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Overview

SAP CRM has many standard roles defined (for e.g., Sales Professional) and applications within these roles (for e.g., Account Management)

In general scenario, companies do not use the standard applications as it is and go for minor or major enhancements

Considering this, SAP CRM has been implemented with tools for the enhancement of SAP standard applications. Using these tools, it is possible to change the views, add fields, add tables, etc. into the existing applications

These tools mainly includes:

Web UI Configuration Tool

Application Enhancement Tools (AET)

Web UI Configuration Tool

The layout displayed for any view in SAP CRM is maintained as Web UI Configuration

These configurations are identified using 4 parameter values

Thus, you can enhance the Web UI Configurations with new layouts using different parameter values

The fields displayed in the Web UI comes from the database structures defined in the data dictionary

As per the requirement not all the fields are displayed in all the screens

It is possible to modify the screens using Web UI Configuration tool

With this tool, it is possible to remove some fields from the screens

Also it allows to add a field available in the data dictionary structure to the screen

On all the pages in the CRM Web UI, there is a button to go to “Web UI tool”

There are pre-defined roles needed to make this button available

Thus, in order to see this button and to do modifications in this tool, user must have sufficient authorizations

Buttons on Web UI page Lets study them below

Configurable Area : This highlights the area in screen that are configurable

Configure page : This opens the pop-up to configure the current page:

Configuration View for Work Centre page

Personalization

With this, user can set own layout of the view

This affects individual user and not applicable to whole application

Print Page : To take print out of current page

In order to create a new layout, it is possible to use “New” button to create a blank form

Also you can use copy the existing configuration and then modify it as required

Web UI Configuration Tool supports drag-n-drop feature to add the fields to the layout

It also provides ability to set different properties of a field

In few cases, implementations of these enhancements also include ABAP programming in the Web UI Components

Configuration View for Form View in Overview Page – I

Available Configurations (screenshot above)

A configuration is identified with a unique combination of following fields:

Role Configuration Key

Component Usage

Object Type

Object Subtype

Depending upon different combination there can multiple configurations available for a view

Selecting a row in this assignment block updates the “Current configuration design” to show the layout designed under selected configuration

Buttons to work on configuration (see above screenshot): These are the buttons to modify the “Current configuration design” for selected configuration in “Available Configurations”

Add Caption: With button it is possible to add the caption on the Form view in an overview page

Add Line: This button appends a row in the “Current configuration design” area

Move Up: This button is to move a selected field one row above its current row

Move Down: This button is to move a selected field one row below its current row

Show Available Fields:(Fig. 3) it shows all the fields that are available to be added to the layout so that it is visible on the application

Show Field Properties:(Fig. 3) it shows you can see and set properties of the field selected on the layout

In edit mode, it is possible to modify some of these properties

Configuration View for Form View in Overview Page – II

This tool supports addition or removal of fields (available in the data dictionary) from the view layout

With this tool it is not possible to add the fields into the data dictionary structures and tables such that they reflect in your CRM.

Configuration screen for table view has a different layout, where user needs to set the available columns and properties of these columns

Configuration View for Table View

Security Concerns

End users should not have access to perform these settings in the configuration tool. Only super users or developers are provided with these roles

Any change made is visible to all the users accessing the application

On top of the changes implemented in the UI Configuration tool, end users can do settings for personalization of the view. Personalization settings are applicable to the individual user and are not shared among the end users

As per the requirement, personalization can be controlled within the customizing setting

This means that there are customizing settings with which developers can restrict users from personalization of the views

After applying this setting, personalization button will not be available for the end users

Application Enhancement Tool (AET)

Application Enhancement Tool is a comprehensive tool for the enhancement of the SAP standard applications such that the modifications till the database level are implemented by the tool itself and there is almost no coding effort.

This tool is also integrated with the Web UI Configuration tool.

Similar to the UI Configuration tool, first you need to select the configurable area (highlighted in blue) from the application

This will open UI Configuration tool in the same window as shown below

UI Configuration Tool for AET

We need to select a relevant button for AET enhancements (highlighted above)

Display Enhancements: Enables you to see already existing enhancements. It is possible to select an enhancement and to modify it

“Create Field” button can be used to create a new field in the select view

Following is the display of existing field and table enhancements:

Display Enhancement View

This view is having buttons for View & Table enhancements in respective assignment blocks:

New: Using this button it is possible to create new fields and also to create tables

Using the hyperlink in first column (Enhancement Id) it is possible to edit an existing enhancement

Enhancing View

Select Business Object part

Depending upon the object selected, the database tables and the structures will be selected.

