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Difference Between Primary Memory vs Secondary Memory

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What is Primary Memory?

The core computer device memory is primary memory. Present commands are copied to the primary memory, so the CPU can access the data directly from the primary memory. Primary memory accessing data is quicker because of internal memory, and the processor uses the data bus to access primary memory data. The primary memory is normally volatile in nature, meaning that the data is not stored in the primary memory until it is saved. The basic storage is semiconductor and costs more than secondary storage. The primary computer memory space is constantly lower than the secondary memory.

Primary memory is divided into two types first one is RAM, and the second one is ROM.

RAM: The memory of RAM is read and write. The currently needed data is stored in RAM and can be accessed easily from the CPU. When power is turned off, RAM is volatile and loses data. Static or dynamic RAM may be possible.

ROM: The ROM is a memory reading only; it cannot be modified in its substance. It is equipped with instructions to boot the device. It remains its contents even when power is disabled, i.e. ROM’s non-volatile memory. EPROM, PROM and EEPROM are the forms of ROMs.

What is the Secondary Memory?

Secondary memory is a machine auxiliary memory. The data to be permanently preserved in secondary storage is retained. The CPU does not have direct secondary memory access to the data. Initially, the data must be copied to primary memory and can only be processed through the CPU. Access to secondary memory data is also slower. You can access the secondary memory on the channel of input. The secondary memory is non-volatile, which ensures that the secondary memory material exists even though the power is turned off. The secondary storage is magnetic or optical storage, which is cheaper than the main storage.

Head to Head Comparison Between Primary Memory vs Secondary Memory (Infographics)

Key Difference Between Primary Memory vs Secondary Memory

Let us discuss some of the major key differences between Primary Memory vs Secondary Memory:

The principal distinction between primary and secondary memories is that the primary storage can be accessed directly through the Kernel, while the CPU cannot access the secondary storage directly.

The primary data memory is also called the main computer memory. Secondary memory, though, is called an auxiliary memory.

The data to be processed is currently in primary storage, but the data that must be retained indefinitely is stored in secondary storage.

Primary memories are memories of the semi-conductor, while secondary memories are magnet and optical. Main memory data access rates are higher than secondary memory.

Secondary memory is cheaper than primary memory.

By using a data bus, we can access primary memory, and the secondary memory is accessible by the input-output channels.

Primary Memory vs Secondary Memory Comparison Table

Sr. No

Primary Memory

Secondary Memory

1 By volatile and non-volatile memories, the primary memory is categorized. The secondary recall is often a non-volatile remembrance.

2 Memory devices mainly cost more than storage devices secondary to one. Secondary storage devices are cheaper than the main storage devices.

3 By data bus, you can access the primary memory. By input and output channels, you can access the secondary memory.

4 Primary memory data is accessed quicker.  Secondary memory data is slower to access.

5 Processor/CPU accesses directly to the main memory. CPU is not directly available to secondary memory.

6 It includes data or information that the processing unit currently uses. Power is typically between 16 and 32 GB. It stores a large amount of information and data. The terabyte size is normally 200GB.

7 In the case of a power loss, it is a volatile memory meaning the data cannot be stored. It is a non-volatile memory to hold the data even after power loss.


Primary storage is costly and is available on a device in a small capacity. Secondary storage is more accessible and present on the device in bulk. Even without secondary memory, but with primary memory, computers can work. So in this article, we have seen a detailed comparison of Primary memory and Secondary memory.

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Process Memory Management In Linux

Process memory management is a crucial aspect of any operating system. In Linux, memory management system is designed to efficiently manage memory usage, allowing processes to access and use memory they require while preventing them from accessing memory they do not own. In this article, we will discuss process memory management in Linux in detail, covering various aspects such as memory allocation, virtual memory, memory mapping, and more.

Memory Allocation

Memory allocation is process of assigning memory to a process or program. In Linux, kernel provides two main methods for memory allocation: static and dynamic.

Static Memory Allocation

Static memory allocation is done at compile-time, where memory allocation for a program is fixed and cannot be changed during runtime. memory is allocated in program’s data section or stack segment. data section contains global variables and static variables, while stack segment contains local variables.

Dynamic Memory Allocation

Dynamic memory allocation is done during runtime, where memory allocation for a program can be dynamically adjusted based on program’s requirements. kernel provides various system calls such as malloc(), calloc(), and realloc() to dynamically allocate memory. These functions allocate memory from heap segment of program’s address space.

