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Disk utility is a utility application designed by Apple for the use of executing disk-related operations across macOS. Disk Utility is the equivalent of Disk Management, a similar program found on Windows.

Even the most casual of Mac users will need to use Disk Utility at some point. Examples include setting up a backup disk or partitioning an external drive, so knowing the basic ins and outs of the program are beneficiary.

This article will define what first aid, partition, erase, restore, mount, and info mean regarding disk utility in macOS. It will also cover some basic uses for each selection and clear up the difference between “restore” and “erase.”

Launching Disk Utility

To access disk utility, press “Command + Space” on your keyboard to open a Spotlight search. From there, type “Disk Utility” and press Enter.

Alternatively, select Launchpad from your Mac’s dock, select the “other” folder, and select “Disk Utility.”

Various Operations and Their Functions First Aid

First aid will run tests on the selected disk to check for errors. If you suspect your hard drive is not working properly, first aid should be one of the first things to try to attempt to get things running normally.


Partitioning is the division of a single physical drive into two or more sections, sometimes with differing filesystems. This is so that the operating system can handle data in certain regions differently than others. An example of a reason to partition a drive is if one plans on running an operating system other than macOS on a Mac, such as Windows. This is because, again, a different filesystem is used to handle Windows files. Partitioning can happen in a few different locations other than Disk Utility, such as Boot Camp.


When you erase a drive or partition, the space is simply marked as “free.” It is then ready to be overwritten when the system needs the space. Once this is completed, you will be free to partition the space as needed.


A disk restore will make a copy of one volume and restore it onto another. In other words, you are making an exact copy of a whole disk or partition. This option is most commonly used when upgrading or changing hard drives.


Mounting a disk is the act of allowing the computer to read and write data to the disk. In most cases when a disk is connected to the computer, it will automatically be mounted. When a disk is ejected, it can later be mounted again in disk utility. This is done without having to physically unplug and replug in the disk.


Info will detail various stats of a drive, such as the space available in bytes, the overall file count, whether or not the disk is ejectable or encrypted, and more. To view this data, select the target disk in Disk Utility and select “Info.” A new window will open that shows all of the stats of the selected drive.


Knowing your way around Disk Utility is certainly a great way to avoid problems when setting up disks and partitions, and to do so right the first time. Most definitely take a moment to familiarize yourself with the terms, as you will likely need to use the utility eventually.

Corbin Telligman

I’m a junior at UT Dallas, a tech enthusiast, an adreneline junkie, and a coffee fanatic.

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How To Create Blank Disk Images With Disk Utility

Should you ever find yourself in the need to create blank disk images, OS X’s built-in Disk Utility is your friend. A disk image usually has a .dmg extension and appears, looks and behaves like any ordinary file, with one key exception: launching it prompts OS X to mount the volume on the desktop.

These mountable disk images can be useful in a number of situations. For example, you may want to create blank disk images for storage.

Furthermore, disk images can be used as a virtual disk for software distribution, to burn CDs or DVDs and so forth. In this step-by-step tutorial, you’ll learn how to create blank disk images in Disk Utility, at any size, with optional password protection, formatting options and more.

This tutorial was brought to you because someone asked about it.

How to create blank disk images with Disk Utility

1) Open Disk Utility using Spotlight or directly from your /Applications/Utilities/ folder.

2) Choose File → New Image → Blank Image to get started.

4) In the Name field, enter the name that will appear on the Mac’s desktop and in the Finder sidebar after open the image file.

5) In the Size field, enter an arbitrary size for the disk image. You must manually type in the size of the image file: i.e. “100 MB”, “2 GB”, “1 TB” etc. Typing just a number (i.e. 100, 500, 5000) will yield an audible alert warning you that the value is incomplete.

Choose among the following options:

OS X Extended (Journaled) or OS X Extended—Select either option if the disk will only be used with Macs. The former option uses the Mac’s Journaled HFS Plus file format to protect the integrity of the hierarchical file system.

MS-DOS (FAT)—Use this if your disk will be used with Windows and Mac PCs.

ExFAT—For disks larger than 32GB that’ll be used with Windows and Mac PCs.

Tip: For MS-DOS and ExFAT partitions, the disk name must be eleven characters or less due to legacy limitations of Microsoft’s file system.

You can choose between the following encryption options:

128-bit AES—A recommended option that provides a trade-off between encryption speed and security.

256-bit AES—Select this option for maximum security, at the expense of encryption speed.

Select either encryption option will put up a prompt asking you to enter and re-enter the password that will be used to encrypt and unlock the disk image.

Anyone attempting to open the disk image file will first need to type in your password.

Tip: Make sure to write down the password and store it in a safe place. Should you forget it, you won’t be able to open the disk image or access any of the files.

8) Select a partition layout in the Partitions menu:

CD/DVD—Select this if you’re creating a disk image to burn a CD or DVD.

