Trending March 2024 # Parallel Execution In Selenium: Session Handling & Testng Dependency # Suggested April 2024 # Top 5 Popular

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To understand how to run scripts in parallel, let’s first understand

Why do we need Session Handling?

During test execution, the Selenium WebDriver has to interact with the browser all the time to execute given commands. At the time of execution, it is also possible that, before current execution completes, someone else starts execution of another script, in the same machine and in the same type of browser.

In such situation, we need a mechanism by which our two different executions should not overlap with each other. This can be achieved using Session Handling in Selenium.

How to achieve Session Handling in Selenium WebDriver?

If you check the source code of Selenium WebDriver, you will find a variable named as ‘sessionId’. Whenever we create a new instance of a WebDriver object, a new ‘sessionId’ will be generated and attached with that particular Firefox/Chrome/IE Driver ().

So anything we do after this will execute only in that particular Firefox browser session.

As this is an in-built functionality, there is no explicit need to assign the session id

Code Example: Here two different sessions will be generated for two different WebDriver.

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver; import org.openqa.selenium.firefox.FirefoxDriver; public class SessionHandling { public static void main(String...strings ){ WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); WebDriver driver2 = new FirefoxDriver(); } } How to run Parallel Tests with Selenium

There are situations where you want to run multiple tests at the same time.

In such cases, one can use “parallel” attribute

The parallel attribute of suite tag can accept four values:

tests

classes

All the test cases inside a Java class will run parallel

methods

All the methods with @Test annotation will execute parallel.

instances

Test cases in same instance will execute parallel but two methods of two different instances will run in different thread.

The Complete project will look like:

TestGuru99MultipleSession.java

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver; import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver; import org.testng.annotations.Test; public class TestGuru99MultipleSession { @Test public void executSessionOne(){ System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver","chromedriver.exe"); WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(); driver.findElement(By.name("uid")).sendKeys("Driver 1"); } @Test public void executeSessionTwo(){ System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver","chromedriver.exe"); WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(); driver.findElement(By.name("uid")).sendKeys("Driver 2"); } @Test public void executSessionThree(){ System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver","chromedriver.exe"); WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(); driver.findElement(By.name("uid")).sendKeys("Driver 3"); } }

chúng tôi

Test Case order and Dependency

You can set order and dependency of Test Case execution.

Suppose you have two test cases , ‘testGuru99TC1’ and ‘testGuru99TC2’ and you want to execute test case ‘testGuru99TC2’ before ‘testGuru99TC1’. In that case we will use ‘dependsOnMethods’ attribute to make dependency and order of execution.

Summary

A new sessionID is created for a new instance of WebDriver.

One session will bind with one particular browser.

Using attribute thread and parallel, you run your scripts in parallel.

You can use attribute dependency to set the order to test execution

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Fix Server Execution Failed Error In Wsl

You may encounter the Server execution failed error in WSL on one or more instances on your Windows 11 or Windows 10 system; including when you try to run a Linux distro, when you try to run a bash command in that environment, or when you try to update/install WSL or upgrade WSL 1 to WSL 2. This post provides the most suitable fixes to this error in all cases. Keep in mind that solving the error may depend on your environment scenario.

Fix Server execution failed error in WSL

If the Server execution failed error has occurred in the WSL environment on your Windows 11/10 machine, you can try our recommended solutions below in no particular order and see if that helps to resolve the issue.

Initial checklist

Disable and Re-enable WSL

Disable Virtual Machine platform

Reset Windows 11/10

Let’s take a look at the description of the process involved concerning each of the listed solutions.

1] Initial checklist

Before you try the solutions below, you can do the following, and after each task see if you can complete without issues the initial task that was throwing the error in highlight:

Restart LxssManager Service. LxssManager is a user-mode session manager service that launches a new instance of WSL running native ELF binaries. If this service is stopped or disabled, those binaries will no longer run. To restart LxssManager Service, follow the instructions in the post WslRegisterDistribution failed with error: 0x800700b7 or 0x80080005.

Restart PC. If restarting LxssManager Service is stuck on “Stopping” phase or the action completed but the issue in focus persists, you can just restart the system altogether.