Virtual Memory

Virtual memory is a memory management technique that allows a program to use more memory than is physically available in system. In Linux, virtual memory is implemented using a combination of hardware and software. hardware component is Memory Management Unit (MMU), which is responsible for translating virtual memory addresses to physical memory addresses. software component is kernel’s Virtual Memory Manager (VMM), which manages allocation and deallocation of virtual memory.

Memory Mapping

Memory mapping is a technique that allows a process to access a file’s contents as if it were part of process’s memory. In Linux, memory mapping is implemented using mmap() system call. mmap() system call maps a file into a process’s virtual memory address space, allowing process to read and write to file’s contents as if it were part of its own memory. Memory mapping is commonly used in applications such as databases and multimedia players, where large files need to be accessed efficiently.

Shared Memory

Shared memory is a technique that allows multiple processes to access same portion of memory. In Linux, shared memory is implemented using shmget(), shmat(), and shmdt() system calls. shmget() system call creates a shared memory segment, shmat() attaches shared memory segment to a process’s address space, and shmdt() detaches shared memory segment from process’s address space. Shared memory is commonly used in inter-process communication, where multiple processes need to share data efficiently.


Swapping is a technique that allows kernel to move pages of memory from RAM to a swap space on disk when system’s memory is low. In Linux, swapping is implemented using a combination of hardware and software. hardware component is disk, which is used as swap space. software component is kernel’s Swapping Manager, which manages swapping process. When system’s memory is low, Swapping Manager selects pages of memory to swap out to disk, freeing up memory for other processes.

Some additional concepts to consider include −

Kernel Memory Management

The Linux kernel itself also requires memory management, and it uses a separate set of memory management techniques to manage kernel memory. Kernel memory is used to store data structures and code required by kernel to operate. kernel uses techniques like memory mapping, page caching, and memory allocation to manage kernel memory.

Memory Protection

Memory protection is another critical aspect of memory management in Linux. Memory protection techniques prevent processes from accessing memory they are not authorized to access. MMU implements memory protection by using page tables, which map virtual memory addresses to physical memory addresses and track permissions for each memory page.

Memory Fragmentation

Memory fragmentation occurs when available memory is divided into small, non-contiguous chunks, making it difficult to allocate larger blocks of memory. Memory fragmentation can lead to performance issues and even crashes if system runs out of memory. Linux kernel uses several techniques to manage memory fragmentation, including memory compaction and defragmentation.

Memory Leak Detection

As mentioned earlier, failing to release dynamically allocated memory can result in memory leaks, where memory is not returned to system and can eventually cause program to crash due to insufficient memory. Detecting and fixing memory leaks is crucial for maintaining system stability and performance. Linux provides several tools for detecting memory leaks, including valgrind, which can detect memory leaks and other memory-related issues.


In conclusion, process memory management is a crucial aspect of any operating system, and Linux is no exception. Linux kernel provides a robust and efficient memory management system, allowing processes to access and use memory they require while preventing them from accessing memory they do not own. In this article, we discussed various aspects of process memory management in Linux, including memory allocation, virtual memory, memory mapping, shared memory, and swapping. Understanding these concepts is essential for any Linux developer or administrator to efficiently manage memory usage in their systems.

Free Memory Games For Adults And Seniors

Developing the thinking faculty has been one thing humans have worked hard on and still do. Scientists, doctors, and psychologists have weighed in. A lot of strides over the years have been made.

These are free memory games that adults, seniors and everyone else should try!

1. Lumosity

Platforms: Web, Android, iOS

Lumosity consists of online memory games for both adults and kids. The games are put together by scientists who adapt cognitive training exercises that have been developed by leading researchers into games.

To use this online memory enhancing service, you need to sign up with your email address. After signing up, based on your education, your age, and your profession, you will receive a set of three games. These games are aimed at gradually sharpening the memory by increasing focus, skill, attention to detail and ability to solve problems.

After completing a game, you can compare your scores with the millions of online players in the database. You can then gauge where you stand, how much you have improved and how far you need to go.

2. New York Times Crossword

Platforms: Web, Android, iOS

The reputable American newspaper The New York Times has a long and illustrious tradition of crossword puzzles. Now, crosswords may not seem directly like memory games, but a lot has been written about the connections between crosswords and healthy memory function.

Of course, there are a lot of crossword apps out there, but the NYT one feels like a clever and high-level one, with interesting phrases that will activate those neural pathways.

You can get access to the same crosswords you find in the paper through an app or through your browser, so head on over and become part of this age-old NYT tradition.

3. Memozor

Just like Lumosity, memozor is not just one game but a suite of games. You will find games like matching pairs, Simon, and abacus. These games are categorized by age groups, which include babies, kids, adults, and seniors.

