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Introduction to PHP Versions

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Top PHP Versions

Given below are the top PHP versions:

1. PHP Version 1.0

As mentioned before, PHP development started way back in 1994 and was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf. He used C as a scripting language and wrote several Common Gateway Interface programs.

He originally used them to maintain his personal homepage. He later extended these code specs to work with web forms and databases. This upgraded implementation was called Personal Home Page or Forms interpreted.

This initial version of PHP already had several basic functionalities. It has form handling capabilities, Perl like variables and the ability to work with HTML. The syntax was also similar to; however, it was simpler but inconsistent.

2. PHP Version 2.0

The initial version of PHP, though not very refined gained a lot of popularity by the developer community when it was released for public usage in 1995.

As its popularity continued to grow, a formal developer team was formed to work on the inconsistencies of version 1.

Once the inconsistencies were overcome, the updated language was released as version 2 in 1997.

3. PHP Version 3.0

As PHP’s popularity grew, it attracted the attention of Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans.

In 1997, Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the internal PHP parser and formed the basic structure for PHP 3. The official launch of PHP 3 was done in June 1998 once the public testing was completed.

Later, Suraski and Gutmans started with re-write the core PHP and produced the Zend engine in 1999. This led to the foundation of Zend Technologies in Israel.

4. PHP Version 4.0

Finally, in the year 2000, PHP version 4 powered by Zend Engine 1 was released for public usage.

By 2008, PHP version 4 had evolved and reached 4.4.9. However, it is no more supported for security updates.

5. PHP Version 5.0 and 6.0

In 2004, this was released and was powered by Zend Engine 2.

It included several new features and better support for Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), PDO (PHP Data Objects) extension which provides a lightweight interface to programmers for accessing database and many other performance improvements.

It scaled up to version 5.6. In December 2023, official support for PHP security ended but Debian continued to provide security support until 2023.

When the developers started to use PHP 5 for the development of applications, it was realized that PHP 5.0 had insufficient support for Unicode encoding due to which the developer community had mixed opinions about it.

In 2005, Andrei Zmievski took charge to overcome this hindrance and launch a project to embed Unicode support throughout the PHP system.

In order to achieve this, he included the ICU i.e International Components for Unicode library across the basic PHP system. With this change, the text strings in PHP were internally represented as 16 bit Unicode Transformation Format or commonly known as UTF – 16.

The migration was partially completed, when it was realized that conversion to and from UTF – 16 could also cause several performance issues and eventually the project was midway abandoned. This exercise further stressed on the importance of an efficient method to embed Unicode support in PHP’s core.

In the month of March 2010, PHP’s version 6.0 was released with non-Unicode features like traits and closure binding. This update left the developer community hoping for efficient Unicode integration.

6. Current Version 7.0

During the period of 2023 and 2023, PHP underwent major changes and the update was released as PHP 7. The version number selected for rolling out this release has to face several debates.

In spite of the PHP Unicode project not officially released, several books had referencing included in them addressing it as PHP version 6. If an actual release would have been also rolled out as version 6, it would have caused confusion in the developer community. Hence, it was decided to release this update as version 7.0.

PHP 7 is based on phpng which stands for PHP next Generation. PHP Next Generation was an initiative by developers to overcome the high-performance constraints of previous PHP versions. The phpng branch served as the base branch for PHP version 7.0.

PHP 7 did provide several optimizations and performance improvements. It also included an in-build caching mechanism for better performance. But these could never match the performance a JIT compiler could provide.

As a result of this weakness, the probability of PHP websites to be hacked is higher than those built-in other languages. Since PHP is not very modular, it is not a favorable language for developing large applications. Also, PHP data types may surprise new programmers. For instance, the string “1000” is the same as “1e3” as they both cast to float type.