Update Windows. If Windows is not updated on your system, it’s likely some functions or features will not work properly. So, check for updates and install any available bits on your Windows 11/10 device and see if the error reappears. On the other hand, if the error started after a recent Windows update, you can perform System Restore or uninstall the update – but if you prefer to do either task as a last resort, you can then go ahead with the solutions below.

2] Disable and Re-enable WSL

If you have encountered the Server execution failed error in WSL on your Windows 11/10 computer, you can troubleshoot the WSL error by disabling and re-enabling Windows Subsystem for Linux on your device.

To disable and re-enable WSL, is as simple as turning the feature Off/On in the Windows Optional Features applet in Control Panel or running a PowerShell cmdlet.

To enable the Windows Subsystem for Linux feature using the Turn Windows features on or off dialog box, you need to search for Turn Windows Features on or off in the Windows search box.

From the populated list, check the option for Windows Subsystem for Linux. Select OK. It will search and install some required system files and ask you to reboot your computer. After restarting your computer, your Linux distro would be working without any issues.

Alternatively, open Windows PowerShell with Administrator level rights. Execute the following command to enable the Windows Subsystem for Linux feature:

Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux

It will start searching for and installing some required system files.

When prompted, you need to type Y to reboot your computer.

It will install all the required system files, and your Linux distro would usually be working now.

Be sure to reboot the PC after disabling, and reboot once again after enabling.

However, this solution might not be ideal if the error is triggered multiple times as reported by some affected PC users. In this case, you can try any other solution in this post.

3] Disable Virtual Machine platform

This solution requires you to disable the Virtual machine platform – and not only just disabling Hyper-V on your Windows 11/10 machine. To perform this task, do the following:

Press Windows key + X to open Power User Menu.

Tap A on the keyboard to launch PowerShell in admin/elevated mode.

In the PowerShell console, copy and paste in the command below and hit Enter:

$ chúng tôi /online /disable-feature /featurename:VirtualMachinePlatform /norestart $ chúng tôi /online /disable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Hyper-V /norestart

Exit PowerShell once the command executes.

Restart computer.

4] Reset Windows 11/10

If nothing has worked so far, at this point, you might be dealing with severe system corruption which can’t be resolved by conventional methods, for example; SFC/DISM scan. In this case, to see if the issue will be fixed, you can reset Windows 11/10 with the option to keep your personal files. After the reset, you can freshly set up WSL on your device.

In the unlikely event, the issue in focus persists after the reset procedure, you can raise an issue on chúng tôi for WSL-related issues.

Hope this post helps you!

Related post: Windows Backup Server execution failed (0x80080005)

Why do I keep getting server execution failed?

The Server execution failed Windows Media Player error may be caused by windows system files damage. This error might also occur if for some reason the Windows media player network service is stopped or if there is a problem with your user account.

Why my WSL is not working?

If WSL is not working on your Windows 11/10 PC, it could be due to a number of reasons, including outdated OS or corrupt system files. So generally, you can update your version of Windows. If the issue persists and you need to access WSL, consider performing an in-place upgrade by reinstalling Windows using installation media and selecting Keep Everything to ensure your apps and files are preserved.

Related: chúng tôi Server execution failed

Is WSL faster than a VM?

It’s also much faster to launch the WSL terminal than to start up a full VM. WSL also integrates much more fully into Windows than a regular VM in VirtualBox does. While there are ways to integrate your Windows desktop and a Linux VM in VirtualBox, it can take some time to get it working properly. WSL 2 runs as a Hyper-V virtual machine.

Add Session Management Options To Unity Dash In Ubuntu

Here is a screenshot of Unity Dash in action:

While you can access any application (present locally as well as remotely) through Dash, sadly it doesn’t let you access session management options such as logout, shutdown, and more.