While creating a field, you need to set properties of the field:

Set properties of the new field

According to the properties selected the field will be generated and different layers will be enhanced for the new field

“Enable Export Mode” button can be used so that the framework picks properties from the Data Element used in the field definition

In Expert Mode, we need to set value for the Data Element field

In data element definition, it is possible to set properties like Label (Description)

Thus different properties of the field are to be set automatically using data element definition in data dictionary

Set properties of the new field – Expert Mode enabled

Similarly we can create table fields using the AET

For table, we need to specify the details of the table as a whole and also the individual fields to be generate for the table

Set properties of the new field – Expert Mode enabled

Creating a Table View using AET

Once field or table is generated using the AET, the application will restart and the user can then use the new field or table

These fields and table will also have updated the required database tables

This means that when you enter value for these fields and perform save, the value will get stored in the database

Creating a Table View using AET

You're reading Sap Crm Web Ui: Configuration, Application & Enhancement Tools

Sap Crm Webui Concepts Tutorial: Step By Step Guide

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Overview of SAP CRM WebUI

CRM WebClient UI is a web based application for the modules covered in SAP CRM.

This framework has evolved over the period of time as successor of different user interfaces provided by SAP for the SAP CRM.

Web UI history

It is a business role based application:

This means that through this interface the user will be able to access only those applications for which he/she is having authorizations.

If a user is assigned a single role, he will not have to select the role on logon.

But in case there are multiple roles assigned to a user, he/she will have to select one of the available roles in order to log in to the CRM Web UI

Business Role selection in first page of SAP CRM Web UI

Irrespective of the role selected the screens of the CRM Web UI are structured in L-Shape.

But the applications and functionalities which user will be able to access in the CRM Web UI depends up on the role selected.

L-Shape

Once logged in, user can see the Web UI screens in L-Shape.

L-Shape display in SAP CRM Web UI

It consists of following components:

Header Area

Navigation Area

Work Area

Positions of all components of the L-Shape are fixed and cannot be changed.

An administrator can change the skin and logo of the web client as per company specific requirements.

Header area is provided to access application independent URLs and functionalities.

Using navigation bar user can access different applications, to which he is having authorizations.

Work Area gets updated based on actions a user takes on the Navigation bar.

It also gets updated for few actions on the header area.

Header Area

Header area is static and its position is fixed.

It is possible to set its height in the CRM customizing but its position is fixed.

Header area consists of following components

System Links

Saved Searches

Work Area Title

History

Components in SAP CRM Web UI Header

Navigation Bar

Using navigation bar, user can accesses the application to which he/she is having authorizations.

It also has few links for generic pages like:

Home

WorkList

E-Mail Inbox

Calendar

Other links available in the navigation bar are application specific and vary from one business role to another business role. These links are divided into following:

Application link

Quick create links

Recent Items

Navigation Bar in SAP CRM Web UI

Application links can be configured at two levels.

Using first level application links user can access the search, create and report links of a particular application.

Levels of navigation via Navigation bar

Second level application links directly takes user to particular search page.

Quick create links are meant for direct access to the create page for a particular business process document.

Quick create block in the navigation bar

Recent items in navigation bar represent a kind of history and maintain last visited business documents or applications by the user.

Work Area

Work area is the place where user works!

It gets updated with actions that user takes on the navigation bar.

It can consist of

calendar,

e-mail Inbox,

work center groups,

search-result page,

overview pages,

sub overview page

Following are few generic pages available:

Home Page:

Depending upon the business requirement, content of the Home page can be configured for standard (My Open Tasks) or custom functionality (CRM Links).

Navigation from the Home page will depend upon its content.

Home page

Worklist page:

It displays alerts, workflow tasks and business transactions which are currently pending with or assigned to the logged in user.

It is possible to navigate to different application or business transaction from worklist page.

