committing the changes, Jenkins will detect the changes from a repository, will pull the changes and process of new build will be started.

It will iterate through the different stages that are mentioned in the Jenkins pipeline. If one stage will get successfully completed then it will go to another task or stage.

If particular stage fails, Jenkins build also stop there and it will not proceed further. Jenkins has a feature to send the email notification to a concerned team or to a particular email id, which has been configured for Jenkins.

If all the stages will successfully be completed then it deploys the code in particular mentioned server and testing will get started.

If testing stage gets passed successfully, Jenkins will share the results with the team. The whole process keeps on iterating whenever code will be committed in SCM.

2. Mention pre-requisites for using Jenkins?

Pre-requisites are:

Access to source code management repository like GIT or SVN repository.

Build script that should be working like mavens builds script.

3. Explain the terms Agent, post-section, Jenkins file?

Agent: – It is directive to tell Jenkins to execute the pipeline in particular manner and order.

Post-section: – If we have to add some notification and to perform other tasks at the end of a pipeline, post-section will definitely run at the end of every pipeline’s execution.

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Advantages of using Jenkins are:

Do not need to check the code and start to build manually.

Whenever there are changes in source code, an automatic build will get started.

If there are any build failures, automatic email sends to concerned team.

Bugs or defects can be easily tracked and resolved at early stages.

Helps in achieving the continuous integration agile development and test-driven development.

It makes the process faster and smoother.

5. What is the use of pipelines in Jenkins?

Pipeline plugin is used in Jenkins for making the Jenkins Pipeline, which gives us the view of stages or tasks to perform one after the other in pipeline form. It models a series of related tasks. Pipelines help the teams to review, edit and iterate upon the tasks. Pipelines are durable and it can optionally stop and wait for human approval as well to start the next task. A pipeline is extensible and can perform work in parallel. It supports complex CD requirements.

6. Mention the steps to set up Jenkins Job?

The steps are:

Go to Jenkins page, select ‘new job’

Enter the name of the job and choose ‘build free-style project’.

Put the details of SVN or GIT repository, where the source code has been placed.

Provide all other information regarding plugins that are required using in a project like for unit testing, code coverage, code quality.

Mention the build tool script like Maven script.

Collect the information regarding results

Configure the steps to send the notifications via emails, etc.

Part 2 – Jenkins Interview Questions (Advanced) 7. How do you start the Jenkins manually?

Open the command line prompt and go to Jenkins installation directory.

‘Jenkins.exe start’ command helps in starting the Jenkins.

‘Jenkins.exe restart’ to restart Jenkins and ‘Jenkins.exe stop’ to stop Jenkins.

8. Mention steps to copy/move Jenkins from one server to other?

The steps are as follows:

Copy the whole Jenkins directory from the first server and paste it to other servers.

Make a copy of existing job by cloning a job directory with a different name.

Rename an existing job by renaming the directory.

9. How to create a backup for Jenkins?

Take periodically back up of JENKINS_HOME directory by just copy this directory to other places. Rename, clone and replication of job can also be done.

10. How can we schedule build in Jenkins?

Whenever a change is committed in a repository, scheduled at a specified time, build manually and other builds get completed.

11. Which plugins are useful in Jenkins?

Some plugins are listed below:

Maven (build tool)


Selenium (continuous testing)

Amazon EC2

Puppet (configuration management)

Nagios (Continuous monitoring)

Copy artifact

HTML publisher

12. How do you secure Jenkins?


Global security should be enabled.

Jenkins should be integrated with appropriate plugins.

Automate the process of setting rights and privileges.

Limit the physical access to folders.

Periodically run security audits.

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Top 10 Express Js Interview Questions And Answers Updated For 2023

Introduction Express JS Interview Questions And Answers

Express.js is a free and open supply software system and internet application framework for Node JS that was designed for the event of internet applications and API’s. It’s additionally the quality server framework for Node JS. It is developed by TJ Holowaychuk on 16th November 2010. At the side of the MongoDB info and Angular JS frontend framework, Express JS is that the backend a part of the MEAN stack. With the assistance of this, you’ll be able to manage everything from routes to handling requests and views. It even provides a sturdy set of options for numerous internet and mobile applications.