However, if you want to add these session management options to Dash, you can do so by installing Power Commands, an application created by the Atareao team for adding the following options to Dash:

Shut Down

Reboot

Suspend

Hibernate

Log Out

Lock Screen

To download and install this package, execute the following commands:

sudo

add-apt-repository ppa:atareao

/

atareao

sudo

apt-get update

sudo

apt-get install

power-commands

Once installed, you don’t have to do anything else, as the package automatically adds these options to Dash. Here is an example:

Just in case you want to remove these options, run the following command:

sudo

apt-get remove

power-commands

and, if you want to uninstall the package, disable the recently added PPA as well as downgrade the packages that got updated via the PPA and execute the following commands:

sudo

apt-get install

ppa-purge

sudo

ppa-purge ppa:atareao

/

atareao Conclusion

Adding session management options to Dash could seem less useful at first, but they come in handy in scenarios where, for example, the top panel doesn’t load properly and you have to, say, reboot your system. In this particular scenario, you will have to either use the terminal command for the reboot operation, something which isn’t easy especially if you’re new to command line, or opt for hard reboot, which is not recommended. In addition, having these options in Dash also makes it easy for you to access them through the keyboard.

Himanshu Arora

Himanshu Arora is a freelance technical writer by profession but a software programmer and Linux researcher at heart. He covers software tutorials, reviews, tips/tricks, and more. Some of his articles have been featured on IBM developerworks, ComputerWorld, and in Linux Journal.

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Xpath In Selenium: How To Find & Write? (Text, Contains, And)

What is XPath in Selenium?

XPath in Selenium is an XML path used for navigation through the HTML structure of the page. It is a syntax or language for finding any element on a web page using XML path expression. XPath can be used for both HTML and XML documents to find the location of any element on a webpage using HTML DOM structure.

In Selenium automation, if the elements are not found by the general locators like id, class, name, etc. then XPath is used to find an element on the web page.

In this tutorial, we will learn about the Xpath and different XPath expression to find the complex or dynamic elements, whose attributes changes dynamically on refresh or any operations.

XPath Syntax

XPath contains the path of the element situated at the web page. Standard XPath syntax for creating XPath is.

Xpath=//tagname[@attribute='value']

The basic format of XPath in selenium is explained below with screen shot.

Basic Format of XPath

// : Select current node.

Tagname: Tagname of the particular node.

@: Select attribute.

Attribute: Attribute name of the node.

Value: Value of the attribute.

To find the element on web pages accurately there are different types of locators:

XPath Locators Find different elements on web page

ID To find the element by ID of the element

Classname To find the element by Classname of the element

Name To find the element by name of the element

Link text To find the element by text of the link

XPath XPath required for finding the dynamic element and traverse between various elements of the web page

CSS path CSS path also locates elements having no name, class or ID.

Types of X-path

There are two types of XPath:

1) Absolute XPath

2) Relative XPath

Absolute XPath:

The key characteristic of XPath is that it begins with the single forward slash(/) ,which means you can select the element from the root node.

Below is the example of an absolute Xpath expression of the element shown in the below screen.

Absolute XPath:

/html/body/div[2]/div[1]/div/h4[1]/b/html[1]/body[1]/div[2]/div[1]/div[1]/h4[1]/b[1]

Absolute XPath

Relative Xpath:

Relative Xpath starts from the middle of HTML DOM structure. It starts with double forward slash (//). It can search elements anywhere on the webpage, means no need to write a long xpath and you can start from the middle of HTML DOM structure. Relative Xpath is always preferred as it is not a complete path from the root element.

Below is the example of a relative XPath expression of the same element shown in the below screen. This is the common format used to find element by XPath.

Relative XPath:

Relative XPath

What are XPath axes.

XPath axes search different nodes in XML document from current context node. XPath Axes are the methods used to find dynamic elements, which otherwise not possible by normal XPath method having no ID , Classname, Name, etc.

Axes methods are used to find those elements, which dynamically change on refresh or any other operations. There are few axes methods commonly used in Selenium Webdriver like child, parent, ancestor, sibling, preceding, self, etc.

How To Write Dynamic XPath In Selenium WebDriver 1) Basic XPath:

XPath expression select nodes or list of nodes on the basis of attributes like ID , Name, Classname, etc. from the XML document as illustrated below.

Xpath=//input[@name='uid']

Basic XPath

Some more basic xpath expressions:

Xpath=//input[@type='text'] Xpath=//label[@id='message23'] Xpath=//input[@value='RESET'] Xpath=//*[@class='barone']

Contains() is a method used in XPath expression. It is used when the value of any attribute changes dynamically, for example, login information.

