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In this episode of PA Talks, Mario Carpo and Gilles Retsin discuss architecture and automation in the context of the COVID-19 crisis and its aftermath. As global production chains have proven to lack resilience, local, digital manufacturing presents a compelling alternative.

Automation and Architecture

What does this mean for architecture? How do we as architects shape an agenda for increased automation in such a way that it benefits all? This talk explores a series of urgent questions that will deeply affect all of us in the near future. 

Mario Carpo

After studying architecture and history in Italy, Dr. Carpo was an Assistant Professor at the University of Geneva in Switzerland, and in 1993 received tenure in France, where he was first assigned to the École d’Architecture de Saint-Etienne, then to the École d’Architecture de Paris-La Villette and more recently to the École d’Architecture de Paris-Malaquais.  He was the Head of the Study Centre at the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montréal from 2002 to 2006, and Vincent Scully Visiting Professor of Architectural History at the Yale School of Architecture from 2010 to 2014 and in 2023.  He

Mr. Carpo’s research and publications focus on the relationship between architectural theory, cultural history, and the history of media and information technology.  His award-winning Architecture in the Age of Printing (MIT Press, 2001) has been translated into several languages.  His most recent books are  The Second Digital Turn: Design Beyond Intelligence (MIT Press, 2023); The Alphabet and the Algorithm (MIT Press, 2011; also translated into other languages); and The Digital Turn in Architecture, 1992-2012 (Wiley, 2012).  Mr. Carpo’s recent essays and articles have been published in Log, The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Grey Room, L’Architecture d’aujourd’hui, Arquitectura Viva, AD/Architectural Design, Perspecta, Harvard Design Magazine, Cornell Journal of Architecture, Abitare, Lotus International, Domus, Artforum, and Arch+.

Gilles Retsin

Originally from Belgium, Gilles Retsin is an architect and designer living in London. He studied architecture in Belgium, Chile, and the UK, where he graduated from the Architectural Association. His design work and critical discourse have been internationally recognized through awards, lectures, and exhibitions at major cultural institutions such as the Museum of Art and Design in New York, the Royal Academy in London, and the Centre Pompidou in Paris. He recently edited an issue of Architectural Design (AD) on the Discrete and has co-edited Robotic Building: Architecture in the Age of Automation, with Detail Verlag. Gilles Retsin is Programme Director of the chúng tôi Architectural Design at UCL, the Bartlett School of Architecture. He is co-founder of UCL AUAR Labs, which does high-profile research into new design and fabrication technologies and its spin-out company AUAR ltd, a start-up working towards an automated platform for affordable housing.

Tune in to the PA Talks series with Mario Carpo and Gilles Retsin for some thought-provoking discussions. 

In the PATalks interview series, PA’s founder and creative director, Hamid Hassanzadeh, sits down with leading architects and designers to discuss their lives, careers, and visions for the future. Watch/Listen to the episode or subscribe on YouTube, Apple Podcasts, Spotify, and Google Podcasts to catch the whole series.

I hope you enjoy this discussion. Don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube Channel. Please give us your idea about the podcast. Make sure to follow the platform on Instagram, Youtube, and Twitter, and support us on Patreon. Also, you can listen to our podcasts on Spotify, Apple Podcasts, and Google Podcasts. Also, you can use #patalks on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook to give us feedback about the podcasts. Thank you!

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Interview: Bigboss Repo Maintainer Talks Security And User Responsibility

By jailbreaking their devices, most users usually know what they expose themselves to. When breaking the walls Apple has constructed to protect their security and privacy, jailbreakers put their fate in the hands of a handful of people. If done with basic principles in mind, jailbreaking can be very safe. I, for example, have been jailbreaking every iOS device I have owned since 2008, and I have yet to encounter any issue whatsoever.

Being cautious starts by being aware of what you install on your jailbroken device. Limiting yourself to the default repositories is good practice, as these repos do an outstanding job at analyzing jailbreak apps and tweaks before making them available for download, ensuring that the final user is as safe as possible.