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It will be accustomed to style a single-page, multi-page and hybrid internet application.

It permits to set up middle ware’s to retort to HTTP Requests.

It defines a routing table that is employed to perform completely different actions supported HTTP technique and address.

It permits to dynamically render HTML Pages supported passing arguments to templates.

It is Ultra-fast I/O

It is an Asynchronous and single rib

It has MVC like structure

It is strong API makes routing simple

So if you have finally found your dream job in Express JS but are wondering how to crack the 2023 Express JS Interview and what could be the probable Express JS Interview Questions. Every interview is different and the scope of a job is different too. Keeping this in mind we have designed the most common Express JS Interview Questions and answers to help you get success in your interview.

Below are the highest rated Express JS Interview Questions queries that are largely asked in an interview. These high rated questions are divided into two parts which are as follows:

Part 1 – Express JS Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Express JS Interview Questions and answers

1. What do you mean by Express JS and what is its use?

Express JS Use – chúng tôi could be a light-weight internet application that helps in organizing the net application into MVC design on the server aspect.

2. Write the steps for setting up an Express JS application?

Following are the steps accustomed for An Express JS application:

A folder with a constant name because the project name is made.

A file named chúng tôi is made within the folder created.

“npm install” command is run on the electronic communication. It installs all the libraries gift in package.json.

A file named chúng tôi is made.

“Router” file is made within the package that consists of a folder named index.js.

“App” is made within the package that has the chúng tôi file.

Let us move on to the next Express JS Interview Questions

3. What function are arguments available to Express JS route handlers?

The arguments which are available to an Express JS route handler-function are-

Req: the request object

Res: the response object

Next (optional): a function that is employed to pass management to 1 of the following route handlers.

The third argument is optional and should be omitted, however, in some cases, it’s helpful wherever there’s a series of handlers and management will be passed to 1 of the following route handlers skipping this one.

4. How to Config properties in Express JS?

In Express JS, there are 2 ways that for configuring the properties:

With process.ENV:

A file with the name “.env” is to be created within the project folder.

All the properties are to be other within the “.env” file.

Any of the properties will be employed in server.js.

A file with the name “config.json” is to be created within the config folder within the project folder.

The config properties are to be present within the chúng tôi file.

Now, ought to be accustomed access the chúng tôi file.

5. How Should I Structure my Express JS Application?

Routes and alternative application-Express logic will board as several files as you would like, in any directory structure you favor. Read the subsequent examples for inspiration:

Route listings

Route map

MVC vogue controllers

Also, there are third-party extensions for Express JS applications that modify a number of these patterns:

Resourceful routing

Part 2 – Express JS Interview Questions (Advanced) 6. How to allow CORS in Express JS? Explain with an example?

In order to permit CORS in chúng tôi add the subsequent code in server.js:

For Example:

app.all('*', function(req, res, next) { res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Origin', '*'); res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Methods', 'GET, POST, DELETE, PUT'); res.set('Access-Control-Allow-Headers', 'X-Requested-With, Content-Type'); if ('OPTIONS' == req.method) return res.send(200); next(); }); 7. How to enable debugging in express app?

In different operative Systems, we’ve got following commands:

On UNIX operating system the command would be as follows:

$ DEBUG=express:* node index.js set DEBUG=express:* & node index.js

From Webstrome IDE

C:Program Files (x86)JetBrainsWebStorm 2024.2.4binrunnerw.exe" "C:Program Filesnodejsnode.exe" --debug-brk=61081 --expose_debug_as=v8debug E:Developmentnodejdlibrareybinwww 8. Explain Error Handling In chúng tôi Using An Example?

