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What is a Process?

Process is the execution of a program that performs the actions specified in that program. It can be defined as an execution unit where a program runs. The OS helps you to create, schedule, and terminates the processes which is used by CPU. A process created by the main process is called a child process.

Process operations can be easily controlled with the help of PCB(Process Control Block). You can consider it as the brain of the process, which contains all the crucial information related to processing like process id, priority, state, CPU registers, etc.

In this Operating system tutorial, you will learn:

What is Process Management?

Process management involves various tasks like creation, scheduling, termination of processes, and a dead lock. Process is a program that is under execution, which is an important part of modern-day operating systems. The OS must allocate resources that enable processes to share and exchange information. It also protects the resources of each process from other methods and allows synchronization among processes.

It is the job of OS to manage all the running processes of the system. It handles operations by performing tasks like process scheduling and such as resource allocation.

Process Architecture

Process architecture Image

Here, is an Architecture diagram of the Process

Stack: The Stack stores temporary data like function parameters, returns addresses, and local variables.

Heap Allocates memory, which may be processed during its run time.

Data: It contains the variable.

Text Section includes the current activity, which is represented by the value of the Program Counter.

Process Control Blocks

PCB stands for Process Control Block. It is a data structure that is maintained by the Operating System for every process. The PCB should be identified by an integer Process ID (PID). It helps you to store all the information required to keep track of all the running processes.

It is also accountable for storing the contents of processor registers. These are saved when the process moves from the running state and then returns back to it. The information is quickly updated in the PCB by the OS as soon as the process makes the state transition.

Process States

Process States Diagram

A process state is a condition of the process at a specific instant of time. It also defines the current position of the process.

There are mainly seven stages of a process which are:

New: The new process is created when a specific program calls from secondary memory/ hard disk to primary memory/ RAM a

Ready: In a ready state, the process should be loaded into the primary memory, which is ready for execution.

Waiting: The process is waiting for the allocation of CPU time and other resources for execution.

Executing: The process is an execution state.

Blocked: It is a time interval when a process is waiting for an event like I/O operations to complete.

Suspended: Suspended state defines the time when a process is ready for execution but has not been placed in the ready queue by OS.

Terminated: Terminated state specifies the time when a process is terminated

After completing every step, all the resources are used by a process, and memory becomes free.

Process Control Block (PCB)

Every process is represented in the operating system by a process control block, which is also called a task control block.

Here, are important components of PCB

Process Control Block (PCB)

Process state: A process can be new, ready, running, waiting, etc.

Program counter: The program counter lets you know the address of the next instruction, which should be executed for that process.

CPU registers: This component includes accumulators, index and general-purpose registers, and information of condition code.

CPU scheduling information: This component includes a process priority, pointers for scheduling queues, and various other scheduling parameters.

Accounting and business information: It includes the amount of CPU and time utilities like real time used, job or process numbers, etc.

Memory-management information: This information includes the value of the base and limit registers, the page, or segment tables. This depends on the memory system, which is used by the operating system.

I/O status information: This block includes a list of open files, the list of I/O devices that are allocated to the process, etc.


A process is defined as the execution of a program that performs the actions specified in that program.

Process management involves various tasks like creation, scheduling, termination of processes, and a dead lock.

The important elements of Process architecture are 1)Stack 2) Heap 3) Data, and 4) Text

The PCB is a full form of Process Control Block. It is a data structure that is maintained by the Operating System for every process

A process state is a condition of the process at a specific instant of time.

Every process is represented in the operating system by a process control block, which is also called a task control block.

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Paging In Operating System (Os): What Is, Advantages, Example

What is Paging in OS?

Paging is a storage mechanism that allows OS to retrieve processes from the secondary storage into the main memory in the form of pages. In the Paging method, the main memory is divided into small fixed-size blocks of physical memory, which is called frames. The size of a frame should be kept the same as that of a page to have maximum utilization of the main memory and to avoid external fragmentation. Paging is used for faster access to data, and it is a logical concept.

In this Paging tutorial, you will learn:

Example of Paging in OS

For example, if the main memory size is 16 KB and Frame size is 1 KB. Here, the main memory will be divided into the collection of 16 frames of 1 KB each.