A good point about this platform is that it has memory games for two players and includes card memory games and themed memory games.

The games are free and unlimited. Additionally, they are all responsive and will work well across all your devices.

4. Sudoku

Platforms: Web, Android, iOS

Sudoku is a highly addictive puzzle game. Unlike crossword puzzles, they are number based. You are given nine 3-by-3 matrices of numbers. You will be required to complete the blank spaces with numbers from 1 to 9. In doing this, you have to make sure that each number only appears once per matrix, column, and row.

Apart from helping to improve memory, it is a good game for improving deduction, as you will be doing a lot of that throughout the game.

5. Mind Games

For memory-enhancing games, Mind Games leaves nothing hidden. This website is more a combo of memory-enhancing games, hosting a number of games, and, of course, they all are free.

The games are divided into sections, and you will be able to choose between memory, math, puzzle, word, and Sudoku. There are more than ten games to choose from in each section.

Frequently Asked Questions 1. Do memory and brain training games actually improve memory?

As is often the case in the world of science, the actual evidence for memory games improving brain function is “promising” but “inconclusive”. A survey conducted by AARP found that about two out of three adults aged 50 and over believe that brain training games do help their memory function, but of course that’s maybe just a personal perception.

2. Do memory games help dementia?

The most promising studies on this front came in 2023, when a meta-analysis at the University of Sydney showed that brain training games can help maintain brain function among adults with “mild cognitive impairment” (a key risk factor for dementia). Once diagnosed with dementia however, these exercises aren’t shown to be effective.

3. Are memory games important for preschoolers?

Memory games are a great way to get kids to focus and think hard about solving problems. There’s a lack of research into this, but surely you’d rather they did brain training games than watch another episode of Paw Patrol?

Do you want to explore more interesting games? See our list of the best hidden Google games for guidance. We can also show you how to sync your game progress between Android devices.

Robert Zak

Content Manager at Make Tech Easier. Enjoys Android, Windows, and tinkering with retro console emulation to breaking point.

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Locate And Fix Windows 10 Memory Leaks

Windows 10 was released in 2023 and brought in many features that improved the usability of the operating system. It is, however, far from perfect as many users report numerous bugs, which plague their user experience on their devices.

One such issue is the memory leak in Windows 10 operating system. This is a result of faulty memory allocation, as one or many RAM locations remain unreleased. Here I shall discuss Windows 10 memory leak, and how to solve this issue.

We have shown a VIDEO walk through at the end of the post for easy solution.

Since this is a software bug, physically changing the memory module will not solve your issue. A memory leak affects your system in many ways. These include:

No free memory is available during idle tasks.

Many applications fail to run properly if sufficient ram not available to them.

Your system will feel slow and the performance will take a hit, as insufficient memory will lead to poor response time.

Many applications may crash, including Windows itself.

Continuous strain on the device may eventually lead to hardware issues as well.

If you see your device slow down even during idle stages, you can suspect a memory leak. To confirm this, you can use many memory diagnostic tools, which will help you confirm your suspicions.

You can use the built-in tool called Resource Monitor, which can be used to scan system resources. Use the Run dialog (Win + R), type resmon, and press Enter to launch the Resource monitor. Under the Memory tab, monitor the Standby (blue bar) with the applications you usually use running.

You can also use the Windows Memory diagnostic tool to scan the memory usage at boot. Use the Run dialog and type chúng tôi and press Enter. Select Restart now option, and Windows will scan your physical memory and device thoroughly at boot.

Microsoft has another great tool called RaMMap, which can be used to check how Windows assigns physical memory and cached data in RAM. Download RaMMap, and run it as an administrator to diagnose your device for any lost memory.

If you found a memory leak on your device, you must fix memory leak immediately to save your device from being damaged. A memory leak is an issue that needs to be solved by the product developers. Here are some of the ways in which you can attempt to solve a Windows 10 memory leak.

The task manager is a great place to monitor your current processes and how much resources they are occupying on your device. Use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + Shift + Esc to launch the task manager, and use this tool to monitor the applications running on your device.

Outdated drivers also cause many problems, including memory leaks. Windows has included the inbuilt Device Manager tool that can be used to check outdated drivers on your device.

Open a Run dialog by pressing Win + R. Type chúng tôi and press Enter to launch the device manager.

The memory diagnostic tool that you used earlier can also be used to scan and fix errors associated with your physical memory. This can come in handy if you suspect that the physical memory altercations may be causing this error.

To run and schedule a memory scan, follow these steps:

Open a Run window by pressing Win + R.