From Express 4.0 Error handling is easier. The steps are as following:

Create a middleware as following:

app.use(function(err, req, res, next) solely providing error in development res.locals.message = err.message; res.locals.error ='env') === 'development' ? err : ; res.render('error'); });

Install Error Handler Middleware:

Install errorhandler

npm install errorhandler --save

Create a variable

var e errorhandler = require('errorhandler')

Use the middleware as following:

if (process.env.NODE_ENV === 'development') solely use in development app.use(errorhandler()) } function errorNotification(err, str, req) power unit title = 'Error in ' + req.method + ' ' + req.url notifier.notify() } 9. What is the use of next in Express JS?

The argument could also be omitted, however, is beneficial in cases wherever you have got a series of handlers and you’d wish to pass management to 1 of the following route handlers, and skip this one.

app.get('/user details/:id?', function(req, res, next));

Req and Res: It represents the request and response objects

Next: It passes management to a consecutive matching route.

10. How to Redirect 404 Errors to A Page In ExpressJS?

In chúng tôi add the subsequent code to send 404 errors back to a page in our ExpressJS App:

/* Define fallback route */ app.use(function(req, res, next) { res.status(404).json({errorCode: 404, errorMsg: "route not found"}); }); Recommended Articles

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Behavioral Job Interview Questions And Answers Updated For 2023

Behavioral Job Interview Questions and Answers

Why are behavioral job interview questions being asked in an interview? Because companies value performance and not sweet talk! Communication is of utmost importance, but performance is the most significant indicator of a potential employee’s worth.

Performance can be termed ‘behavior in a key situation that directly or indirectly affects a company’s return on investment’.

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So, if ‘behavior in a significant situation’ is not judged in an interview, the interviewer wouldn’t understand how valuable the potential employee would be if hired.

This article will look at a few famous behavioral job interview questions and give a pep talk about how to handle them. Some are tricky, and some are significantly easier than I thought.

You would also get guidance about how to handle any behavioral job interview questions in an interview. If you read this article, you will understand what to do when facing behavioral job interview questions, and you will eventually get better at facing them.

The foundation behind behavioral job interview questions

Usually, there are five types of behavioral job interview questions that are being asked. We would start talking about them in a minute. But for now, we need to give more info about behavioral job interview questions to create the foundation.

Always remember that behavioral job interview questions are basically about your past performances and capacities. So, the questions would typically revolve around things that you did in the past, in your past companies, in your past project, etc.

Be prepared. The behavioral job interview questions would be on the past, but the rationale for asking you questions about your past is to test your future.

What if they hire you and you don’t have the qualities and capacities they seek to have in you? What then? That’s why they test you by asking you one or several behavioral job interview questions.

If you’re prudent enough, you will prepare yourself beforehand for behavioral job interview questions and will become a star performer in an interview.

Five Types of behavioral job interview questions and How to deal with them

There are five types, basically. If you prepare them well, you are done.

Failure interview questions:

Most interviewers love to wear black hats and have a sneak pick of your experience. So how would they have a closer look? Simply by asking you questions about your failures, sometimes your biggest failures.

They will ask you like –

“What was the biggest failure in your past job, and how did you handle it?”

“Tell me about a team project you worked on, and it failed drastically.”

“What do you regret doing in a project that you don’t want to repeat in any future project?”

The best way to deal with these behavioral job interview questions is to accept the questions upfront. Be prepared for these failure questions and tell the interviewers that the biggest failures have led you to your greatest successes.

Tell them by example how you showed leadership in the team even when there was little or no hope for turning it around. Ensure you’re not using the falsehood channel to answer the question.

That’s why preparing yourself for these typical failure questions is very necessary.

There’s an issue while answering these failure-related questions. You must tactfully manage the failure while highlighting your leadership trait to turn it around. If you emphasize more on the failure, you will fail to create an impact on the interviewer.