But there is always that slight chance that a malicious tweak might have gone through the cracks and made its way into Cydia for millions of potential users to download. Nothing is 100% safe, but safety measures can be put in place to ensure the highest level of security. This is the job of repo maintainers.

We have talked to representatives of the two largest default repositories on Cydia to ask how they ensure the safety of their users. In a two-part series, we will publish their answers, starting today with Optimo, repo maintainer for BigBoss. Tomorrow, we will publish answers from Kyle Matthews of ModMyi.

BigBoss repo maintainer Optimo answers a few questions

How many tweaks are submitted each week or month on average? Out of these, how many are accepted?

I don’t keep data to refer to. Considering everything including tweaks, addons and apps, I would guess hundreds of submissions are processed, while dozens of those are new items each month. At our busiest times we can be rejecting nearly as much as we accept. Sorting through a lot of substandard items. Some rejected items are made acceptable and then reconsidered.

Can you please describe the process between the moment a tweak is submitted to BigBoss to be added to the repo and the moment this tweak is live on the repo and ready to be downloaded?

Most submissions of the free variety are processed within a day of submission and added to the repo each day. A new package is created based on the submitted content. The submitted item contents are examined and details organized so they fit into our packaging guidelines. Submitters tend to forget or leave out some details, so we will follow up by contacting them. The item’s depictions is tailored and then the new package information is synchronized to our servers. Paid items follow a similar process.

We regularly engage with the tweak makers. Many first-time submissions by new developers are missing details or contain a technical nuance that requires clarification. Part of the job I do is working with the submitters towards maintaining a standard of quality across our published items – to make sure we’re all on the same page. Hopefully our newcomer developers can receive guidance and learn something they can use to become better at their craft. A fun and engaging developer community is supported by shared values like respect for peers and their works, and from developers working to become responsible members of their community.

What are the safeguards in place during that process? A clear explanation of the security scans would help.

The significant process at work is a review of the submitted materials by an experienced repo maintainer. Care is taken in processing the variety of kinds of software that might be submitted. One downside of a semiautomatic scanner is that it can mean turning that responsibility over in part to the scanner. I prefer the more effective hands-on approach. We may employ a variety of developer tools to perform inspection on material if necessary.

There is careful oversight by the repo maintainer or processor, but users should keep in mind that nothing is perfect, not even the App Store review process. Our efforts are always working towards keeping a level of quality of the published software; that it works as described and does not do something odd or unexpected and respects users’ interests.

Contrary to what some may presume, the repos do not promise that our oversight provides 100% fool-proof protection against 3rd parties. We can make no such assurances. We aim to have packages that are reasonable to install. If something is not quite right, we will examine it more closely, contact the authors personally to open the discussion, and seek feedback from saurik and other knowledgeable developers.

If a submission looks odd or does something weird, it’s going to be held for questioning until we have satisfactory answers about it’s peculiarities. It is good to get to know the parties that are submitting when possible. As individuals, we all ought to take responsibility for our own security when using 3rd party software. In any case, the community repo maintainers do try to review items thoroughly, but we will not extend any guarantees about the security standing of the items we accept and publish.

Are select developers whitelisted by default and allowed for a faster approval process? Or are all developers on the same level when it comes to review process?

Items reaching us via our submission system are all treated the same and fairly. Free items naturally reach the public sooner than paid items, which require registration with Cydia Store before it can be published. I’m not sure how this question is related to the security subject, but new submissions are all roughly examined to the same degree.

How often do you catch malicious packages? Is there some sort of trend or has it been relatively stable over the years?

We are all lucky in some respects. Our community has not been frequently a target of wrong-doers, even after all these years. There are a few notable exceptions in the past years and very recently. Some times we catch submitted items that appear suspicious or have red flags, and wind up being held or rejected perpetually. Often those items do not make it onto the repo.

The repo maintainers have done their job well over the years, no doubt catching some things that are questionable and even objectively a danger to a user’s device, though that more often happens by innocent mistake by the developer than by malicious intent. This could trend further negatively, as platforms become more popular, that trend is more likely. Of course, any time is a good time to be sure you know what options are available to you for keeping yourself and your device secure.