7. PHP version 7.3

PHP version 7.3 is a popular programming language used for web development. Released in December 2023, it brought several improvements and new features to enhance the efficiency and productivity of developers. Some notable features include flexible heredoc and now doc syntax, allowing for cleaner string handling. It introduced a trailing comma syntax in function calls, making it easier to add or remove parameters. PHP 7.3 also introduced improved JSON support, allowing for better handling of JSON data. Additionally, it included enhancements to error handling, performance improvements, and improved security with new functions and options. Overall, PHP 7.3 aimed to provide developers with more robust and efficient tools for building web applications.

8. php versions 7.4

PHP version 7.4 is a popular release of the PHP programming language, introduced on November 28, 2023. It brought several enhancements and new features to the language, making it more powerful and efficient. Some notable features include the introduction of arrow functions for concise anonymous functions, improvements in the typed properties feature, preloading for faster performance, support for typed properties in more contexts, and coalescing assignment operator. Additionally, PHP 7.4 introduced various language improvements and performance optimizations, resulting in faster execution and reduced memory consumption. Overall, PHP 7.4 offered developers new tools and capabilities to build robust and high-performance web applications.

9. php versions 8 and 8.4 (PHP 8, released in November 2023)

PHP versions 8 and 8.4 introduce several significant features and improvements to the language. PHP version 8, the 25th year of PHP history, introduced the JIT (Just-In-Time) compiler, providing better performance for certain types of code. It also introduced union types, allowing variables to have multiple acceptable types. The null safe operator was introduced, simplifying null value checks. Attributes were added, enabling developers to add metadata to classes, methods, and properties. PHP 8.1 added enhancements, including read-only properties, named arguments, and the str_contains() function. PHP 8.2 (November 24, 2023) and 8.3 introduced further optimizations, bug fixes, and smaller feature improvements. PHP 8.4, the latest version at the time of writing, focuses on stability and bug fixes, enhancing the overall reliability of the language. Coming soon, PHP 8.4, released in August 2023, is a subsequent update that builds upon PHP 8.


As seen above, from its first release itself, PHP has been very popular in the developer community despites it’s inconsistencies and performance issues. It is an easy to use language and its creators are committed to continuing PHP’s evolution to overcome these issues. The continuous improvement cycle of PHP has still kept many developers hooked to PHP as a web development language in spite of cutting edge competition from PHP peers like Python and Java.

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This is a guide to PHP Versions. Here we discuss the basic concept and top 9 PHP versions with their detailed explanation. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

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Download Latest Versions Of Hexway Products

Requirements Hive



8 GB


4 cores

Disk speed


Disk size

200 GB



4 GB


2 cores

Disk speed


Disk size

100 GB




4 GB


2 cores

Disk speed


Disk size

100 GB



4 GB


2 cores

Disk speed


Disk size

100 GB

How to install Hexway? Preparation

Before installation, prepare a virtual machine or server with one of the supported operating systems:

CentOS 8


Ubuntu 18.04

Ubuntu 20.04

Install Docker engine and Docker compose to the server or virtual machine.

Installing Hive

Download the installation file;

Execute the following command to grant all the necessary permissions to the installation file (optional):

To start installation, run the command:

Once installed, the platform will start automatically, and you will see the following message:

hexway Hive ready to use.

You can find more information about installing and updating the platform in Hive Installation guide.

Installing Apiary

Download the installation file;

Execute the following command to grant all the necessary permissions to the installation file (optional):

To start installation, run the command:

Once installed, the platform will start automatically, and you will see the following message:

hexway Apiary ready to use. Connection settings

Note: the following settings are required only if you need to create connection between Hive and Apiary projects.

To connect Hive and Apiary projects, add the following settings to the Apiary platform:

Edit file /opt/hw-fh/config/user.ini (root privileges required);

Add the following lines to the [main] section:

[main] ; rabbitmq port: chúng tôi = 5672 ; DNS name or IP address of the machine you install Apiary to:

To apply settings, run the following command (root privileges required):


Now you can connect Hive and Apiary projects (see sections: Hive project settings and Apiary project settings).

You can find more information about installing and updating the platform in Apiary Installation guide.