There are 4 separate processes in the system that is A1, A2, A3, and A4 of 4 KB each. Here, all the processes are divided into pages of 1 KB each so that operating system can store one page in one frame.

At the beginning of the process, all the frames remain empty so that all the pages of the processes will get stored in a contiguous way.

In this example you can see that A2 and A4 are moved to the waiting state after some time. Therefore, eight frames become empty, and so other pages can be loaded in that empty blocks. The process A5 of size 8 pages (8 KB) are waiting in the ready queue.

In this example, you can see that there are eight non-contiguous frames which is available in the memory, and paging offers the flexibility of storing the process at the different places. This allows us to load the pages of process A5 instead of A2 and A4.

What is Paging Protection? Advantages of Paging

Easy to use memory management algorithm

No need for external Fragmentation

Swapping is easy between equal-sized pages and page frames.

Here, are drawback/ cons of Paging:

May cause Internal fragmentation

Page tables consume additonal memory.

Multi-level paging may lead to memory reference overhead.

What is Segmentation?

Segmentation method works almost similarly to paging, only difference between the two is that segments are of variable-length whereas, in the paging method, pages are always of fixed size.

A program segment includes the program’s main function, data structures, utility functions, etc. The OS maintains a segment map table for all the processes. It also includes a list of free memory blocks along with its size, segment numbers, and it’s memory locations in the main memory or virtual memory.

Advantages of Segmentation

Here, are pros/benefits of Segmentation

Offer protection within the segments

You can achieve sharing by segments referencing multiple processes.

Not offers internal fragmentation

Segment tables use lesser memory than paging

Here are cons/drawback of Segmentation

In segmentation method, processes are loaded/ removed from the main memory. Therefore, the free memory space is separated into small pieces which may create a problem of external fragmentation

Costly memory management algorithm


Paging is a storage mechanism that allows OS to retrieve processes from the secondary storage into the main memory in the form of pages.

The paging process should be protected by using the concept of insertion of an additional bit called Valid/Invalid bit.

Paging may cause Internal fragmentation

Segmentation method works almost similarly to paging, only difference between the two is that segments are of variable-length whereas, in the paging method, pages are always of fixed size.

You can achieve sharing by segments referencing multiple processes.

Segmentation is costly memory management algorithm

Process Memory Management In Linux

Process memory management is a crucial aspect of any operating system. In Linux, memory management system is designed to efficiently manage memory usage, allowing processes to access and use memory they require while preventing them from accessing memory they do not own. In this article, we will discuss process memory management in Linux in detail, covering various aspects such as memory allocation, virtual memory, memory mapping, and more.

Memory Allocation

Memory allocation is process of assigning memory to a process or program. In Linux, kernel provides two main methods for memory allocation: static and dynamic.

Static Memory Allocation

Static memory allocation is done at compile-time, where memory allocation for a program is fixed and cannot be changed during runtime. memory is allocated in program’s data section or stack segment. data section contains global variables and static variables, while stack segment contains local variables.

Dynamic Memory Allocation

Dynamic memory allocation is done during runtime, where memory allocation for a program can be dynamically adjusted based on program’s requirements. kernel provides various system calls such as malloc(), calloc(), and realloc() to dynamically allocate memory. These functions allocate memory from heap segment of program’s address space.

Virtual Memory

Virtual memory is a memory management technique that allows a program to use more memory than is physically available in system. In Linux, virtual memory is implemented using a combination of hardware and software. hardware component is Memory Management Unit (MMU), which is responsible for translating virtual memory addresses to physical memory addresses. software component is kernel’s Virtual Memory Manager (VMM), which manages allocation and deallocation of virtual memory.

Memory Mapping

Memory mapping is a technique that allows a process to access a file’s contents as if it were part of process’s memory. In Linux, memory mapping is implemented using mmap() system call. mmap() system call maps a file into a process’s virtual memory address space, allowing process to read and write to file’s contents as if it were part of its own memory. Memory mapping is commonly used in applications such as databases and multimedia players, where large files need to be accessed efficiently.

Shared Memory

Shared memory is a technique that allows multiple processes to access same portion of memory. In Linux, shared memory is implemented using shmget(), shmat(), and shmdt() system calls. shmget() system call creates a shared memory segment, shmat() attaches shared memory segment to a process’s address space, and shmdt() detaches shared memory segment from process’s address space. Shared memory is commonly used in inter-process communication, where multiple processes need to share data efficiently.