The recent exceptions that have reached the public were supposedly targeted at the Chinese portion of the jailbreak base in order to repurpose the user’s personal/device details. That was caught by the public. Though it should not be taken lightly, the origins of that particular malware were not the default community repos but through other 3rd party sources. Packages that are malicous by intent are a rare thing to see submitted to the repos.

Back in July, a tweak called Lock Saver Free containing a trojan was added to the ModMyi repo. Have you ever had a similar situation happen to you? If so, how did that happen? How long did it take you to figure it out and take action? What preventive steps did you put in place to make sure this doesn’t happen again?

What steps are taken when a malicious tweak is detected?

Whether we find something in our review or we receive a report of a package with questionable contents or behavior, and depending on the nature of the complaint or symptoms, we will send out a notice to the author/submitter and remove the item from the repo as soon as possible. We will also notify saurik and Britta, and notify community members including the other default repos so they can be aware of the offending software or submitter so it is not mistakenly accepted elsewhere.

What are some of the worst malwares you’ve seen in tweaks submitted to BigBoss?

More often seen are honest mistakes by newcomer developers. They may not yet have read or learned about an important subject, or absorbed a moral principle that the community deems valuable, and it is reflected in their submission. With that in mind, packages that do things not in the best interest of the users, or that violate a packaging guideline, or ‘do the wrong thing’ to some degree, we will make efforts to sort that out before it’s accepted. That often means contacting the submitter to let them know about our objections and see if we can work with them to improve the offering before accepting it.

Check out this page for a list of known malware that have targeted both jailbroken and non-jailbroken iOS devices.

Your repo went down for a certain period of time last month. The next day, ModMyi repo went down too, which is something I can’t recall happening in the past. Was this just a terrible coincidence, or is there more to it than just bad luck?

On that day when both of the repos were unreachable, it most likely a denial-of-service incident upon our server(s). That is just a normal part of the business of operating a web server. That might happen on occasion but we’ve been relatively spared in that regard over the recent years. The day our repo was unavailable for some hours, I recall we had some unscheduled maintenance that unfortunately made for some real down time. That was just poor luck.

As iOS grows in popularity and is gaining ground in places like China, do you feel this makes the platform a bigger target for hackers? How do you feel about the general security of jailbreak tweaks developed for iOS going forward?

I don’t like the running narrative that many Chinese jailbreak users are more susceptible to hacks, but that seems to have just happened recently. Maybe it’s because of the software they used not being carefully checked before it was published. It might have lacked oversight. Perhaps the spread of iOS into China does mean the platform becomes a bigger target by volume.

Malware would not be specific to one nationality. The affected users might have been misled or they put trust into a software distribution system which failed at its oversight. Growth of iPhone in general means a larger jailbreak audience, which I suppose can mean more niches for hobbyists that like to dabble in bad software instead of good. Repo maintainers will need to adapt as the community grows. If you find something suspicious, please let the repo hosts know.

I feel that users need to take some personal responsibility to assure their own device security. Repos fill a role and do their best to make our community safe and organized, but it’s not a perfect system. If one blindly accepts that all the items published by the repo are free from risks, that may be letting your guard down. 3rd party software can carry risks, although historically the incidents are very low amongst the default community repos. By being diligent about the subject and researching the topics of device security, risks can be minimized in your day to day uses. You can start learning more here.

Anything else you’d like to say or clarify?

As maintainer for the largest tweak hosting repo, I keep closely in contact with our developer community on purpose to have a strong working relationship. I try to meet our developers where they like to hang out: Twitter, reddit, IRC. This cooperation is often established even well ahead of their submissions to the repo. This relationship is invaluable in my opinion. Often we find that we’re helping guide them down the right path, and make healthy decisions about the liberties they have as a 3rd party piece of software. Education about these subjects has benefitted all parties involved, from developer to users. The repos will work quickly to rectify a bad situation that is uncovered.