The contain feature has an ability to find the element with partial text as shown in below XPath example.

In this example, we tried to identify the element by just using partial text value of the attribute. In the below XPath expression partial value ‘sub’ is used in place of submit button. It can be observed that the element is found successfully.

Complete value of ‘Type’ is ‘submit’ but using only partial value ‘sub’.

Xpath=//*[contains(@type,'sub')]

Complete value of ‘name’ is ‘btnLogin’ but using only partial value ‘btn’.

Xpath=//*[contains(@name,'btn')]

In the above expression, we have taken the ‘name’ as an attribute and ‘btn’ as an partial value as shown in the below screenshot. This will find 2 elements (LOGIN & RESET) as their ‘name’ attribute begins with ‘btn’.

Similarly, in the below expression, we have taken the ‘id’ as an attribute and ‘message’ as a partial value. This will find 2 elements (‘User-ID must not be blank’ & ‘Password must not be blank’) as its ‘id’ attribute begins with ‘message’.

Xpath=//*[contains(@id,'message')]

In the below expression, we have taken the “text” of the link as an attribute and ‘here’ as a partial value as shown in the below screenshot. This will find the link (‘here’) as it displays the text ‘here’.

3) Using OR & AND:

In OR expression, two conditions are used, whether 1st condition OR 2nd condition should be true. It is also applicable if any one condition is true or maybe both. Means any one condition should be true to find the element.

In the below XPath expression, it identifies the elements whose single or both conditions are true.

Xpath=//*[@type='submit' or @name='btnReset']

Highlighting both elements as “LOGIN ” element having attribute ‘type’ and “RESET” element having attribute ‘name’.

In AND expression, two conditions are used, both conditions should be true to find the element. It fails to find element if any one condition is false.

Xpath=//input[@type='submit' and @name='btnLogin']

In below expression, highlighting ‘LOGIN’ element as it having both attribute ‘type’ and ‘name’.

4) Xpath Starts-with

XPath starts-with() is a function used for finding the web element whose attribute value gets changed on refresh or by other dynamic operations on the webpage. In this method, the starting text of the attribute is matched to find the element whose attribute value changes dynamically. You can also find elements whose attribute value is static (not changes).

For example -: Suppose the ID of particular element changes dynamically like:

Id=” message12″

Id=” message345″

Id=” message8769″

and so on.. but the initial text is same. In this case, we use Start-with expression.

In the below expression, there are two elements with an id starting “message”(i.e., ‘User-ID must not be blank’ & ‘Password must not be blank’). In below example, XPath finds those element whose ‘ID’ starting with ‘message’.

Xpath=//label[starts-with(@id,'message')]

5) XPath Text() Function

The XPath text() function is a built-in function of selenium webdriver which is used to locate elements based on text of a web element. It helps to find the exact text elements and it locates the elements within the set of text nodes. The elements to be located should be in string form.

In this expression, with text function, we find the element with exact text match as shown below. In our case, we find the element with text “UserID”.

Xpath=//td[text()='UserID']

XPath axes methods:

These XPath axes methods are used to find the complex or dynamic elements. Below we will see some of these methods.

For illustrating these XPath axes method, we will use the Guru99 bank demo site.

Selects all elements in the document of the current node( ) [ UserID input box is the current node] as shown in the below screen.

Xpath=//*[@type='text']//following::input

There are 3 “input” nodes matching by using “following” axis- password, login and reset button. If you want to focus on any particular element then you can use the below XPath method:

Xpath=//*[@type='text']//following::input[1]

You can change the XPath according to the requirement by putting [1],[2]…………and so on.

With the input as ‘1’, the below screen shot finds the particular node that is ‘Password’ input box element.

The ancestor axis selects all ancestors element (grandparent, parent, etc.) of the current node as shown in the below screen.

In the below expression, we are finding ancestors element of the current node(“ENTERPRISE TESTING” node).