Avoid all phrases like “couldn’t be”, “impossible”, and “failure”; rather, use phrases like “challenges”, “possible”, “success rate”, etc. No matter what you say, your theme of talk should tend toward positivity and emphasize your role in the project’s success.

Don’t forget to appreciate the effort of your project members as well. As a whole, you need to create an impression that you’re the perfect person to take charge of the position you’re giving the interview for.

Handling Conflict Interview Questions:

Handling conflict is one of the greatest skills ever in a professional arena. Thus, the interviewers want to know how you handle conflict. And the best way to know about the conflict for them is to ask you for real-life examples.

They will ask you questions like –

Tell me about a situation where you handled conflict well.

If you were in a situation where you needed to handle a tough boss, how would you do it and make the project successful?

Add a few words to your depiction of events so that you can highlight your role in it and then answer. If any question is asked about the future or a situation, link it to past experience. It will create more impact, and the interviewer will be able to trust you.

Problem-Solving Interview Questions:

Business exists only because there are problems. Without problems, businesses can’t exist because business is another name for providing solutions to those who have faced problems.

So, any business needs someone excellent at solving problems. But how would they know that about you? They will only be able to figure out just by asking you questions in the face-to-face interview.

People call it situational analysis when they go out and carry out the exact thing they would do in an actual situation. So in problem-solving interview questions, the interviewers will put you in the situation to analyze how good you’re in problem-solving.

The questions they may ask –

Give me an example where you used your critical thinking to come out of a crisis situation in your previous organization.

Tell about the 3 biggest challenges you faced in your professional career and how you used your creativity to come out of those.

You can best handle these behavioral job interview questions to showcase creativity in everything you present in the interview. Pay close attention to the project you present, your resume, and how you represent your achievements.

Remember, everything counts. Of course, you must prepare beforehand for the situations you will talk about, but the most important thing is that your walk should match your talk.

Teamwork Interview questions:

Teamwork is very important if any organization wants to pull a successful project. However, successful projects require teamwork that prioritizes synergy, leveraging strengths, and underpromising and over-delivering. So how to understand whether the candidate is excellent at teamwork or not? The following things will clearly point out.

The candidate should have the characteristic of empathy. If s/he doesn’t understand what others feel in a given situation, it would be difficult to work with them and ensure peace.

The candidate should know how a group forms, goes through a storm, in the beginning, adjusts by applying a few norms, then how they perform, and at the end adjourn. If s/he is not clear about the structure of the group, then it would be difficult for him/her to be a good team member.

The candidate should value the opinions of other members as much as his/her own. If not, then there will be no team.

Amid the crisis, bonding is more important than saving own interest. The candidate should be aware of that.

To find out the ideal candidate for teamwork, the interviewers will ask several behavioral job interview questions like –

Tell us any situation you faced in your last company where you showed extraordinary teamwork.

How did you handle the crisis as a team during the product launch?

When did you last value one of your team members’ efforts more than yours?

These are tricky questions, and if you don’t know the basic principles of teamwork or have never worked in a team, it would be difficult for you to answer. Instead, see the list above and use the list as a benchmark for your answers.

Leadership Interview Questions:

If you’re not in a leadership position, you may think these questions aren’t for you. But according to the 2nd Leadership Guru in the world, Robin Sharma – “If you can breathe, you can lead.” So, even if you’re not in any top position in a company, these questions are equally applicable to you.

The interviewers want to know how you’ve shown leadership in the past and how you can do it now in the job. So, they will ask you questions like –

How did you show leadership when the chances of failure were high? Give us an example or two.

Do you feel inspired to do the work you do? Why?

If you were not paid to do the work you do, would you still continue to do it for contribution?

“Leadership is a great trait in professional life” – prove the statement by giving an example from your own professional life.

Leadership can be learned. And the moment you let go of mediocrity and embrace excellence, you will show leadership in your work that day.

Preparing answers is good, but you need to make sure you believe in leadership. The people who don’t believe in leadership are the ones who think leadership is a born talent, but it’s not.