There’s been a public concern recently over reports of ‘malware’. The subject of malware is broad and sometimes intimidating. And some of the subject is rather new to mobile platforms. Our community has been relatively free of the concern of this subject until recently. What the future holds in this regard is unknown, but the default repos will continue to work for the community. Knowledge is power, and educating one’s self can make you safer. Quality information can help dispel myths and fears — upon hearing something vague about reports of malware affecting jailbreakers, for example. We need not jump to conclusions on this subject, but sharing with your peers something odd you experience, and posting the subject on forums can help us all learn quickly and adapt.

If your device is jailbreakable it also might not be secure without some additional configuration. The nature of jailbreaking means that your device is potentially less secure once the software ‘hole’ is exploited and known to the public at large. Over time security researchers find more holes in iOS security, and Apple makes updates to to fix the security. Their iOS updates often mean losing your jailbreak, however. So keeping your jailbreak may be a compromise of security. If you are generally concerned about security and wish to keep your jailbreak, you may want to research and get to know the options available to you for making your device and data as secure as you need it to be. It can be helpful to secure your personal device from software threats and from physical access. You can read more here.

Civil Rights Pioneer Talks Tonight

Civil Rights Pioneer Talks Tonight Rep. John Lewis delivers annual MLK Leadership Lecture

Rep. John Lewis (D-Ga.) (back row, third from left) with other civil rights leaders at the Lincoln Memorial for the March on Washington, August 18, 1963: (front row, from left) Whitney Young, unknown, A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr. (GRS’55, Hon.’59), Roy Wilkins; (back row, from left): Matthew Ahmann, Rabbi Joachim Prinz, Lewis, Dr. Eugene Carson Blake, Floyd McKissick, Walter Reuther. Photo courtesy of National Archives

Growing up in segregated Pike County, Alabama, John Lewis first heard the words of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. (GRS’55, Hon.’59) listening to the family’s radio. The son of sharecroppers, Lewis was inspired by King’s message of social change to join the nascent civil rights movement after enrolling at Fisk University in Nashville, Tenn. Lewis went on to become one of the movement’s most important leaders.

Tonight the civil rights pioneer, now 70 and a Democratic congressman representing Georgia, will deliver the third annual Martin Luther King, Jr., Leadership Lecture, sponsored by the Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center, at 7 p.m. at the George Sherman Union’s Metcalf Ballroom.

“John Lewis is the perfect person to give the Martin Luther King, Jr., Leadership Lecture, because he is the greatest example of Dr. King’s ideals for social change through redemptive sacrifice, activism, and responsible leadership,” says Vita Paladino (MET’79, SSW’93), director of the Gotlieb Center. “He remains a beacon for Dr. King’s message and is an intrepid leader, improving our nation.”

As an undergraduate, Lewis organized sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in Nashville. After graduating, he participated in the Freedom Rides, which challenged segregation at interstate bus terminals throughout the South.

At the height of the civil rights movement, Lewis was chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, coordinating efforts to organize voter registration drives and community action programs and working closely with King.

Known as one of the Big Six leaders of the civil rights movement (the others are King, Whitney Young, A. Philip Randolph, James Farmer, and Roy Wilkins), Lewis spearheaded one of the movement’s most famous moments: the first of three marches from Selma, Ala., to Montgomery on behalf of voting rights in 1965. The marchers, attacked by Alabama state troopers, never made it to their destination. Indelibly captured by television cameras and still photographers, the event came to be known as “Bloody Sunday.” The images from the melee were credited with hastening passage of the landmark Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Lewis was arrested more than 40 times and beaten on numerous occasions for his work on behalf of civil rights.

After serving as director of the federal volunteer agency ACTION, Lewis was elected to the Atlanta City Council and went on to win a seat in Congress in 1986. For more than two decades, he has represented Georgia’s fifth congressional district. He currently is a member of the influential House Ways and Means Committee.

Outgoing Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) has called Lewis “the conscience of the U.S. Congress.”

Widely respected by his peers on Capitol Hill for his lifelong battle to secure civil liberties and protect human rights, Lewis will speak tonight about King’s influence on American society and his own role in the civil rights movement.

The mission of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Lecture series is to bring to campus those who have served “as leaders in the quest for maintaining social justice and human rights.” Past lecturers were Christine King Farris, King’s sister, and Paul Rusesabagina, the real-life hero memorably portrayed by Don Cheadle in the film Hotel Rwanda.