Learn Different Phases Of Devops Lifecycle

Introduction to DevOps Lifecycle

The development and operation teams collaborate on tasks to achieve faster software delivery in the DevOps Lifecycle, which comprises a set of phases. DevOps follows specific processes that include code, build, testing, release, deploying, operating, monitoring, and planning. DevOps lifecycle follows various phases: continuous development, integration, testing, monitoring, and feedback. Each phase of the DevOps lifecycle is associated with some tools and technologies to achieve the process. Business requirements drive implementation of commonly used tools, some of which are open source. As a result, the DevOps lifecycle is easy to manage and helps deliver quality.

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DevOps Lifecycle

Let’s discuss the DevOps lifecycle to understand how it performs all the tasks. Below is the diagram which shows the structure of the DevOps lifecycle.

1. Code: The first step in this DevOps lifecycle is coding. In this step, the developers write the code on any platform to develop the product for a customer.

2. Build: The second step is to build where the basic version of the product is built using a suitable programming language.

3. Test: The third step test where the built products are tested using the automation testing tools such as Selenium web driver, selenium RC, Bugzilla, etc.

4. Release: This step involves planning, scheduling, and controlling the built process in a different environment.

5. Deploy: All the deployment products and files are executed on the server.

6. Operate: After the deployment of the product or application, it is delivered to the customer for use where he uses that product or application for daily life purposes.

7. Monitor: In this step, the delivered products or application to a user has been monitored to note any uptime and downtime failures or errors.

Different Phases of DevOps Lifecycle

Below is the diagram showing various phases of the DevOps lifecycle.

Let’s discuss the phases of the DevOps life cycle to understand it in a better manner.

1. Continuous Development

In this development phase, the team develops objectives that must be delivered through the application. Once these project objectives are finalized, the development process of coding has been started. After development, it transfers to the next phase. As DevOps follows continuous development, it also works on the previous application to make changes according to the feedback and to meet the requirements.

2. Continuous Integration

After continuous development, the team enters the continuous integration phase, planning various tests for the upcoming phase. It helps us to find out whether the developed application meets the desired requirements or not.

3. Continuous Testing

The developed application is tested using automation tools in the continuous testing phase. Testers test the applications using different test cases and give results about various aspects of the product or application. The development team receives the results and uses them to improve the quality of the product or application.

4. Continuous Monitoring

Throughout the DevOps lifecycle, teams closely observe and record applications or products using various monitoring tools such as Splunk, ELK Stack, Nagios, and similar ones. This phase enables the identification of problem areas that require further analysis and improvement to enhance the working of the application or product. And if there are any problems, they will give them to the development team to solve them and detect and fix the bugs. This phase will focus on optimal performance and service uptime.

5. Continuous Feedback

By analyzing the results from all phases, including monitoring, testing, and others, the development of a product or application can be continually improved. This continuous feedback phase carries out this process. This phase comes in between the development and operation phases of the next version of the product or application.

The continuous feedback phase holds great importance in the DevOps lifecycle, as it provides feedback on the product or application after development and before delivery to the customer. So it is easy to remove that errors and improve the efficiency of the product or the application. It saves the time of the organization.


This method is easy to implement, and tasks can be arranged easily.

Because of its rigid model, DevOps is easy to manage.

Here, constant monitoring and debugging occur; hence it is less vulnerable and has fewer loopholes for errors.

This lifecycle may not be suitable when working with complex and object-oriented models.

This method does not accommodate changing requirements.


It is an efficient way of developing the application or product. It improves the organization’s efficiency and saves time by allowing the users or customers to directly contribute to the development process of the product or application through sharing continuous feedback.

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We hope that this EDUCBA information on “DevOps Lifecycle” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

9 Examples Of Highly Shareable Content

Social media is a powerful tool for marketers.

Unlike most forms of customer outreach and branding, it creates an opportunity to initiate and maintain a conversation with your targets. 

This, in turn, lets you speak directly to them, address their needs, and explain why you offer the best solution.

But to get this started, you have to have the type of content that will first get their attention and then encourage interactions. 