Swapping is a technique that allows kernel to move pages of memory from RAM to a swap space on disk when system’s memory is low. In Linux, swapping is implemented using a combination of hardware and software. hardware component is disk, which is used as swap space. software component is kernel’s Swapping Manager, which manages swapping process. When system’s memory is low, Swapping Manager selects pages of memory to swap out to disk, freeing up memory for other processes.

Some additional concepts to consider include −

Kernel Memory Management

The Linux kernel itself also requires memory management, and it uses a separate set of memory management techniques to manage kernel memory. Kernel memory is used to store data structures and code required by kernel to operate. kernel uses techniques like memory mapping, page caching, and memory allocation to manage kernel memory.

Memory Protection

Memory protection is another critical aspect of memory management in Linux. Memory protection techniques prevent processes from accessing memory they are not authorized to access. MMU implements memory protection by using page tables, which map virtual memory addresses to physical memory addresses and track permissions for each memory page.

Memory Fragmentation

Memory fragmentation occurs when available memory is divided into small, non-contiguous chunks, making it difficult to allocate larger blocks of memory. Memory fragmentation can lead to performance issues and even crashes if system runs out of memory. Linux kernel uses several techniques to manage memory fragmentation, including memory compaction and defragmentation.

Memory Leak Detection

As mentioned earlier, failing to release dynamically allocated memory can result in memory leaks, where memory is not returned to system and can eventually cause program to crash due to insufficient memory. Detecting and fixing memory leaks is crucial for maintaining system stability and performance. Linux provides several tools for detecting memory leaks, including valgrind, which can detect memory leaks and other memory-related issues.


In conclusion, process memory management is a crucial aspect of any operating system, and Linux is no exception. Linux kernel provides a robust and efficient memory management system, allowing processes to access and use memory they require while preventing them from accessing memory they do not own. In this article, we discussed various aspects of process memory management in Linux, including memory allocation, virtual memory, memory mapping, shared memory, and swapping. Understanding these concepts is essential for any Linux developer or administrator to efficiently manage memory usage in their systems.

What Are 5 Easy Steps Of Process Management In ’23?

Process management can assist business leaders and analysts to develop a new product or service, complete a process such as a product order, manage customer service, and educate a new employee.

Although process management is a beneficial practice, implementing it can be challenging for business analysts might confuse it with other, slightly similar process, such as process improvement, process workflow management, process intelligence, process planning and process design.

We aim to describe process management, explain its differences with process improvement and workflow management and explore 5 BPM stages.

What is process management?

Business process management, BPM, is the method for standardizing and aligning company processes with their strategies and goals for effective management of business operations. BPM includes the analysis of firm’s processes to ensure efficient and smooth cross-departmental operations and exchange of information. The processes can be relevant to customers, partner companies, systems or suppliers.

Process management can automatically measure processes, check processes workflows, and manage them effectively with Business Process Management (BPM) Software or with a process intelligence tool, such as process mining.

BPM vs workflow management vs process improvement

Process management and workflow management are distinct concepts because process management deals with business processes as a whole. Workflow management, on the other hand, deals with the definition, analysis, and coordination of a single process’ workflows, unlike workflow management where a single process’s workflows (e.g., invoice register).

These two concepts are related to each other because process management and workflow management ultimately fuel process improvement. Process improvement detects inefficiencies and improves the process performance for a better customer experience. Explore other benefits of process improvement through real life examples and case studies.

What are the 5 stages of process management?

Business Process Management (BPM) contains five main steps:

1. Analyzing

At this pre-step to management, business analysts gather data, analyze it, and model it to understand the processes and to identify the ones to improve. The analysts prepare performance metrics that assess whether the process is efficiently executing the operations and adding value to the company.

Quick tip:

The analysts should dedicate some time to choose a relevant set of tools to analyze their data. For example, data science tools can be limited for the companies that to leverage their process event log data. In this case, these firms should look for a process mining and task mining software which apply data science techniques to process data.

2. Designing & Modeling

After understanding the current situation, the analysts should design or modify already created models to map and document ideal end-to-end processes. The documents can include information about the time, duration of each task, employees involved in the workflow.