Paladino believes that Lewis’ life story may inspire young people on campus. “He can enlighten and encourage our students on how to be responsible for building an even stronger nation during their lifetime,” she says. “The evolutionary process and work toward social equality is ongoing. This is what Dr. King stood for.”

Also being honored at tonight’s lecture is civil rights activist Diane Nash, who has been named the 2010 Coretta Scott King Fellow.

The Martin Luther King, Jr., Leadership Lecture is tonight, Wednesday, November 10, at 7 p.m. in the Metcalf Ballroom at the George Sherman Union, 775 Commonwealth Ave. The event is free and open to the public.

John O’Rourke can be reached at [email protected].

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Retail Chief Angela Ahrendts Talks ‘Today At Apple’ And More In Video Interview

Apple Retail chief Angela Ahrendts has appeared in a video interview promoting the new Today at Apple initiative launching at Apple Stores this week. In the discussion with LinkedIn’s Daniel Roth, Ahrendts talks about her approach to leading Apple Retail to success when some retailers are struggling. Included in the video are some interesting numbers like Apple’s employee retention rate and even how many beacons were just installed overnight as part of the Today at Apple effort.

The clip highlights Apple Retail’s 18% growth in the last quarter and compares Apple Store’s 85% retention rate among 67,000 employees compared to 20% average across the rest of the industry. Ahrendts added that in the United States,  that rate is actually higher at 88% among full-time employees who make up two-thirds of the retail division.

Ahrendts says she communicates with employees through weekly three-minute videos (some of which we’ve seen) that typically include three thoughts each. In return, she says, some employees have actually started creating their own videos to communicate ideas to her. Ahrendts says Apple is working on creating a new platform for everyone’s stories as a formal way to support this activity.

To gauge employee feedback, Apple Stores have used NPS, or net promoter score which is typically used to rate customer experience, to ask employees about the experience of working at Apple. Ultimately, Ahrendts says, the goal is to have employees answer yes to whether or not they would recommend a friend work at the Apple Store as a metric of success.

Ahrendts also says that Apple Stores created a platform for workers called Share Your Ideas to encourage employee feedback, which will be evolving to better serve the 5,000 ideas that are submitted each month.

Apple also crowdsourced ideas for retail’s overall vision, which collected 2,000 ideas that were filtered down to 1,000 then 463 before creating seven versions of the retail philosophy that are being piloted now. Ahrendts says these ideas happen to match Apple’s overall values like encouraging accessibility and entrepreneurship.

In terms of retail stores, Ahrendts discussed the continuing effort to introduce new concept designs at stores with around 100 planned by the end of the year. For perspective, she says about half of the stores in the US were opened before the iPhone launch, which explains their need to expand in size. She says 30 to 35 stores are being remodeled a year to be double and triple the size.

As part of the Today at Apple effort, Ahrendts says Apple Stores are increasing seating, turning up the audio, and installing 50,000 beacons into 400 stores across 30 countries. This overnight effort just happened and applies to all stores that won’t be expanded in the next 12 months, she says.

Ultimately, Ahrendts believes stores need to evolve but malls won’t go away. Rather than be 20% about the experience and 80% about shopping, however, she believes the numbers need to flip as online shopping will typically be faster and cheaper than shopping in stores. Ahrendts also says Apple’s focus on promoting creativity and the arts is in preparation for the shift to automation where a return to the arts will be valued.

Check out the full video below:

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19 Best Airpods Tips & Tricks For The Apple User

The Apple AirPods are not just your regular earphones. They’re more than that. They come equipped with many features that make attending to calls and listening to music much more convenient.

To get the most out of your AirPods, you need to learn a few Airpods tips and tricks. These tips will teach you how to use certain functions on your AirPods and even help you uncover hidden features.

Table of Contents

How To Know Which AirPods You Have

If you want to verify the generation of your AirPods, you can do that by finding the model number written on your AirPods and matching it with Apple’s model numbers list.

Take both of your AirPods out of the case and find the model numbers underneath the pods.

If it’s A2084 and A2083, then you have AirPods Pro.