And for maximum exposure, you want something they’ll share.

This brand evangelizing lets you break out from your own circle of contacts and followers and tap into new groups to which you otherwise wouldn’t have been exposed. 

So, how do you create shareable content that others will want to repost?

That’s exactly what we’re going to look at in this guide. We’ll examine different types of shareable content, what makes content shareable, and give you examples of formats you can employ.

Ready to get started? Let’s go.

Creating Shareable Content

If you’re Beyoncé, you can probably skip this section.

For anyone else, who doesn’t have tens of thousands of adoring fans who will repost anything you share, let’s take a look at some of the common features you’ll find in highly-shared content:

It’s useful – People share content they find helpful with their friends and family, so they can also get help.

It’s entertaining or amusing – Everyone loves to laugh. If you can make your target audience laugh, they’ll pass on that tickling item to others.

It tells a compelling story – Since the first cavepeople gathered around a fire, humans have always loved discovering and sharing stories.

It takes a clear stance about your values – No one will retweet something that says, “Both sides raise valid points.” Don’t be afraid to take a stand if it aligns with your values. Others who agree will share it.

It has a visual component – While it can go viral with a text-only post, it’s a lot harder than something with a visual component.

It’s timely – Latching on to trending cultural topics will generate a lot more exposure than a stale and outdated reference or meme. This includes “Keep Calm & (literally anything)”, jokes about Harambe, and any references to “all the feels.”

It’s original – If you’re just recycling content that’s readily available, it will be largely ignored. Look for unique angles and make something new.

Now that we’ve discussed what makes content shareable, let’s dive into different types of content you can use to generate shares.

Types Of Sharable Content 1. Infographics

32.5% of marketers say they use infographics more than any other type of visual in their visual content marketing efforts.

Why? Because they provide information in an easily understood and digestible format. 

A versatile medium that can be employed for many different purposes, infographics are visual storytelling tools. Some of their more common uses include:

Timelines – Used to show planned steps, tell the history of an organization, or discuss future projections.

Statistical – Numbers make a powerful point. Creating infographics with statistics gives your viewers an easy way to understand and retain specific data.

Flowcharts – Breaking down components into steps, flowchart infographics can be a great way to simplify complex tasks.

Comparison – Infographics can be the perfect way to list various options’ pros and cons or differences in a head-to-head format.

Maps – Nothing conveys geographical information quicker than a map, which makes them perfect as infographics.


2. How-To Guides

Life is full of problems and hassles – and most people are incredibly grateful for any tips that can help them save time or energy. 

They appreciate learning a new or better way to do things and want to share this new knowledge with their social or business circles. 

That’s why how-to guides are incredibly shareable on social media. They can be videos, blog posts, or even infographics. Here’s an example:

Curious … How do you become an SEO freelancer? What does an SEO freelancer do? Most importantly, how does an SEO freelancer get clients?

— SearchEngineJournal® (@sejournal) December 8, 2023

Whether you’re trying to show existing customers the easiest way to use your product, help them envision a better quality of life, or navigate a mechanical process, step-by-step guides are the answer. 

And that makes them popular shares. 

3. Lists/Listicles

Not to get too meta on you, but this piece is a great example of our next type of shareable content.

Known as a listicle (a portmanteau of list and article), posts like this one are a reliable way to generate social traction. 

There are two main reasons for this:

They set expectations upfront – A headline of “5 Foods That Fight Belly Fat,” immediately tells you what the article is about and what readers will receive from reading it.

They’re scannable – A study from 2008 found web users only read around 28% of the words on a page. Most people are skimming for the highlights and main points, which list posts make clear.

— SearchEngineJournal® (@sejournal) December 7, 2023

You can also share images with graphic representations of lists. 

4. Videos

Whether it’s a first-person view of what a downhill skier sees or videos of people using your product, videos are an effective and share-friendly form of content. 

Extremely easy to consume, video engages, entertains, and informs the audience in a familiar format.

Now consider that Americans spend, on average, 6 hours and 23 minutes per day watching video content on their mobile devices. 