Xpath=//*[text()='Enterprise Testing']//ancestor::div

There are 13 “div” nodes matching by using “ancestor” axis. If you want to focus on any particular element then you can use the below XPath, where you change the number 1, 2 as per your requirement:

Xpath=//*[text()='Enterprise Testing']//ancestor::div[1]

You can change the XPath according to the requirement by putting [1], [2]…………and so on.

Selects all children elements of the current node (Java) as shown in the below screen.

Xpath=//*[@id='java_technologies']//child::li

There are 71 “li” nodes matching by using “child” axis. If you want to focus on any particular element then you can use the below xpath:

Xpath=//*[@id='java_technologies']//child::li[1]

You can change the xpath according to the requirement by putting [1],[2]…………and so on.

Select all nodes that come before the current node as shown in the below screen.

In the below expression, it identifies all the input elements before “LOGIN” button that is Userid and password input element.

Xpath=//*[@type='submit']//preceding::input

There are 2 “input” nodes matching by using “preceding” axis. If you want to focus on any particular element then you can use the below XPath:

Xpath=//*[@type='submit']//preceding::input[1]

You can change the xpath according to the requirement by putting [1],[2]…………and so on.

Select the following siblings of the context node. Siblings are at the same level of the current node as shown in the below screen. It will find the element after the current node.

xpath=//*[@type='submit']//following-sibling::input

One input nodes matching by using “following-sibling” axis.

Selects the parent of the current node as shown in the below screen.

Xpath=//*[@id='rt-feature']//parent::div

There are 65 “div” nodes matching by using “parent” axis. If you want to focus on any particular element then you can use the below XPath:

Xpath=//*[@id='rt-feature']//parent::div[1]

You can change the XPath according to the requirement by putting [1],[2]…………and so on.

Selects the current node or ‘self’ means it indicates the node itself as shown in the below screen.

One node matching by using “self ” axis. It always finds only one node as it represents self-element.

Xpath =//*[@type='password']//self::input

Selects the descendants of the current node as shown in the below screen.

In the below expression, it identifies all the element descendants to current element ( ‘Main body surround’ frame element) which means down under the node (child node , grandchild node, etc.).

Xpath=//*[@id='rt-feature']//descendant::a

There are 12 “link” nodes matching by using “descendant” axis. If you want to focus on any particular element then you can use the below XPath:

Xpath=//*[@id='rt-feature']//descendant::a[1]

You can change the XPath according to the requirement by putting [1],[2]…………and so on.

Summary:

XPath is required to find an element on the web page as to do an operation on that particular element.

There are two types of selenium XPath:

Absolute XPath

Relative XPath

XPath Axes are the methods used to find dynamic elements, which otherwise not possible to find by normal XPath method

XPath expression select nodes or list of nodes on the basis of attributes like ID , Name, Classname, etc. from the XML document .

Also Check:- Selenium Tutorial for Beginners: Learn WebDriver in 7 Days

Students Protest University’s Handling Of Sexual Assault Cases

Students Protest University’s Handling of Sexual Assault Cases

On Monday, buildings, statues, and sidewalks around the Charles River Campus were peppered with signs and messages, written in chalk, by protesting students.

University News

Students Protest University’s Handling of Sexual Assault Cases Administration responds, says it’s prepared to investigate cases where there is “sufficient information”

Just as the Super Bowl was ending Sunday night, with snow falling across Boston, hundreds of BU students were gathering outdoors across campus—for a reason that had nothing to do with football. They came together for a protest, organized by the student group Campus Survivors, demanding the administration respond to students’ sexual assault accusations with more force and clarity, protesting how the University handles cases, and calling for more help for survivors of sexual assault.

The Daily Free Press reported that an estimated 600 students spread across campus carrying posters. And by Monday, their presence and actions could be seen all around the Charles River Campus, as buildings, statues, and sidewalks were peppered with signs and messages written in chalk, with statements like “BU is complicit” and “Our University has a sexual assault problem.” 

“It was a very powerful night, having many BU students come together on Super Bowl Sunday, late at night in the middle of a snowstorm,” Savannah Majarwitz (CAS’22), cochair of Student Government’s Mental Health Committee (MHC), said Tuesday. “It says a lot about the resilience of the BU community, that there is overwhelming support for change. And it speaks volumes that BU still hasn’t said anything.”