If your model numbers are A2032 and A2031, you have AirPods (2nd generation).

If the model numbers are A1523 and A1722, you have the 1st-gen AirPods.

Finding what charging case you have is also easy.

If your charging case has the model number A2190, it’s an AirPods Pro charging case with wireless charging.

If your case has the model number A1938, it’s a wireless charging case for 1st and 2nd-generation AirPods.

The charging case with model number A1602 is the lightning charging case for both 1st and 2nd gen AirPods.

What Do The Various Lights On The AirPods Mean

Your AirPods charging case displays various lights. Each light has a meaning and tells you something about your AirPods.

White light: This means your AirPods are ready to be paired with a device.

Amber light while the AirPods are in the case: Your AirPods are being charged.

Amber light without the AirPods in the case: Your case has less than one charge remaining on it.

Amber blinking light: There’s an issue with pairing.

Green light while the AirPods are in the case: Your AirPods are charged.

Green light while the AirPods are not in the case: Your case is charged.

How To Connect AirPods To An iPhone

Pairing your AirPods with an iPhone is just a matter of tapping a button.

Open the lid of your case while the AirPods are still in it.

Bring the case near your iPhone.

You’ll see a prompt on your iPhone. Tap Connect to pair your AirPods with your iPhone.

How To Connect AirPods To Other Devices

Your AirPods work with almost all Bluetooth-enabled devices out there. But the pairing process is different than that of the iPhone. Here we show how to connect your AirPods to an Android device. You can use the same steps to connect your AirPods to other Bluetooth-enabled devices.

Some of the AirPods functions you use on your iPhone won’t work on your Android and other devices. However, there are some AirPods controller apps that you can use to access Apple-exclusive features on your non-Apple devices.

How To Change The AirPods Controls

The AirPods come with double-tap gestures that let you perform actions like changing the music track and pausing your music without using your iPhone. These gestures are customizable and you can change them if you want.

Make sure your AirPods are paired with your iPhone.

Open the Settings app on your iPhone and tap Bluetooth.

Tap the i icon next to your AirPods.

Tap Left in the Double-Tap AirPod section to change the left double-tap gesture.

Select one of the actions from the list on your screen.

Tap Right and choose an action for the right AirPod.

How To Change The AirPods’ Name

Like how you can change the AirDrop name on your iPhone and Mac, you can change the AirPods name, too.

Tap the Name field.

Enter a new name for your AirPods.

How To Adjust The AirPods’ Volume

The Apple AirPods don’t come with volume rockers so you’ll need to use the volume control buttons on your device to control the AirPods volume.

How To Find Your AirPods

Just like how Apple lets you find your lost iPhone, you can find your lost AirPods as well.

How To Check The AirPods Battery Level

You can check the battery level of your AirPods on both your iOS and Android devices.

Open the case lid while one of your AirPods is still in it.

Bring the case near to your iPhone and you’ll see the current battery levels.

If you’re on Android, do the above steps after installing the AirBattery app on your phone.

How To Charge Your AirPods

Charging your AirPods is easy and you don’t need to plug them into anything with a cable.

Place your AirPods in the charging case.

Your case will start charging your AirPods.

How To Charge The AirPods Case

The charging case holds a significant amount of battery but you’ll need to charge it once every two or three days, depending on your usage.

If yours is a wireless charging case, place it on a Qi-certified wireless charger and it’ll start charging.

If yours is a lightning charging case, plug one end of the cable into your case and the other end into a charger or USB port on your computer.

How To Check Your AirPods’ Firmware Version

Your AirPods run a certain version of firmware which you can check from your iPhone.

Your AirPods firmware version will be listed next to Firmware Version.

Use Automatic Ear Detection

Your AirPods come with a feature that routes the audio from your iPhone to your pods as soon as you place your pods in your ears. You need to enable this feature before you use it.

Turn on the Automatic Ear Detection option.

How To Change The Active Microphone For Your AirPods

Both your AirPods come with a microphone and you can manually choose which AirPod’s microphone you want to use.

Launch Settings, tap Bluetooth, and tap the i icon next to your AirPods.

Tap Microphone at the bottom.