Quick tip:

The analysts should ensure that the designed or updated processes are accurate and worthy of implementation. Also, once it is designed, analysts should plan the process by diving into the process workflows visualization to identify steps and activities.

3. Implementing

At this stage, analysts apply the formerly designed and planned process. Implementing the process is often required to update procedures, change the resourcing, train employees, and look for the relevant technology.

Quick tip:

Applying and monitoring the process at a small scale is recommended to measure the impact and revise it before using it.

4. Monitoring

At this stage, the entire process is executed at a broader scale, and analysts monitor and collect data to measure the process performance. With this phase, business analysts can see if the process is effective and fulfills the main goal or if it requires more improvements.

Quick tip:

It is recommended to compare the ideal model against the actual data to calculate the exact return on investment. Business analysts can generate relevant metrics or leverage process intelligence tools such as process mining or a digital twin of an organization to assess and compare the process models.

5. Optimizing

In this final step, business analysts should monitor and refine their processes based on data-driven models. Some analysts can identify process automation opportunities to avoid repetitive or manual activities. In some cases, business analysts need to update their processes due to a market or internal change.

Quick tip:

It is important to remember that sometimes processes may need to be re-design because they do not correspond to the changes happening, or they might require innovation.

Further reading

Download our whitepaper on process mining to see its benefits, use cases and a 6 steps guidance to choose the right vendor:

If you want to to manage and improve your processes, start comparing vendors through our comprehensive and data-driven process mining vendor lists and BPM software lists.

Assess different vendors with a transparent methodology yourself by downloading our checklist: 

And, if you still need more help:

Hazal Şimşek

Hazal is an industry analyst in AIMultiple. She is experienced in market research, quantitative research and data analytics. She received her master’s degree in Social Sciences from the University of Carlos III of Madrid and her bachelor’s degree in International Relations from Bilkent University.





How To Configure Stms (Sap Transport Management System)

STMS is the transport tool that assists the CTO for central management of all transport functions. TMS is used for performing:

Defining Transport Domain Controller.

Configuring the SAP system Landscape

Defining the Transport Routes among systems within the system Landscape

Distributing the configuration

Transport Domain Controller – one of the systems from the landscape that contains complete configuration information and controls the system landscape whose transports are being maintained jointly. For availability and security reasons, this system is normally the Productive system.

Within transport domain, all systems must have a unique System Ids and only one of these systems is identified as the domain controller, the transport domain controller is the system where all TMS configuration settings are maintained. Any changes to the configuration settings are distributed to all systems in the landscape. A transport group is one or more systems that share a common transport directory. Transport Domain – comprises all the systems and the transport routes in the landscape. Landscape, Group, and Domain are the terms that are used synonymously by system administrators.

TMS Configuration

Step 1: Setting up the Domain Controller

Log on to the SAP system, which is decided to be the Domain Controller, in client 000 and enter the transaction code STMS.

If there is no Domain Controller already, a system will prompt you to create one. When the Transport Domain is created for the first time, following activities happen in the background:

Initiation of the Transport Domain / Landscape / Group

Creating the user TMSADM

Generating the RFC Destinations required for R/3 Configurations, TMSADM is used as the target login user.

Creating chúng tôi file in usr/sap/trans/bin directory – This file contains the TMS configuration and is used by systems and domains for checking existing configurations.

Step 2: Transaction STMS

Step 3: Adding SAP systems to the Transport Domain

Log on to SAP systems (to be added in the domain) in client 000 and start transaction STMS.

TMS will check the configuration file chúng tôi and will automatically propose to join the domain (if the domain controller already created). ‘Select’ the proposal and save your entries.

For security purpose, system status will still be in ‘waiting’ status, to be included in the transport domain.

Step 4: Configuring Transport Routes

Transport Routes – are the different routes created by system administrators and are used to transmit changes between the systems in a system group/landscape. There are two types of transport routes:

Consolidation (From DEV to QAS) – Transport Layers are used

Delivery (From QAS to PRD) – Transport Layers not required

Transport Layer – is used to group the changes of similar kinds, for example, changes are done in development objects of same class/category/package, logically should be sent through same transport route. Therefore transport layers are assigned to all objects coming from DEV system. Layers are used in Consolidation routes, however after Testing happens in QAS, layers are not used and the changes are moved using single routes towards PRD system.