How to guide

In the previous section, you learned about five types of behavioral job interview questions and how to deal with them. This is a general guide for you to apply to any behavioral job interview questions you face in any interviews.

Let’s dive in.

It’s called STAR.

Situation (S):

Understanding the situation before speaking is prudent. Pay close attention to the question of the interviewer and then assess how you can shape your answers to find relevance. Always remember that the recruiter is sitting there and asking questions because s/he wants to fulfill his/her purpose. Help him/her fulfill his/her purpose.

Task (T):

Sometimes, the situation is not given; interviewers emphasize the task more. While answering “task” questions, always emphasize your actions. In “situation” questions, the emphasis is on the event.

Approach (A):

Recruiters like people who give answers to behavioral job interview questions in the following way. First, they explain what happened. Then what did they do? And then why they did what they did. The incident should be explained briefly and preferably in bullet points to ensure clarity. Remember, your approach while dealing with behavioral job interview questions is of utmost importance. Your approach decides whether you will be selected for the job or not.

Results (R):

The whole world revolves around results. And as a business cannot run in a vacuum, the professionals need to create expected results to make the business go. Thus, the moment a candidate finishes his/her explanation of what s/he did and why the interviewers invariably ask – What result/s your actions brought? When they ask that question, they’re looking for an answer that would be specific and clarify all the doubt, like – “It increased the profit by 2.5% in that quarter” or “It reduced the overhead cost by 1% for the entire year.” Thus, it’s wise to keep a journal wherever you go to take note of the fact so that you can quote from there and make a strong impression.

If you follow the above four steps, dealing with any behavioral job interview questions and answers will be much easier.

The best part of dealing with them is while answering the questions, you also feel yourself more than you thought you were, and even if you don’t get selected for the job, you feel good about yourself for the next.

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Top 8 Big Data Interview Questions & Answers {Updated For 2023}

Introduction to Big Data Interview Questions and Answers

All kinds of data generated on the internet are termed Big Data; hundreds of GB of data are generated over the internet only by online activities. Online activity includes web activity, blogs, text, video/audio files, images, email, and social network activity. Big data needs specialized systems and software tools to process all unstructured data. Data that can be generated from these activities are termed Big Data. Big Data is extensive and distributed over the internet, and thus, significant data processing needs distributed systems and tools to extract information from them.

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These questions are divided into two parts:

Part 1 – Big Data Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic interview questions and answers:

Q1. What is the meaning of big data, and how is it different?


Big data is the term used to represent all kinds of data generated on the internet. Hundreds of GB of data on the internet are generated only by online activity. Online activity implies web activity, blogs, text, video/audio files, images, email, social network activity, etc. Big data can be referred to as data created from all these activities. Data generated online is mostly in unstructured form. Big data will also include transaction data in the database, system log files, and data generated from smart devices such as sensors, IoT, RFID tags, and so on, in addition to online activities.

Big data needs specialized systems and software tools to process all unstructured data. In fact, according to some industry estimates, almost 85% of data generated on the internet is unstructured. Relational databases typically have a structured format, and we centralize the database. Hence, we can quickly process RDBMS using a query language like SQL. On the other hand, big data is very large and distributed across the internet; hence, processing big data will need distributed systems and tools to extract information from them. Big data needs specialized tools such as Hadoop, Hive, or others, along with high-performance hardware and networks to process them.

Q2. What are the characteristics of big data?


Big data has three main characteristics: Volume, Variety, and Velocity.

Volume characteristic refers to the size of data. We estimate that people generate over 3 million GB of data daily. Processing this data volume is impossible in a normal personal computer or a client-server network in an office environment with limited computing bandwidth and storage capacities. However, cloud services provide solutions to handle big data volumes and process them efficiently using distributed computing architectures. Variety characteristic refers to the format of big data – structured or unstructured. Traditional RDBMS fits into the structured format.