Type mdsched.exe and press Enter to launch the Memory Diagnostic Tool.

Upon reboot, perform a basic scan, or go for the Advanced options like ‘Test mix’ or ‘Pass count’. Press F10 to start the test.

The diagnostic tool will scan and fix the bad sectors in your memory module, and may eventually fix memory leak on your device.

Many users have reported that there was a hidden malware on their device, which was causing the improper memory allocation on their devices. This is actually a common fault that many people face, as malware can hide itself on devices by disguising themselves as other popular apps.

If you already own premium anti-virus software, you can use that to run a malware scan. Alternatively, you can choose from other free options like Malwarebytes, which can do the basics for free.

Windows 10 usually defrags your hard drive automatically to prevent any memory and storage errors. However, you can occasionally do this manually as well to optimize your performance.

Select Properties from the context menu.

After you follow the on-screen instructions that follow, restart your device to save the new fragmentations.

You can use this simple registry tool, to clear the chúng tôi that Windows uses as Virtual Memory. When Windows runs out of physical memory, it uses Page File by writing some of the memory to the disk. Clearing this will increase the shutdown time of your device, but the memory allocation shall improve.

Open a Run window by pressing Win + R.

ComputerHKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSession ManagerMemory Management

Change its value to 1.

Restart your device.

Type And Function With Uses Of Register Memory

Introduction to Register Memory

The smallest and fastest memory in a computer that is not part of the main memory is called Register Memory. This memory is located in CPU as registers where registers can be identified as the smallest elements to hold data. Frequently used data is stored in registers as well as the instructions and the memory address used in CPU. Data or address is given to the CPU where the data is stored and retrieved. Register memory also has the location of the data so that accessing data is easy from the CPU or from the register.

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Architecture of Register Memory

This is an architecture that is led by instructions so that operations are performed on the memory and the registers. If the architecture has all the operands in the register, then it is called as register plus memory architecture.

One of the operands of an operation can be in the memory and the other one in the register. This acts as a difference from other architectures where both operands of operation should be either in the register or in the memory.

Examples are IBM System/360 and Intel x86.

Registers are small in size and the numbers are also less in CPU. The size of a register is less than 64 bits. It is faster than the main memory and disk memory. The word size depends on the size of general-purpose registers.

Instructions are given from the computer for the registration number and the addresses in the register. Different identifiers of registers include R0, R1, R7, SP, and PC. Register acts as an interface between program and data storage in the system.

Type and Function of Register Memory

The three important functions of computer registers are fetching, decoding, and execution. Data instructions from the user are collected and stored in the specific location by the register. The instructions are interpreted and processed so that the desired output is given to the user. The information has to be fully processed so that the user gets and understands the results as expected. The tasks are interpreted by the registers and stored in computer memory. When a user asks for the same, it is given to the user. The processing is done according to the need of the user.

Memory Address Register: This register holds the addresses and instructions. Stored data and instructions can be accessed using this register from the memory so that instructions can be executed effectively.

Memory Buffer Register: Contents inside data or the given instructions are held in this register that is either read or stored in the CPU. The instructions in this register are moved to the instruction register and the data stored here is moved to the input-output register.

Instruction Register: All the instructions from the main memory is stored in this register. The Control unit handles the instructions from this register. Interprets and compiles it. This is done with the help of sensitive signals so that assigned tasks are carried out.

Program Counter Register: This is also called the instruction pointer register. The address of the instructions are saved here. Also, the locations are sorted out so that the IP address is known. This register has the address of all the instructions in the memory or CPU.

Accumulator Register: The register located inside the Arithmetic Logic Unit and helps in arithmetic and logic operations of the system is called Accumulator Register. Data values of these operations are fetched from CPU and stored in specific locations of the register and fetched whenever required. Previous data, immediate results, and last results are held in this register. The final result is given to the user with the help of the Memory Buffer Register.

Stack Control Register: Set of memory blocks is called stack. Data stored and retrieved from the blocks are used for operations and the retrieval is in a systematic manner. Its order is in the form of First In Last Out (FILO). The stacks are managed in the CPU memory and the size is normally in the range of 2-4 bytes.

Flag Register: Occurrence of the certain conditions during operations in CPU is indicated with the help of this register. The size ranges from 1-2 bytes and each bit has a flag or an alarm and if a specific condition occurs, instructions are carried out that is stored in the bit.

Use of Register Memory

Frequently used, data, instructions, and the address and location of all these are held in the registers so that CPU can fetch it whenever needed. CPU processing instructions are held in the register. Any data to be processed should pass through the registers before processing. Hence, we can say that registers are used to enter the data by the users to be processed from the CPU.