Worklist page

E-Mail Inbox and Calendar

This page can be configured to be in sync with the user mailbox

For this, CRM middleware settings are used so that user can access mailbox within Web UI

Different views are possible within the calendar page – single day, week, month view

Calendar View

Similarly user can see the E-Mail inbox in sync with the Lotus Notes server or Outlook.

Work Area

Applications assigned to the logged in user are accessed in the Work Area

Work Area with Work Centre Groups

From work center user can navigate to Create page, search page or report page.

As discussed above, in case of generic pages like Home page, WorkList page, etc. work area has different layout and content.

But for the applications in the navigation bar, the structure and layout of work area is identical across the applications.

To implement “work area”, knowledge of both Web UI programming and CRM customizing is needed.

Search Page

Search page is divided into search criteria, result table and saved search area.

Advanced Search Page

Within search criteria user can set the criteria to find an element.

It is possible to add or remove search criteria using the buttons available next to search criteria fields.

Search criteria fields can be implemented with F4 help or dropdown help.

Multiple operators can be configured for each search criteria.

Search result shows the result obtained from the search.

Once search is performed, result table shows the number of records found, if any.

It possible to have buttons on top of the result table header to provide some business process. For example, there are buttons to create different type accounts in the above figure.

In general, buttons to create new record are presented on the search result table header.

On the right-side end, search result table also contains buttons which enable user to export the records to Excel sheet and the button for personalization of the search result table.

The record found in the search result can also contain hyperlink in columns.

With these hyperlinks, it is possible to navigate to the individual record which is displayed in the Overview page.

Personalization settings pop-up view

Using the personalization button on the search result table header, user can personalize this view for the columns displayed and the order in which the columns are displayed.

As highlighted above:

User can the value of row count after which scroll bar will be visible.

Also user can set the values for number of records in single page.

Overview Pages

Overview page can be used to work on complete data related to a single record.

It is used to display, update and create new data such as business partner, sales order, etc.

The data from single application or business transaction is organized into assignment blocks.

First assignments block shows the header or main details and other data are grouped in to different assignment blocks as per the requirement.

Possible views in an assignment block:

Form view

Table view

Tree view

The header of the Overview page displays the title of the object which is open and its description.

The header also consists of the header buttons with which user can perform different task on the overview page.

Another component of the header is the History buttons with which user can navigate back and forward within the work area.

Overview Page Search Page – Form and Table View

Tree View

Similar to search result table, overview page contains a personalization button with which user can select which assignment blocks user can see within the page.

An assignment block can by default be loaded in expanded or lazy mode. This helps in the performance improvement of the application.

All types of view in assignment block i.e. form view, table view and tree view can contain input fields with F4 input help or dropdown input help.

Value help Pop-Up using F4

Date fields in the views are displayed with date help.

Within form view we can group the data using the Captions.

Individual assignment block can also contain buttons on the header.

Search help Pop-Up

Table view and tree view can contain header which can also have buttons.

Also, it is possible to have buttons in the first column of a table view.

It is possible to have hyperlinks within all these types of view.

Using these hyperlinks it is possible to navigate from one application or business transaction to another. For example, to Sold-to party from a Sales Order.

As per requirement, it is possible to have attachments assignment block in Overview page.

Assignment block for Attachments

In this block it is possible to attach documents or URLs.

It is possible to attach document from content management or from the local hard disk:

Pop-up to add attachment

Once attached you can see the document properties, open it or delete it.

Assignment block for Attachments

There is also a region for the error messages in the header area:

Personalize

There is an option for personalization of the CRM Web UI.

Here it is possible to set settings which are applicable across the applications for logged in user.

Here user can also change the skin of the application.

In the “Personalize My Data” section user can set values for the settings like format of date.

In layout section user can set Skin of the application.

Personalization Options

Setting skin in personalization

There is a separate block for settings related to the Groupware integration.

In this block user can maintain required settings for the integration of CRM with user mailbox for E-Mail and Calendar pages.

Jmeter Elements: Thread Group, Samplers, Listeners, Configuration

What is Element in JMeter?

The different components of JMeter are called Elements. Each Element is designed for a specific purpose.

The figure below gives some common elements in JMeter.

Studying all the components in one go is an invitation to confusion and boredome. Here, we will discuss the must-know components before you can start Testing in JMeter.