Package – (formerly known as Development Class) is a way to classify the objects logically belonging to the same category or project. A package can also be seen as an object itself and is assigned to a specific transport layer (in consolidation route), therefore, changes made in any of the development object belonging to a particular Package, will be transmitted towards target system through a designated Transport Layer only, or else the change will be saved as a Local (non-transportable) modification.

How To Pick A Document Management System For Business


A well-maintained document management platform can ensure you do not lose records or damage important documents.

Did You Know?

Most of the top document management system providers offer tiered plans with varying levels of features and support, so the best plan for your business depends on your needs and the number of users who need access.

What are the special DMS needs of small businesses?

Although many DMS features are necessary for businesses of any size or industry, there are a few notable features that small businesses should especially look for:

Customer support

Digital uploading capabilities


Security and disaster recovery

Ease of use

As a small business, you probably don’t have a full IT team ready to troubleshoot and support your DMS. Find a DMS that has a comprehensive support team to accommodate your support needs.

Weitz said you will need software that can quickly upload all your information and support your expected growth.

“Manually typing in all the files that you currently have would be a nightmare, so it is best to find a solution that offers scanning capabilities or an easy way to update what you have now with what you are moving towards,” he said. “Be sure that what you invest in today will support you as you reach your goals. I have seen many businesses invest in a small option only to outgrow it immediately.”

Mistakes happen – your business needs to prepare for them. Since a poor reputation can destroy a small business, it is essential to find a secure DMS that has good security and disaster recovery features.

“A DMS can provide a cost-effective disaster recovery system for critical information and data so you can be back on your feet faster than your competition,” said Collins.

Bottom Line

As your business grows, you will need to train new hires on your document management system. Employee onboarding will be easier if your DMS is simple to implement, navigate and understand.

“There are many misconceptions about document management systems, and the main misconception is that they’re complicated. This is simply not true,” said Collins. “A good DMS is very simple and easy to use. It is a tool to help employees find important content or documents when needed. If you’re using a cloud system, it’s a great way for employees to access content from anywhere, whether they’re remote or traveling.”

Do your research to find the best document management system for your small business. Weitz recommends making a request for a proposal (RFP) for the top vendors you are considering.

“Once you have this information, schedule a demo with each one so that you can be very clear on how the software functions from a usability perspective,” he said. “Everything might sound great on paper, but the system may not be intuitive or easy to navigate.”

How to choose a document management system Determine your document management needs.

Before you invest in a DMS, assess current issues within your business and determine what is needed to solve them. In the process, include employees who will use the system in the future to ensure the DMS solutions will benefit them. Additionally, consider the future growth of your business and whether the DMS can support you along the way. [Learn about how to choose the best Microsoft document management system.]

Identify reliable vendors.

After you have identified your current business needs, conduct thorough research on vendors and their offerings. Avoid vendors that offer a cheap one-size-fits-all approach. Rather, search for vendors that have experience in the industry, prioritize security, provide customer support, and integrate well with your current systems and applications. Consider features, prices and solutions for each vendor before settling on one. It also might benefit you to talk with the vendors directly.

Prioritize security.

No matter how many documents are stored in your DMS, it is still a huge loss if they are lost or stolen in a data breach. Security should be a high priority when searching for a DMS. Vendors that offer strong security features for their products are worth considering. Make sure to speak with vendors about how often security features are updated and when you’ll know about upcoming updates.

Additionally, consider the access control options available with each vendor. To avoid unwanted access, choose a DMS that allows admins to set permissions, such as read-only, open access or limited access. Admins can manage controls through each employee’s profile.

Verify support options.

With any technology, there is always the chance of user error, updates that mess with operations or users who need assistance. Tech and product support are essential to consider before choosing a DMS vendor. Look for a vendor that offers multiple channels of support, such as phone, online messaging and email.

Additionally, consider the hours of support offered and whether or not that fits the schedule of your daily operations. You wouldn’t want to go with a vendor whose support hours fall before or after your hours of operation if there’s an issue. Find out how long it will take to answer a support request and if there are any additional fees.

Additional reporting by Sean Peek.

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