Single partition-Apple Partition Map—Used for compatibility with older, PowerPC-based Mac computers.

Single partition-GUID Partition Map—Used for all Intel-based Macs.

Single partition-Master Boot Record Partition Map—Used for Windows partitions that will be formatted as MS-DOS (FAT) or ExFAT.

No partition map—The disk image will not have a partition map.

For most people, No Partition Map will be the preferred option here.

You have the following image formatting options at your disposal:

Sparse—Creates an expandable disk image file that shrinks and grows as needed (no additional space is used). Uses the .sparseimage file extension.

Sparse Bundle—Same as a sparse image, but uses the .sparsebundle file extension and the directory data for the image is stored differently.

Read/Write—This option allows you to add files to the disk image after it’s created and uses the standard .DMG file extension.

DVD/CD Master—This changes the size of the disk image file to 177 MB (CD 8 cm) and adds the .CDR extension to the file. The file can be used with third-party apps to create other CDs or DVDs and includes a copy of all sectors of the disk image, whether they’re used or not.

After Disk Utility creates the disk image file it’ll get saves in the location you specified, the volume automatically mounted. Its disk icon will appear on the desktop and in the Finder sidebar, letting you add, remove and edit files on the mounted disk image by way of drag-and-drop just as you would with any ordinary disk.

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How To Install Macos Sierra Public Beta On Your Mac

The Public Beta for macOS Sierra, the latest update to Apple’s Desktop and Laptop operating system, has been released by Apple. If you want to try it out and experience all the new features coming this fall, you can install the beta on your Mac. A warning, though, before we begin: Beta softwares are usually considered unsuitable for daily drivers. So, if you decide on installing the macOS Sierra Public Beta on your daily driver machine, beware that it might cause issues and hinder your productivity.

Compatible Devices

If you have any of the following devices, you can try out the macOS Sierra Public Beta right now.

MacBook Pro (2010 and later)

MacBook Air (2010 and later)

Mac Mini (2010 and later)

Mac Pro (2010 and later)

MacBook (Late 2009 and later)

iMac (Late 2009 and later)

Prepare Your Laptop

The first thing to do, before you update your operating system is to backup your Mac. Regardless of whether the OS you’re installing is a beta or a final release software, things can always go wrong, and one should always be prepared for the worst.

Download and Install macOS Sierra Public Beta

Follow the steps outlined below to download the macOS Sierra Public Beta:

1. Go to the Apple Beta Software Program Website.

2. Sign in using your Apple ID.

7. Once the installer finishes downloading it will automatically start, and you can follow the on-screen instructions to complete installation of macOS Sierra on your Mac.

Note: You might encounter an issue, where the installer gets stuck on “About 0 seconds remaining“. Don’t panic, though, the timer counts down independently of the actual installation of the OS (I don’t know why!), and while it might look as if the installer has frozen, it’s actually doing background tasks. You can check this by pressing “Command + L” to open logs, and then pressing “Command + 3” to view all logs, and you can see what the installer is doing. You just need to be patient, and the installer will automatically restart your Mac in sometime. It took 10-15 minutes for me, but some people had to wait up to an hour.

8. When your Mac boots up, the macOS Sierra Public Beta will be installed on it.

Start Using macOS Sierra

You can now install macOS Sierra Public Beta on your Mac, and explore all the new changes that Apple made to their desktop and laptop operating system. The name is not the only change, so go ahead and download the public beta on your Mac. If I may repeat myself, it is not recommended to install beta softwares on your daily driver machines, but you can, if you like. Rest assured, the public beta is really stable. I’ve been using it for a full day (I know, not too long), and I’m impressed by how stable it is. Plus, Siri on Mac is awesome, not to mention all the options for storage space optimisation.

You might very well buy additional iCloud storage space, to store your Desktop and Documents on iCloud Drive. It’s not expensive, and only costs $0.99 per month for 50GB of iCloud space, $2.99 per month for 200GB, while the 1TB plan will cost you $9.99 per month.

How To Use Siri On Your Laptop In Macos Sierra

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Here’s our guide on how to use Siri for the MacBook series in macOS Sierra version 10.12. For our complete guide to using macOS Sierra, head over here.

Siri got another upgrade

Apple’s voice-activated virtual assistant Siri got a boost in iOS 10, but it doesn’t stop there. After updating your Mac to the latest version of the new operating system, macOS Sierra, Siri appears automatically on your home dock. You can remove it from the dock if you want, but Siri is fun to use and can actually help you out.

Siri is automatically on your dock

As seen above, Siri is the second app from the left on your dock. You can remove it, or move it around on the dock.