Select one of the options available on your screen.

How To Accept An Incoming Call With Your AirPods

If you get a call while using the AirPods, you can accept the call by just tapping your AirPods.

If you have AirPods Pro, press the force sensor to accept the incoming call.

If you have 1st or 2nd-generation AirPods, double-tap on either of your AirPods.

You can use the same gestures to hang up a call.

Get Your AirPods To Announce The Caller Names

Your AirPods can tell you who’s calling if you’ve enabled caller announcements on your iPhone.

Launch the Settings app on your iPhone and tap Phone.

Tap Announce Calls on the following screen.

Choose the Always option.

Use Your AirPods To Listen To The Sounds Around You

You can hear the live sounds around your iPhone with your AirPods.

Go to Settings on your iPhone and tap Control Centre.

Select the Customize Controls option.

Tap the + (plus) sign for Hearing.

Pull up from the bottom of your iPhone to open the Control Center.

Tap the hearing icon.

Tap the Live Listen option.

Use One Pod To Make AirPods’ Battery Last Longer

You don’t necessarily need to use both your pods at a time. You can simply use one of the AirPods while the other is being charged. This way, when you’re out of battery on one pod, you can use the other one while that first one is being charged.

How To Unpair Apple AirPods From Your iPhone

If you no longer wish to use your AirPods with your iPhone, you can unpair and remove them from your phone.

Open the Settings app and tap Bluetooth.

Tap the i icon next to your AirPods.

Tap Forget This Device to unpair your AirPods.

Nsf’s Arthur Lupia Talks Scientific Credibility In The Era Of Misinformation

The Brink: What do you think has had the most impact on the public’s perception of research in the last decade?

Arthur Lupia: I don’t have an exact measure of what information has had the most impact, but I have seen many examples of research transforming people’s lives. In the last decade alone, fundamental research in the social and behavioral sciences and other fields has created some industries and transformed others. I grew up in a rural area, and I have seen research help farmers grow a wide range of crops more effectively and sustainably. I have also seen research help people make important progress on huge problems ranging from poverty and childhood malnutrition to how to make neighborhoods safer and how to help Americans obtain the skills that they will need for a fast-changing economy.

What do you think is the biggest challenge facing the research community right now?

Across the world, there is a crisis of credibility. The internet brings us closer together, but can also make it hard for people to know what information to believe. Researchers now have to think in different ways about how their knowledge will be received. So scientists who want to be heard have to think not only about how to convey their knowledge accurately, but also how to do so credibly.

Where do you think Americans are turning for credible information today?

Americans have many different options for gaining information. Many people turn to social media, look for intermediaries that they trust, and then use those intermediaries as a way to filter reliable information from information that is less reliable. There are generational differences and also demographic differences in the use of this medium. People who are less experienced with the internet and social media continue to rely on more traditional print and broadcast venues. Websites like The Conversation are conveying a lot of research-related information to growing audiences in an accessible way. Academic journals remain an important source for certain types of information for researchers to learn about the work of their peers. For the public, however, these journals are not always accessible. 

How can scientists make themselves and their expertise more accessible to society at large?

It is very important to think about what a prospective audience needs from you. Thinking about your audience’s needs is critical because human attention is extraordinarily limited and many types of content are competing for it. If a scientist can learn enough about an audience to understand how their expertise overlaps with an audience’s most important concerns, they are more likely to earn that audience’s attention. Once a scientist has an audience’s attention, it is important to include examples, analogies, and metaphors that relate relevant facts to the audience’s experiences and concerns. Thinking about communication in this way can empower scientists to be accessible, without sacrificing accuracy or rigor.

How can researchers help combat attacks on scientific credibility, especially in the era of social media when misinformation, and disinformation, can spread rapidly?

Are there any emerging fields or research trends that you anticipate will become a major focus for the federal government in the near future?

Right now, science buzzwords in my part of Washington, D.C., include “AI,” “quantum,” and “future of work.” There is great interest in how to use massive quantities of information to help address critical human challenges. We need greater training on topics such as data science, causal inference, and statistics to draw accurate and reliable insights from this data. 

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