Remaining components will be discussed as when they are used in the succeeding tutorials. The elements discussed in this tutorial are

Thread Group

Samplers

As we know already that JMeter supports testing HTTP, FTP, JDBC and many other protocols.

We already know that Thread Groups simulate user request to the server

But how does a Thread Group know which type of requests (HTTP, FTP etc.) it needs to make?

The answer is Samplers

The user request could be FTP Request, HTTP Request, JDBC Request…Etc.

FTP request:

Let’s imagine you want to performance test an FTP server. You can use an FTP request sampler in JMeter to do this task. This controller lets you send an FTP “download file” or “upload file” request to an FTP server.

For example, if you want to download a file “Test.txt” from an FTP server under test, you need to configure some parameters in JMeter as the figure below

HTTP request:

This sampler lets you send an HTTP/HTTPS request to a web server.

Consider the example below. JMeter sends an HTTP request to Google website and retrieve HTML files or image from this website.

In the tutorial JMeter Performance Testing, we will explain more about this HTTP request.

JDBC request:

This sampler lets you execute Database Performance Testing. It sends a JDBC Request (an SQL query) to a database.

For example, a database server has a field test_result stored in a table name test_tbl. You want to query this data from the database server; you can configure JMeter to send a SQL query to this server to retrieve data.

BSF Sampler:

This sampler allows you to write a sampler using a BSF scripting language.

Here is an example of BSF Sampler in JMeter

Access Log Sampler:

This sampler allows you to read access logs and generate HTTP requests. The log could be image, Html, CSS…

SMTP Sampler:

If you want to test a mail server, you can use SMTP sampler. This sampler is used to send email messages using the SMTP protocol.

Listeners

Listeners: shows the results of the test execution. They can show results in a different format such as a tree, table, graph or log file

Graph result listeners display the server response times on a Graph

View Result Tree show results of the user request in basic HTML format

Table Result show summary of a test result in table format

Log show summary of a test results in the text file

Configuration Elements

set up defaults and variables for later use by samplers.

The figure below shows some commonly used configuration elements in JMeter

CSV Data Set Config:

Suppose you want to test a website for 100 users signing-in with different credentials. You do not need to record the script 100 times! You can parameterization the script to enter different login credentials. This login information (e.g. Username, password) could be stored in a text file. JMeter has an element that allows you to read different parameters from that text file. It is “CSV Data Set Config”, which is used to read lines from a file, and split them into variables.

This is an example of CSV Data. It’s a text file which contains user and password to login your target website

HTTP Cookie Manager

Let’s understand this with an example –

You log in with your user and password.

Your username and password will be stored in your computer as cookies.

Next time, when you visit chúng tôi you don’t need to do log in again because your browser will use your cookies as user data to log in.

HTTP Cookie Manager also has the same feature as a web browser. If you have an HTTP Request and the response contains a cookie, the Cookie Manager automatically stores that cookie and will use it for all future requests to that particular website.

HTTP request default

This element lets you set default values that your HTTP Request controllers use.

For example,

You would have to manually enter server name = chúng tôi for all these 100 requests

No need to type 100 times!

This element will be explained in detail in tutorial JMeter Performance Testing

Login Config Element

The Login Config Element lets you add or override username and password settings in samplers.

For example, you want to simulate one user login to website chúng tôi with user and password. You can use the Login Config Element to add this user and password setting in a user request

The Login Config Element vs. the CSV data Config

Login Config Element CSV Data Config

Used to simulate one user login Used to simulate multiple user login

Suitable for login parameter only (user and password) Suitable for large numbers of parameters

Self Determination Theory Meaning Application

Our actions and decisions greatly impact the innate desire for happiness in every one of us. Our ability to continue making the necessary modifications to keep our health healthy depends heavily on our ambition or energy focused on a purpose. According to the character idea, persons might become identities after their desires for sovereignty, knowledge, and connection are met.

Explanation of Self Determination Theory

Self Determination Theory (SDT) is a theoretical approach applied in various contexts, including work, athletics, wellness, and learning. The ego is the ability to make independent decisions and run one’s life. Lack of emotional administration might give you the impression that other individuals are in charge of your life, but it helps you regain control. It contends that three pillars of strength (together with usual personal variables) drive the creation and improvement of humans. In this theory, the idea of self-motivation solely out of enjoyment—plays a key role. Since mindfulness effectively and widely enhances general wellness, it is connected to personality. Another recommended practice is giving a positive first impression while conversing with these subcategories, such as those with mental retardation. According to identity formation, individuals are more motivated to act when they believe their actions will impact the outcome, which is how identity impacts desire. Find out more about how this approach works and what you can do to enhance your capacity for Individual Leadership.