An example of an unstructured data format is a video file format, image file, plain text format, web document, or standard MS Word document; all have unique formats, and so on. Also to note, RDBMS cannot handle unstructured data formats. Furthermore, we must group and consolidate all this unstructured data, which creates a need for specialized tools and systems. In addition, we add data each day or each minute, and the data continues to grow continuously. Hence big data is more synonymous with variety. The velocity characteristic refers to the speed at which we create data and the efficiency required to process all the data.

In addition, other characteristics include veracity and value. Veracity determines the dependability and reliability of data, while value is the value organizations derive from processing big data.

Q3. Why is big data important for organizations?


This is the basic Big Data interview question asked in an interview. Big data is important because by processing big data, organizations can obtain insight information related to:

Cost reduction.

Improvements in products or services.

To understand customer behavior and markets.

Effective decision-making.

To become more competitive.

Q4. Name some tools or systems used in the big data processing.


Big data processing and analysis can be done using,






Part 2 – Big Data Interview Questions (Advanced) Q5. How can big data support organizations?


Better coordination with customers and stakeholders and resolving problems.

Improve reporting and analysis for product or service improvements.

Customize products and services to selected markets.

Ensure better information sharing.

Support in management decisions.

Identify new opportunities, product ideas, and new markets.

Gather data from multiple sources and archive them for future reference.

Maintain databases and systems.

Determine performance metrics.

Understand interdependencies between business functions.

Evaluate organizational performance.

Q6. Explain how big data can be used to increase business value.


While understanding the need for analyzing big data, such analysis will help businesses to identify their position in markets and help businesses to differentiate themselves from their competitors. For example, from the results of big data analysis, organizations can understand the need for customized products or potential markets for increasing revenue and value. Analyzing big data will involve grouping data from various sources to understand trends and information related to business. When organizations gather data from the right sources and analyze it in a planned manner, they can quickly generate business value and increase revenue by almost 5% to 20%. Some examples of such organizations are Amazon, Linkedin, Walmart, and many others.

Q7. What is big data solution implementation?


We implement big data solutions at a small scale first, based on a concept appropriate for the business. The business solution is scaled further from the prototype solution, which is the result. In a Big Data interview, interviewers commonly ask these popular Big Data interview questions.

Some of the best practices followed in the industry include,

To have clear project objectives and to collaborate wherever necessary.

Gathering data from the right sources.

We must ensure we do not skew the results because skewed results can lead to wrong conclusions.

To prepare for innovation, we should consider hybrid approaches in processing that include data from structured and unstructured types, as well as internal and external data sources.

Understand the impact of big data on existing information flows in the organization.

Q8. What are the steps involved in big data solutions?


Big data solutions follow three standard steps in their implementation. They are:

Data ingestion: This step will define extracting and consolidating data from multiple sources. For example, data sources include social network feeds, CRM, RDBMS, etc. We store the data extracted from different sources in a Hadoop-distributed file system (HDFS).

Data storage: This is the second step; the extracted data is stored. This storage can be in HDFS or HBase (NoSQL database).

Process the data: This is the last step. We must process the data stored. We use tools like Spark, Pig, MapReduce, and others to process the data.

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10 Essential Iot Interview Questions And Answers {Updated For 2023}

Introduction to IoT Interview Questions and Answers

Benefits of IoT

Allows IOT devices to remotely control over the Internet, thus it creates opportunities to connect directly and integrate the physical world to the computer-based systems using internet and sensors.

The major benefits for IoT are:

Improved customer engagement: IoT improves customer experience by automating the action. E.g. Any issue in the car will be automatically detected by sensors. The driver, as well as the manufacturer, will be notified about it.

Technical optimization: IOT has helped in improving technologies and improving them.

Reduced waste: Our current insights are superficial, but IoT provides real-time information leading to effective decision making and management of resources.

Now, if you are looking for a job which is related to IoT then you need to prepare for the 2023 IoT Interview Questions. It is true that every interview is different as per the different job profiles. Here, we have prepared the important IoT Interview Questions and Answers which will help you get success in your interview.