That last point changed on Tuesday. 

After the protest, students were incensed that they had not received any response from University administrators. They flooded the inboxes of President Robert A. Brown and other officials and took to social media to voice their anger. 

On Tuesday afternoon, Brown started to send individual letters to the more than 280 students who emailed him. In his note, shared with BU Today, he stressed that the University finds any form of sexual assault or harassment “reprehensible” and that it strongly condemns this behavior. “Every case that is brought to our attention is fully investigated in accord with federal and state law and regulations, including Title IX, and our own established procedures,” he wrote, citing the BU Sexual Assault Response & Prevention Center (SARP) as a resource and the University’s mandatory web-based sexual misconduct prevention training. He thanked the students for sharing victims’ accounts by email, describing them as deeply disturbing.  

“In those few cases where we are able to determine the likely identity of the alleged perpetrator, the University’s Title IX Coordinator or Dean of Students Office has initiated appropriate follow-up,” he said. “We are prepared to investigate any of the other cases, whether they involve faculty or other students, if the complainants or reporters provide us with sufficient information to do so.”

In addition to Brown, Kenneth Elmore (Wheelock’87), associate provost and dean of students, also wrote to the students, assuring them that their stories matter. “A word to all, especially the survivors in these stories: we are working to create a learning environment where students can decide the ways that work for them to bring criminal charges; to report these incidents for investigation to the University; and for individual, confidential care,” Elmore said.

The University has taken several recent steps to combat the issue. With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, it increased SARP’s telehealth offerings and adapted both BU’s bystander intervention training and graduate student training to be available online. It also joined the National Academies Action Collaborative, a group of 40-plus universities and research institutions, organized by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, that work to spotlight and eliminate sexual harassment in research labs, classrooms, and the administrative suite.

Last November, the University’s Equal Opportunity Office organized two listening sessions for the BU community about the school’s sexual misconduct policies. The second listening session specifically focused on a report, asked for by the provost and written by faculty members, containing concrete actions that the University could take to create a BU culture that is free from harassment. The BU community was asked for its feedback and the provost is now using these ideas to create evidence-based strategies to prevent sexual misconduct.

Sunday’s protest was organized by Prisha Sujin Kumar (CAS’22), cofounder of Campus Survivors, a group dedicated to supporting survivors of sexual assault and working to erase the stigma that many survivors feel in talking about being sexually assaulted. Sujin Kumar published her second open letter to University administrators last month, criticizing them for what she described as a lack of empathy and their “indifference” when punishing organizations with repeat accusations of assault and harassment.

Sujin Kumar says while her first open letter was in response to the outpouring of survivor stories, the second one was more out of anger. “I saw that there had been nothing done in the past six months, since various students had come forward with statements of their assaults, and I wanted to discuss how the problem actually got worse,” she says. “BU organizations were harboring predators and departments were protecting their own, and I had had enough. Feedback [from other students] both times was overwhelming.”

Both the University’s lack of response and the student feedback made her decide to form a list of five demands, which student groups and leaders then disseminated across social media channels as well as to administrators, calling for a public statement acknowledging sexual assault and sexual harassment at BU; implementing a zero-tolerance policy for all faculty; implementing a zero-tolerance policy for all student organizations; an anonymous reporting and strike system; and expanding resources for SARP. Sujin Kumar says these demands were designed to be tangible results that BU could enact quickly. More than 100 BU student groups and organizations have since joined the Campus Survivors movement.

A nationwide problem on college campuses

“What makes this problem not unique to BU is that campus rape is an epidemic on almost every college across the country,” Sujin Kumar says. According to the most recent Campus Climate Survey of Sexual Assault and Misconduct, published in 2023, one-third of BU students said they experienced some level of sexual harassment in school and one-third of undergraduate women reported some type of nonconsensual sexual contact. More than 20 percent of BU undergraduate women said they were victims of incidents involving physical force or the inability to consent to or stop what was happening. 

While BU surveys its students about such matters, not all colleges have had a similar system in place. On January 12, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker signed a new bill requiring that local colleges send out a sexual misconduct climate survey to its students, asking questions about the prevalence of incidents on campus and finding out how familiar students are with school policies and resources.