— Marvel Entertainment (@Marvel) November 25, 2023

These run the gamut from music videos to influencer videos to sports clips. And they all have one thing in common (aside from being videos, obviously) – they generate a lot of shares.

5. Memes

They’re also extremely popular with younger people. 55% of internet users between ages 13 and 35 share memes every week, while 30% share them every day.

That’s a lot of brand exposure if you can get them to share something from your social accounts. 

Just make sure your meme content is with the times.

Nothing gives off “How do you do, fellow kids” vibes like a meme format that hasn’t been used since 2023.

6. Current Events/Limited Time Promotions

Breaking news makes for highly shareable social content.

Social media has become the dominant news platform, with 71% of Americans getting their news via Facebook, Twitter, and similar sites. 

But if you’re not in the news business – and most of you probably aren’t – it can be difficult to jump on these “hot” stories. And if you’re not in the news business, you probably don’t want to anyway.

So, what do you do?

Or use current events as a way to generate extra exposure. It can either be something related to your field or something completely random that you can link to your brand in a clever way. 

For example, who could ever forget Arby’s epic Twitter “beef” with Pharrell Williams? 

7. Heartwarming Stories

People love feel-good stories. And just as important, they like passing them on so others can feel good too.

Content that can inspire strong positive emotions tends to get passed around.

This can either be things like posts about charitable work your business just did or even content that encourages others to dream about something good, for example, “how to make your wedding day the best ever.”

— WNBA (@WNBA) December 8, 2023

8. Interactive Content

Give your audience more than something to read; instead, give them experience. They’ll pass it along to their social media followers if it’s a good one. 

9. Controversial Opinions

It has been said that all publicity is good publicity.

With this in mind, if it suits your brand, don’t be afraid to rouse a little rabble. People love getting their blood up – it’s the principle talk radio was built around. 

And a study from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania found that anything that evokes high-arousal emotions like anger or anxiety is often a conversation starter among audiences.

If it’s something that fits in with your brand’s image, a strategic attack on a popular stance can lead to a flood of shares, both from people who agree with your position, and those opposed to it.

— Ben & Jerry’s (@benandjerrys) December 7, 2023

In addition to the attention this type of content attracts, it also allows you to lead the conversation. Beware; it’s easy to cross the line from being controversial to being offensive. 

In general, if you’re going to use antagonism to your brand’s benefit, you need to do all the following:

Take a stance on a popular issue.

Explain why your stance is correct and the other is wrong.

Back up your argument with statistics and resources from reputable sources.

Stand by your convictions confidently.

You also need to understand that a misstep with this kind of content can have disastrous results, so use it with care. 

Optimize Your Sharable Content

There are countless types of content you can use to encourage social media shares, and as you can see, there can be some overlap between these types of content.

You could have a video that is also a how-to guide or an infographic that’s also a list. 

And once you find something that’s working, don’t be afraid to use it more than once. 

More resources: 

Featured Image: Merkushev Vasiliy/Shutterstock

Top 10 Tips For Beginners To Learn Machine Learning

At its core,

Machine Learning

functions to answer questions by “


” from data. 

It may sound simple, but knowing Machine Learning requires that you have the perseverance to learn concepts that you might be oblivious about and that you invest a significant amount of your time to have a firm grasp of the principles behind it.

To help you with your journey towards joining the Machine Learning bandwagon, here are the top ten tips for beginners to learn Machine Learning. 

1. Study the Numbers

If you’re like some people who tend to shy away from numbers and statistics, then I have some good news for you. 

You don’t need to be an expert statistician to process your data for machine learning purposes. 

However, you still need to understand some statistical concepts to help you know how and when to apply or use your data effectively for machine learning.