Assumption

Two fundamental tenets of character theory are: The requirements for progress influence mood and the notion that people are currently motivated by development forms the basis of psychological science. One should overcome barriers and participate in various events if they are to grow in confidence. Personal drive is crucial. In contrast to exogenous drive, defined as factors such as money, prizes, or accolades, self‐efficacy, often known as “pushing from the inside,” pertains to qualities like a desire to learn and independence.

Functioning of Self Determination Theory

Two fundamental presumptions underlie independent predictor: Changes in behavior result from progress demands. The premise that people are actively motivated by development is the cornerstone of the theoretical approach. Overcoming obstacles and engaging in various experiences are necessary for developing a positive self-image. It is critical to have personal drive. The character theory claims that extrinsic drive, which is defined as addition to income, incentives, or praise, is different from intrinsically motivated, often known as pushing from inside, which booklet like a desire to understand and autonomy. Positive feedback might make someone feel more in control of their life. Deci adds that delivering unexpected congratulations and helpful criticism on how someone handled a task may boost inner motivation. People who get this support feel more competent, which is essential for personal development.

Improvement of Self Determination Theory of Cognitive Evaluation

Cognitive evaluation theory (CET) was the first SDT mini-theories (Deci & Ryan, 1980). It concerns how social environment elements influence intrinsic motivation—the prototype of autonomous motivation (Deci, 1975). People intrinsically driven for an activity engage in it because they find it fascinating and delightful, and they feel the fulfilment of the three basic psychological needs while doing so. According to research, elements that frustrate the basic requirements for competence or autonomy reduce intrinsic motivation, whereas those that promote those needs increase intrinsic drive. Informational factors are those that assist the requirements, whereas controlling factors are those that impede them.

The early research focused on the impacts of rewards. It was discovered that some types of incentives, such as performance-contingent awards, were more likely to be regarded as controlling, lowering intrinsic motivation. Other rewards, such as positive feedback, were viewed as more informative, leading to competence and intrinsic drive. Although contentious at the time, a meta-analysis by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) proved the distinction between informational and regulating rewards, and neuropsychological research backs this up. This difference between informative and regulating surroundings, or as it was subsequently dubbed, the dichotomy between need-supportive and need-thwarting contexts, widened studies of social contexts on motivational processes in various life domains

Characteristics of Self-Directed People

They believe they are responsible for their own lives. People with consciences have an internal center of control and believe that their decisions may alter the course of events. They believe they can handle challenging circumstances by exercising caution, making sensible decisions, and moving forward. They have strong internal motivation. High-character individuals do not need external incentives or punishments to spur themselves on to complete a task. Rather, their behavior is driven by internal incentives. Individuals naturally incline to set and work toward goals. Their actions are guided by their preferences and interests. Those who are motivated by themselves actively behave in ways that will help them achieve their goals, to be more precise.

SDT as a Lens for the Study of Motivational Processes at Work

Motivational principles from SDT’s mini-theories have been employed in research to explain phenomena in various fields of psychology and numerous applied domains, including the organizational domain. Gagné and Deci (2005) released a review article in 2005 that summarised the early SDT organizational research. Following this, a thriving literature arose, described in an essay by Deci, Olafsen, and Ryan (2024). That publication cited more than 200 contributions, and the literature has grown. At its heart, this corpus of research has sought to uncover, investigate, and explain the antecedents and effects of motivational processes outlined in SDT mini-theories. After assessing the findings, Deci et al. (2024) provided a simple SDT model in the workplace. The model is built around two major independent variables: social settings and individual characteristics. Specifically, research has aimed to identify workplace elements as contextual determinants of significance for CET-described motivational processes. Furthermore, causality orientations (COT) and aspirations (GCT) have been investigated to account for individual differences in motivational processes at work, albeit to a much lesser extent than contextual variables.

Conclusion

The Individual Administration idea may help determine what could inspire your actions. People’s well-being depends on having their own identities or being able to make decisions that determine their future. Following objectives and goals with special meaning might make you feel better and enhance your capacity to make wise decisions.