Data is quickly accepted, stored, and transferred in the registers and any type of register is used to perform the specific functions required by CPU. Users need not know much about the register as it is held by CPU for buffering data and as temporary memory.

Registers are buffers to store data that is copied from the main memory so that processor can fetch the data whenever it is needed. The information is held in the register so that the location and address is known to the register and can be used to know the IP addresses.

The base register can modify computer operations or the operands according to the need and address portion can be added to the register in the instruction of the computer system.

Any CPU has registers and few bytes are assigned to them. The fast memory and instructions to work on the system is located in the register. The register is actually the compiler that holds temporary data rather than the RAM so that programs run faster than expected in the system.

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Illustrator Can’t Finish Previewing, There Isn’t Enough Memory

While using Adobe Illustrator, you may notice an error message stating – Illustrator can’t finish previewing, There isn’t enough memory, ID 108 when you want to see the artwork. Vector graphics, especially ones with high resolutions and large file sizes can be resource intensive. This fact and other things can cause Illustrator not to be able to preview your work.

Why is Illustrator unable to finish previewing?

You may wonder what it means for Illustrator to preview. As you work, you can see your work coming together live as you make changes. You can see the full color, effects, and all that you do happen in real time. This makes it easy to make artwork as you can see all that is happening in real time. As you reach milestones in your design, you may want to preview the work. When Illustrator fails to do so, it can be due to insufficient memory in your system.

Illustrator can’t finish previewing, There isn’t enough memory

If you see Illustrator can’t finish previewing, There isn’t enough memory, ID 108bwhen you want to see the artwork, there are a few things that may cause the problem and there are ways to fix the problem.

Outdated software

Too many open apps

Minimum system requirements not met

Complex artwork

Damaged or corrupt file

1] Outdated software

Adobe releases updates for Illustrator and the other software that it has. When Illustrator is not updated, it can have problems when you try to work with it. the updates will provide new features or improvements, fixes to bugs, and other known issues. With the software not updated, that could cause problems when trying to preview. Check the Adobe website for updates and also check the Adobe community for persons who may have the same problems and if there are any solutions.

2] Too many open apps

When Illustrator has to preview, a lot of resources are required to preview the artwork, especially if it is a large file. When there are a lot of open apps, they take up a lot of RAM. If Illustrator can’t finish previewing, try closing some of the open apps and try again.

Insufficient hard drive space or a slow hard drive can cause the preview error. Free up space on the hard drive if it is getting full. You can also upgrade to a faster SSD hard drive with more storage. You may also move files to a secondary drive and leave only the installed software on the primary drive.

3] Minimum system requirements not met

Illustrator is a resource-intensive software, especially when you are working on large, complex, and high-resolution artwork. If the minimum system requirements are not met and even exceeded this could cause Illustrator to have problems previewing these artworks. It is best to get a PC with 8 GB of RAM and a dedicated graphics card to run Illustrator.

4] Complex artwork

Illustrator can create artwork that can be very complex. With all the available tools and effects, artwork can quickly become very complex and burden the software or PC’s ability to preview it. Artwork may be using 3D, effects, perspective, mesh, and other tools and effects. These could slow down the software or even cause it to crash. If you suspect that the problem is complex artwork or if Illustrator gives that error, you may need to split up the artwork into different segments to make it work. You may also have to make the artwork less complex. In certain cases, saving the artwork, closing illustrator, and restarting the PC can help with the problem.

5] Damaged or corrupt file

Illustrator may fail to preview an artwork if the file is corrupt or damaged. This is sometimes the case when the artwork is being imported or opened in Illustrator. The artwork may have links to the artwork that is corrupt or missing. There may be corrupt or missing fonts, swatches, or patterns. You may need to find the exact font or a font that is close to a substitute for the missing font. If the problem is a corrupt or missing linked file. The link will have to be fixed.

Read: A symbol definition cannot contain a linked image Illustrator error

Can Illustrator crash if it can’t finish previewing?

Depending on what is the cause of Illustrator not being able to finish previewing, Illustrator can crash. If Illustrator can’t finish previewing because the system resources are low, the system requirements are not met or the file is damaged, Illustrator can crash and the PC may also give a blue screen error.

What is Outline view in Illustrator?

Outline view in Illustrator is where the outlines of shapes and vectors are shown instead of all their colors and other details. This is good when shapes are placed together and you want to see how they overlap. To toggle the outline view on or off, press Ctrl + Y.

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