In this 2023 IoT Interview Questions article, we shall present 10 most important and frequently used IoT interview questions. These interview questions are divided into two parts are as follows:

Part 1 – IoT Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.

Q1. What are the main parts of IoT systems?

IoT system consists of three main parts:


Network connectivity

Data storage applications.

Q2. What are security concerns related to IoT?

This is the common IoT Interview Questions asked in an interview. Data security and privacy are major concerns related to IoT. These devices are vulnerable to hacking and cloud endpoints could be used by hackers to attack servers. Software developers and device designers have to ensure adequate security and privacy measures.

Q3. Explain the IoT protocol stack.

IoT has 4 protocol layers:

Sensing and information: Includes various smart sensor devices based on GPS, RFID, Wi-Fi, etc.

Network connectivity: Layer is based on a wired and wireless network such as WLAN, WMAN, Ethernet, optical fiber and more.

Information processing layer

Application layer

Q4. Explain the basic architecture of the IoT network.

IoT has three main parts namely sensors, network connectivity and data storage applications. Sensors either communicate directly with the central server for data storage or communicate via gateway devices. A gateway can handle various wireless interfaces that’s why one gateway can handle multiple technologies and multiple sensors. The typical wireless technologies used widely are Zigbee, Zwave, RFID, NFC etc. gateway interfaces with the cloud using wireless or wired technologies such as Wi-Fi, Mobile or Fiber, DSL.

To finalize the IoT hardware architecture following aspects are required to study:

Type of sensors/actuators.

Communication interface type.

Amount of data to be captured and transmitted.

A frequency of data transportation.

IoT software architecture is based on open source components like Arduino, Linux (Raspberry Pi)

Q5. Explain Bluetooth Low Energy protocol for an IOT?

Nokia originally introduced this protocol as wibree in 2006. Additionally, known as Bluetooth smart this protocol presents the same range coverage with a good deal of decreased strength intake because of the unique Bluetooth. It has comparable bandwidth with narrow spacing utilized by ZigBee. Low electricity latency and decrease complexity makeable greater appropriate to include into low-cost microcontrollers.

Part 2 – IoT Interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. What is the top 5 Machine to Machine (M2M) applications in the world?

They are as follows:

Asset tracking and monitoring in some form or some other (stolen automobiles, fleet, construction system, and many others seems to be the biggest.

Insurance telematics is huge as it gives insurance groups the possibility to cut the threat and force higher/extra appealing pricing.

Utilities/automatic meter reading/clever grids – plenty of regulation and funding into this in the intervening time. There a plenty of countrywide solutions because the requirements and business case are driven in very numerous ways.

Automotive is also very big and is driven by consumer’s demand.

mHealth is also present in small scale.

Q7. How might Internet Address (IPv6) affect the development and implementation of the Internet of Things?

This is the most popular IoT Interview Questions asked in an interview. A barrier to the improvement of IoT is the technical boundaries of the version of the network protocol(IP) that is used most widely. IP is the set of rules that computers use to ship and receive statistics via the internet, including a specific address that every connected device or item should have to speak. Model four (ipv4) is presently in widest use. It can accommodate about four billion addresses and its miles near saturation, with few new addresses available in many parts of the sector.

Q8. What is the difference between a wireless sensor network (WSN) and the Internet of Things(IoT) network?

WSN: Wi-Fi sensor community is the foundation of IoT packages. WSN is a network of motes, fashioned to look at, to take a look at or to monitor bodily parameters of desired utility.

e.g. motes deployed in agricultural land, screen temp-humidity or maybe soil moisture, who gathers statistics and ideal statistics analysis procedure consequences approximately crop yields-high quality or amount.

IoT: IoT is a community of bodily objects managed and monitored over the internet. Now just as win, in its application, you will stumble upon the monitoring of physical parameters. But preferred results are little different. IoT is about M2M, it’s far greater than bringing smartness into daily gadgets.

e.g. device hooked in your thermostat monitors surrounding temperature and adjust it to maximum favored placing for.