Some of the ideal statistical learning that you can prioritize learning are:

•  Mean and distribution

•  Statistical decision theory

•  Regression

•  Mean Square Error, Least Squares

2. Learn a Programming Language

Learning a

programming language

can seem like a long and painful process, but it doesn’t have to be. The key is to find a programming language that is popular, easy to learn, and those that are commonly used for data analysis and machine learning like




If you’re a newbie to the programming language and how it’s applied in machine learning, you can learn through a

machine learning course


With these courses alone can help you learn how to develop machine learning algorithms using concepts of time series modeling, regression, etc.

With that said, since programming language is used to analyze and manipulate data for statistical reasons, you must learn to “


the language of machine learning



3. Set Your Goals

Machine learning is a rich, and broad field that will continue to expand in the coming years. It’s because of this that you’ll have a big chance of getting overwhelmed and lose focus as you learn it.

To keep this from happening, you need to set concrete goals first before diving into machine learning. 

This can help you stay on track, avoid wasting your time and keep you moving forward.

You can think about which specific sector in the industry you’ll focus on, the tools, the problems that you’d like to solve through Machine Learning, etc. You can use these as your guiding compass in your journey towards mastering Machine Learning.

4. Understand the Basics of Machine Learning

Machine learning deals with processing a lot of data, and it involves specific steps that can be complicated for the untrained.

As a beginner, you will need to invest some time and effort in understanding the basics of machine learning and data science. 

You need to understand the basic concepts of essential aspects in machine learning like data science, programming, algorithms, and more. 

5. Perform Exploratory Data Analysis 

Exploratory data analysis deals with studying a dataset to understand the shape of data, feature correlations, and signals within the data that can be used to build predictive models.

Performing this analysis can help you determine how to improve your products, understand user behavior, and check if the data can give useful signals for data product building. 

It can include a bit of lightweight modeling to help you determine the importance of various features within datasets, but it’s one of the essential competencies of startup data scientists. 

6. Employ Unsupervised Learning Techniques  

Here’s a concise version of some of the crucial things that you need to know:

•  Autoencoders.

It allows you to encode your features in a way that they don’t take up too much space but still represent the same features.  

•  Clustering.

Using a clustering algorithm helps you classify your data points in specific groups.

•  Feature separation techniques.

This helps you see how each of your features contribute to dataset formation, determine which ones are crucial, and the role each one plays in your overall data.


7. Develop supervised learning models

The goal of supervised learning is to use an algorithm to learn and estimate the mapping function well enough that when you add new input, the algorithm can predict the output variables for the specific data. 

You can think of the process where the algorithm learns from your training data as a teacher supervising his or her students’ learning process. 

The learning process stops once the algorithm reaches an adequate level of success. 

8. Learn How to Handle Big Data Systems

You can have access to significant amounts of data that you can use for algorithms to come up with the valuable output. 

That being said, this means you need to know how to handle big data systems effectively.  

You need to understand how to store substantial amounts of data and efficiently access and process them.

Doing so can help you create solutions that you can implement in practice and not just theory. 

9. Look Into Deep Learning Models 

The deep learning algorithm is built with connected layers that allow its neural network to learn increasingly complex data features as it goes through each layer. 

With deep learning, you can turn predictions into actionable results since it can perform knowledge-based predictions and pattern discovery. 

Also, by feeding deep learning

with big data

, you can get remarkable results in terms of your management, innovation, sales, and productivity. 

10. Do and Complete a Data Project

Finally, you will need to complete a data project to apply what you have learned so far from the nine tips above. 

Start small and look for sample machine learning projects for beginners like a social media sentiment analysis using Twitter or Facebook dataset.  

After all, what is machine learning without real-life application, right?

Final Thoughts

Machine learning is an expanding field that is showing no signs of stopping any time soon, so get on board and follow these ten tips for beginners. 

Learn The Implementation Of The Db2 Backup

Introduction to DB2 backup

DB2 backup command is used to store a copy of the current database or specified tables for the usage of this data for restoring in case if there happens any sort of data loss due to any reason. This ensures that the data’s security and availability are available throughout the period, and the performance and availability do not get hamper on the user end. In this article, we will study the scope, authorization, connection that is required, syntax, and the implementation of the backup command, along with the help of certain examples.