Amarri Harrison (CAS’22) is one of the students who had shared anonymously her sexual assault experience (unwanted communication and touching from a professor) on the Campus Survivors page, but was willing to speak with BU Today about it and about subsequent dealings with Judicial Affairs. She says she is furious after the experience, and that her concerns were not heard. Still, she encourages others to report and share their stories, if they feel comfortable doing so. “If it’s something you want to say and want to get off your chest, you can do it without the fear of retaliation on the page,” she says.

Sujin Kumar describes Sunday’s protest as “unreal,” and says that students do not plan to stop until the administration takes accountability “for its failure to protect survivors and takes tangible, active steps to create a safer and healthier environment for its students. One single statement is not going to be the end of this, and we are preparing for sit-ins, phone banking, marches, and town halls.

“This is only the beginning.”

Explore Related Topics:

Deque Insert( ) In C In Stl

Given is the task to show the functionality of Deque insert( ) function in C++ STL

What is Deque?

Deque is the Double Ended Queues that are the sequence containers which provides the functionality of expansion and contraction on both the ends. A queue data structure allow user to insert data only at the END and delete data from the FRONT. Let’s take the analogy of queues at bus stops where the person can be inserted to a queue from the END only and the person standing in the FRONT is the first to be removed whereas in Double ended queue the insertion and deletion of data is possible at both the ends.

What is insert( )

The deque insert( ) function is used to insert the elements in the deque.

The function is use to insert the element at specified position.

The function is also use to insert the n No. of element in deque.

It is also use insert the elements in the range at the specified.

Syntax deque_name.insert (iterator position, const_value_type& value) deque_name.insert (iterator position, size_type n, const_value_type& value) deque_name.insert (iterator position, iterator first, iterator last) Parameters

Value – specifies the new element to be inserted.

n – specifies the number of elements to insert.

first, last – It specifies the iterator which specifying a range of elements to be inserted.

Return Value

It returns the iterator that points to first of new inserted element.

Example

Input Deque − 1 2 3 4 5

Output New Deque − 1 1 2 3 4 5

Input Deque − 11 12 13 14 15

Output New Deque − 11 12 12 12 13 14 15

Approach can be followed

First we declare the deque.

Then we print the deque.

Then we declare insert( ) function.

By using above approach we can insert new element.

Example Using namespace std; int main ( ){    // declaring the deque    // print the deque    cout<< “ Deque: “;    for( auto x = deque.begin( ); x != chúng tôi ); ++x)       cout<< *x << “ “;    // declaring insert( ) function    x = deque.insert(x, 22);    // printing deque after inserting new element    cout<< “ New Deque:”;    for( x = deque.begin( ); x != chúng tôi ); ++x)       cout<< “ “ <<*x;    return 0; } Output

If we run the above code then it will generate the following output

Input - Deque: 55 84 38 66 67 Output - New Deque: 22 55 84 38 66 67 Example Using namespace std; int main( ){    cout<< “ Deque: “;    for( auto x = deque.begin( ); x != chúng tôi ); ++x)       cout<< *x << “ “;    deque.insert(x + 1, 2, ‘O’);    // printing deque after inserting new element    cout<< “ New Deque:”;    for( auto x = deque.begin( ); x != chúng tôi ); ++x)       cout<< “ “ <<*x;    return 0; } Output

If we run the above code then it will generate the following output

Input – Deque: B L D Output – New Deque: B L O O D Example Using namespace std; int main( ){    cout<< “ Deque: “;    for( auto x = deque.begin( ); x != chúng tôi ); ++x)       cout<< *x << “ “;    vector<int7gt; v(3, 19);    deque.insert(x, v.begin( ), chúng tôi ) );    // printing deque after inserting new element    cout<< “ New Deque:”;    for( auto x = deque.begin( ); x != chúng tôi ); ++x)       cout<< “ “ <<*x;    return 0; } Output

If we run the above code then it will generate the following output

Input – Deque: 65 54 32 98 55 Output – New Deque: 65 19 19 19 65 54 32 98 55

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