Q9. What is meant by a smart city regarding the Internet of Things? Q10. What is Bluegiga APX4 protocol for an Internet of Things?

Bluegiga and wireless together may be used without interference as they are compliable to coexistence protocols. The bluegiga apx4 supports both Bluetooth and Wi-Fi and is based on a 450mhz arm9 processor.

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Top 7 Datastage Interview Question And Answers Updated For 2023

Introduction to Datastage Interview Questions

This is an outline of Datastage Interview Questions. DataStage (DS) is an ETL tool that can load data to any particular target after being extracted, transformed, and applied to business principles. Now we will be looking at a few questions and answers.

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Datastage Interview Questions

Here we will discuss the top questions and answers.

1. What is Datastage?


DataStage is a tool orchestrating jobs for Extraction, Transformation, and Loading (ETL). It is a very nice tool for data integration projects involving MDMs such as data warehouses, data marts, and system migrations.DataStage allows importing, exporting, creating, and managing metadata for use within jobs. It can even schedule, run and monitor jobs all within a workflow. And it also allows users to trigger multiprocessing jobs. GUI allows the Admin to Datastage development and execution environments.

2. What are the different Datastage Components?


The core DataStage client applications are common in all versions of Datastage; those are:

Administrator – Administers DataStage projects and manages global settings and interactions with the system and environment variables.

Designer – Designers are used to creating DataStage jobs concerning job sequences which are later compiled into executable programs. It is the main module for developers to work on.

Director – manages running and monitoring DataStage jobs. Operators and testers mainly use it.

Manager – for managing, browsing and editing the data warehouse metadata repository.

3. How to add stages in Datastage Jobs?

This procedure describes how to add stages to your job.

In the file section of the palette, select the Sequential File stage icon and drag the stage to your open job.

Position the stage on the right side of the job window. In the file section of the palette, select another Sequential File stage icon and drag the stage to your open job. Position the stage on the left side of the job window.

In the processing section of the palette, select the Transformer stage icon and drag the stage to your open job. Position the stage between the two Sequential File stages.

4. How to define your tables in Datastage?


When you save your column definitions as a table definition, the following naming rules apply:

1 Table names can be any length.

2 They must begin with an alphabetic character.

3 They can contain alphanumeric, period, and underscore characters.

5. How to define pre-configured stages in Datastage?

There is a special feature that you can use to paste components into a shared container and add the shared container to the palette. This feature allows you to have pre-configured stages ready to drop into a job. To paste a stage into a new shared container, select Edit Paste Special Into new Shared Container. The Paste Special into the new Shared Container dialog box appears. This allows you to select a folder and name for the new shared container, enter a description and optionally add a shortcut to the palette. If you want to cut or copy metadata along with the stages, you should select the source and destination stages, automatically selecting links and associated metadata. These can then be cut or copied and pasted as a group.

6. How to rename a routine in Datastage?


To rename an item, select it in the repository tree and do one of the following:

7. How to configure Operational Metadata as a routine in Datastage?


Suppose your mainframe job is going to generate operational metadata. In that case, you can specify the details of how the metadata will be handled on the Operational Metadata page of the Job Properties window. The Operational Metadata page has the following fields:

Machine Profile. If you have already specified a machine profile that contains some or all of the required details, you can select it from the drop-down list, and the relevant fields will be automatically filled in.

IP address. IP Host name/address for the machine running your program and generating the operational metadata.

File exchange method. Choose between FTP and connect direct.

User name. The user name for connecting to the machine.

The password for connecting to the machine v XML file target directory and Dataset name for the XML file. Specify the target directory and dataset name for the XML file, which will record the operational metadata.

Conclusion – Datastage Interview Questions

In this article Datastage Interview Questions, we have seen the top questions and answers for any candidate to crackdown in an interview.

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