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Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

Scope of backup command

We can make use of the back command in DB2 to create the backup of the current partition if nothing is specified externally. In case if we have specified the option of partitioned backup, then it takes the backup of all the data on the catalog node only. In case if we want to perform the backup operation for all the partitions of our current database, we can specify the option saying that all the partitions are mentioned in the list of chúng tôi file of the database server should be backed up. In the remaining cases, the partitions that are specified in the backup command get copied for backup.

Authorization required

The user who performs the backup command execution should have one of the following privileges with him/ her –

SYSCTRL – Privilege for system control

SYSADM – Privilege for system administration

SYSMAINT – Privilege for system maintenance

The connection that is required

Internally, DB2 automatically creates a new connection for performing the backup operation exclusively to the database which is specified. If the connection specified in the command already exists for the same database, then that connection is terminated, and a new connection is initiated exclusively for performing a backup of the data.


In the above syntax, the different terms used are described as below –

Name_of_database – It helps to tell which alias of the database is to back up.

User – We can specify the name of the user after specifying the USER keyword. Along with that, if there is an optional authorization assigned to the user, we can specify the password of the user after USING the keyword.

ON – This keyword is used to specify the set of the partitions of the database.

(ALL) DBPARTITIONNUM(s) partition_number(s) – We can specify DBPARTITIONNUM along with all to specify that we have to backup all the partitions if our database is partitioned. The usage of just DBPARTITIONNUM followed by the partition numbers is used to tell that only the specified partition having these partition numbers should be backed up. In case if we use DBPARTITIONNUMS, the range of partition numbers can be specified to be backed up.

TABLESPACE followed by the name of table space – It helps specify the table space list that we have to backup.


We can perform the backup operation in DB2 either online or offline mode. By default, when not specified, the backup is considered to be in offline mode. In case if we want to conduct the backup online, then we have to specify this keyword. We can carry out online backup only on the database, which is configured with enabled logarchmeth1.


It helps in specifying that only cumulative that is data that is changed from the time of most recently conducted full backup of the database is considered for creating the backup image for this backup operation.


DELTA helps to specify that the incremental backup needs to be carried out for the data that is modified from the last recently carried out the backup operation of any type, full or partial or specified.


We can specify the external things which are to be used, followed by the USE keyword. Some of the most used things are as specified below –

TSM – Tivoli Storage Manager should be used for backup.

SNAPSHOT – If we want to carry out snapshot backup, then none of the following parameters must be used –








XBSA – Backup Services API that is the XBSA interface, should be used as the data storage management facility to carry out the backup.

SCRIPT – We can specify the name of the executable script which can carry out the snapshot backup. Note that the name of the script that will be specified should contain its fully qualified filename.


Examples of DB2 backup

Let us consider the example of the offline backup to be carried out step by step –

Step 1 –

List all the databases or applications available in the system. The below command can do that –

db2 list application

The execution of the above command gives the following output –

Step 2 –

Using the handled id retrieved from the list of applications, we can force the application using the app as shown below –

db2 “force application (40)”

The output shown is somewhat shown as below –

Step 3 –

db2 terminate;

Step 4 –

We have to deactivate the database in order to stop all the operations that will be carried out on the database after this, which can lead to data modification by using the following command –

db2 deactivate database sample_database

Step 5 –

Now, we are ready to take the backup of our database named sample_database. For this, we will use the DB2 backup command and take the backup in the location C:UsersPayal UdhaniDesktopArticles.

db2 backup database sample_database to C:UsersPayal UdhaniDesktopArticles

The execution of the above command gives the following output –

In this way, we have got a new file at the specified location, which can be used to restore the data when we face loss or unavailability.

Conclusion – DB2 backup

DB2 backup command is used to perform backup operations online, or offline which creates the backup file. This backup file can be used in scenarios where we face data loss due to unavoidable circumstances so that data available at the user end doesn’t get affected.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to DB2 backup. Here we discuss the implementation of the backup command along with the help of certain examples. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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