Simply speak your request and Siri will tell you what it finds in a menu on the right-hand side of your screen. If you ask it about this publication, for example, it will provide you with this information:

Siri still brings information right to you

This window stays open, too. If you’re working on something and need the information, it’s more convenient. You can also add the search results to your notifications simply by pressing the “+” in the upper right-hand corner.

If you ask Siri to play music, it’ll automatically play what you want, so long as it recognizes your speech correctly. I asked it to play “Frank Ocean’s Nikes,” which it picked up as “Frank Ocean’s 90’s” before quickly correcting to Nikes and playing the song for which I asked.

Siri can help you get directions, put dates into your calendar, send emails, search your files and more. Your old voice-recognition buddy moved in and can potentially be a super helpful tool on your laptop or desktop.

Polyglot Programming And The Benefits Of Mastering Several Languages

“In Russian, on the other hand, there are two words for blue: one is dark blue and the other is for the color of clear sky. It has been experimentally proven that these language features translate into the practical ability to recognize colors. Language influences how we perceive the world. The same applies to programming languages.” Michał is not only a fan of neurolinguistics, but also a professional polyglot programmer—he knows Java, Groovy, Kotlin, Scala, JavaScript, some Ruby, Python, and Go, as well as curiosities such as Ceylon and Jolie. Where did the idea for such a range of competencies come from? In the world of professional programmers, there is a controversial statement that almost every seasoned developer has come across: “a good programmer should learn at least one new language a year.” This opinion is over 20 years old and was formulated in the book Pragmatic Programmer, a classic that invariably inspires successive generations of IT specialists. The idea of learning a new language each year was controversial as early as 1999 when it was articulated, but today the situation is becoming even more confusing. Multiple languages can be used in several ways. Functional and object-oriented programming, even in the same language, can be a more unfamiliar experience than simply learning a new language from the same family. What’s more, even within the monolingual ecosystem, there are frameworks that differ so far in their philosophy that switching between them is like switching languages—just compare React, Angular, and Svelte.js. Despite the controversy, every experienced programmer can code in more than two languages, and some of the code in several or even a dozen languages. For some of them, it’s a side effect of functioning in the world of dynamically developing information technology; for others, it’s a conscious choice. The best engineers I’ve worked with often repeat the same mantra: “I’m not a Java/Python/JavaScript programmer, just a programmer. Languages are my tools.” Have polyglot programmers had the opportunity to use so many languages in their professional life? Mostly yes, although the greatest enthusiasts also learn experimental and historical languages, with no prospects for commercial use. We are talking about languages such as OCaml, LISP, Haskell, and Fortran. It’s worth adding that the above does not include esoteric languages, i.e. those belonging to the “just for fun” category: Whitespace, LOLCODE, or Shakespeare.  

Why do some people decide to become polyglot programmers?

So, what motivates these developers to learn new languages? The first answer is far from surprising. “I remember Ruby’s fall,” Marek Bryling, a programmer with over 20 years of experience, tells me. “People who have been in software for a long time have to learn many languages ​​over the years. That’s the reality.” The younger generation is also familiar with the “memento Ruby” argument. “The decision to learn a new language is about career planning and risk diversification. Just look at Ruby,” Michał says. Most often, however, the people I spoke to learn new languages ad hoc: by encountering new technological or market challenges. “The labor market used to be different than it is today. It was often easier to find a job in something completely new,” Kamil Kierzkowski, a senior full-stack developer at STX Next, recalls. “Let me quote a classic,” Michał clears his throat as he quotes Edsger Dijkstra, a pioneer of computer science. “It is practically impossible to teach good programming to students that have had a prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration.” As you can see, the battles of the supporters of individual technologies go back to the pre-internet era. It turns out that in the world of polarised opinions, being a polyglot can be very helpful. “I know enough languages ​​to know what suits me,” Marcin Kurczewski, an expert in over 10 programming languages, tells me. “Knowing many schools of programming gives me perspective.” “It’s obvious for Python programmers to use Prettier, Black, and other codes autoformat tools,” Marcin points out. “When I recently started contributing to an open-source C/C++ project, I was surprised to discover that the project’s technical leader rejected similar tools that are now becoming popular in the C/C++ world. He used arguments that Python zealots used 10 years ago.”  

What are the benefits of becoming a polyglot programmer?

For example, working with C++ helps. “Thanks to C++, I understood how my computer and everything I run on it works,” Marcin continues. “Knowledge of concepts such as stack, heap, registers, memory management is useful in working with a computer, no matter what language you use.” Marek supports this opinion and gives a specific example from his own area of interest: “Python has an interesting feature: weak references that don’t increment the garbage collector’s reference count. This is a very useful mechanism, but most people don’t understand how it works because they don’t know memory management from other languages.” “Problem-solving approaches in different paradigms differ significantly,” he notes. “Python is a nice example of a language where you can write in an object-oriented and functional manner, and it’s useful to know the different paradigms from other languages ​​so that you can use them in Python.” “Thanks to the fact that I know how something is done in one language, I can better implement it in Python,” Marek adds. “That’s how chúng tôi was created, being mapped from the node. This flow of inspiration is possible when we know several languages ​​and this knowledge goes beyond the syntax itself. It’s like traveling—the more countries you visit, the more your mind opens up,” he concludes.  

What is the future of polyglot programming?

In our conversations, we also delve into the topic of the future. What new languages ​​and frameworks will be created and popularised on the market? Who will create them? Is it possible that polyglots will also play their part in this avantgarde programming? “Definitely, and especially those who like history,” Marek says. “After all, in recent years, we have gone back to the 1960s and we are processing what was invented then: event architecture, microservices, functional programming,” he says. “The cloud? It’s an extension of mainframes. Even dockers result from processing our previous concepts, such as JAIL or LXC containers. What finally grew out of it was Docker.” So, what’s ahead? What other languages ​​will gain popularity? Will there be more or fewer of them? Opinions are divided. “I can see a certain consolidation trend in relation to a few languages ​​like JavaScript and Python, but in my lifetime, we won’t get to any programming ‘lingua franca’,” Marek says. “I am concerned, though, that in some time 90% of programmers will only be able to do high-level programming. The same is already happening with DevOps—few can still work on bare-metal because everyone migrated to the cloud.” “We’re not threatened by monolingualism,” Maciej concludes. “PureScript and V are exciting new players. There will be more and more new languages, but at the same time, it will be harder and harder for them to breakthrough. Today, a rich ecosystem and the support of community developers are of key importance for any language. You can see it in Scala,” he sighs. “I love this language, but the community is very hermetic and pushes out those who haven’t been dealing with functional programming before. This affects the popularity of the language more and more.” The issues of community and ecosystem are also raised by Marcin, who is sceptical about Crystal, another contender in the crowded arena of programming languages. “Crystal is a compiled Ruby, and it’s an interesting idea, but even the nicest, cleanest programming language is nothing without a solid ecosystem, which is missing there.”   Author

What Is A Disk Server?

In computing, a server is a computer that constantly runs. Serving whatever content and functionality it has been configured to perform. A classic example of this is a web server, which helps web pages that can vary depending on the user’s request. Servers can host any application that works on the server-client model. Online video games are another excellent example. A physical server runs the game server application for users to connect to.

Note: Both the physical hardware used as servers and the software that runs on them for users to connect are referred to as servers.

One of the issues that servers, as well as most other enterprise-grade computer hardware, have to deal with is high levels of specialization. Enterprise networking hardware, such as routers, switches, servers, etc., is all relatively space limited. These machines are designed to fit into server racks. Typically taking up one to four “U” of the height of a 48U 7-foot-tall server rack.

Note: A “U” is a standard unit of height for computer hardware designed to fit in server racks.

Not only do servers have limited space, but they also have limited cooling capacity and power limits. These restrictions mean that server hardware is designed to be as efficient as possible through specialization. Unfortunately, this means there is limited space for other hardware, such as hard drives. Hard drives are necessary to hold the operating system and run the server. Still, they’re also required to keep the vast store of data that the server may need to serve and the data it collects.

Enter the Disk Server

Servers have some built-in and sometimes expandable storage. But this isn’t enough space for modern server needs. Additionally, many servers are not a single server but multiple servers acting behind a load balancer that helps to ensure that no one server gets overloaded. If you stored the actual data that the application runs on each server, you’d have a massive data duplication issue.

Another type of specialized hardware is used to get around all of these issues, the disk server. The disk server is designed to fit in a standard server rack and hold as many hard drives as possible. A disk server will also be kitted out with enterprise-grade connectivity so that data can be provided to the actual server as quickly as possible. In most cases, a RAID array will be used to provide some level of resilience to drive failure. And potentially a performance improvement, depending on the array’s configuration.

The disk server is a single point for storage drives to be located. Of course, with substantial data sets, even a single disk server won’t be able to provide enough storage space. So, multiple disk servers may be needed. A disk server should be directly accessed by actual physical servers in a properly configured network. The end user should not be able to connect directly to the disk server.


In a home environment, the NAS server is essentially the same as a disk server. A NAS server provides network connectivity for a (smaller) number of hard drives allowing other computers on the same network to access that data. There are some differences, though. Most NASs can also run some low-end server functionality directly as they need to be less specialized than their data center cousins.

Note: NAS stands for Network Attached Storage.


A disk server is a specialized computer device that holds as many hard drives as possible. It then provides access to the storage of these hard drives to configured devices, typically exclusively servers. In the home environment, the closest thing to a disk server is a NAS which offers most of the same functionality and some extra because of the reduced need for specialization. Both disk servers and NASs are designed to provide a high density of storage space to other devices on the network.

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