Configuration Files And Key Features Of Nginx Unit

Introduction to NGINX Unit

Nginx unit supports the restful json API services; we can deploy the configuration changes by using the nginx unit without disrupting the services of running applications on multiple frameworks and languages. It is a polyglot app server defining the reverse proxy and a static file server available on UNIX and Linux-like systems. The team members of nginx build it.

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What is NGINX Unit? Using NGINX Unit

Nginx unit is the most popular reverse proxies and web server; it offers infinite configurability and high-performance commonly used components in modern stacks like Kubernetes. Now the team of nginx is offering the unit of nginx, which was used to solve modern development processes and challenges.

It contains a layer of consistent networking. The networking layer will need to be treated in a cohesive and challenging way when every application includes a network component slightly configured differently. Nginx unit is a growing trend that is lifting the concerns of networking for the individual application, and it will make the responsibility of the layer of infrastructure. It will consolidate the concerns of networking by exposing the common API. Clear separation is provided by the Nginx unit between the application processes and the networking layer. It will make it possible to change the configuration of the network without restarting the hosted application. We can say that changes in networking are applied to the running system without defining the downtime.

We can combine this ability for applying the changes on the live system by using a consistent network configuration that the application was hosted on a unit of nginx. Below is the part of the nginx configuration file.

Code:

location / { fastcgi_pass localhost:9000; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string; }

Output:

We can install it in a second, and it will start using a single command. Also, we can host the application on nginx by using a single configuration update. It will not require databases, agents, control planes, and a dedicated cluster for running. When comparing the amount of work with cloud deployment, we can get the Kubernetes cluster up and running.

NGINX Unit Configuration Files

It will contain the declarative model for everyday use cases; it is away from the model of imperative configuration instead of exposing the declarative configuration model. We can say that the model is less configurable than the traditional configuration file of nginx. But the nginx unit is doing an excellent job in routing and the security options. The declarative configuration module makes the nginx unit approachable for configuring the cloud services.

Below is the configuration file of nginx as follows:

Code:

server { location / { fastcgi_pass localhost:9000; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string; } ; root /images }

This format of configuration is very familiar to the developers of the languages of curly quote languages. The nginx file syntax is not confirming the general standard. If suppose we want to update the file regularly, we can write the sed command to edit the raw text. Using regular expressions for modifying the configuration files is not a pleasant experience. We will find a regex that matches what we had expected. It addresses the same by using the configuration of JSON.

Every modern computing platform contains a rich CLI tool backed by a well-structured API. It’s straightforward to take the functionality for granted for finding the sed against the configuration file, and then we restart the service.

NGINX Unit Key Features

Different key features are mentioned below. First, the configuration will be managed dynamically by using HTTP.

1. Flexibility: Configuration update is performed runtime using granularly with zero interruption. The nginx unit request will be routed between local apps, upstream servers, and static contents. Filtering requests and dispatching are used in the matching rules, allowing regular expressions. We can use the nginx unit app in multiple languages and versions.

2. Performance: Request will be processed by thread synchronously with the efficient loops. Data copy operations and the sys call will be kept at the minimum necessary. App processes and routers will rely upon low latency.

3. IPC built and queues of lock-free over in our shared memory. Multi-thread processing of requests is supported in python and java. The number of app processes will be defined statistically.

5. Condition of low resources and crashes of the app will be handled gracefully. Different types of apps will be isolated into the process, which is separate.

6. Apps will be containerized additionally by using the namespace and the isolation file system. It will contain the file serving the benefits of static.

7. Supported App Languages: It will support the languages of binary compiled by using the embedded library. We can use overloading into the module of HTTP. We can use PHP, javascript, Perl, ruby, and python.

8. When it does not provide any CLI tool, it will expose all the configurations using HTTP API.

9. It will provide flexibility for choosing how to expose the API. We can say that we can use the scripting tool of our choice for interacting.

10. There is no longer ambiguity in the configuration data structure; it is easier to update the updated values programmatically.

Conclusion

Nginx is fully configured and highly efficient at runtime; it is beneficial and essential in restful JSON APIs. The configuration access is json based, accessed by the control socket, and manageable using HTTP. We are using a curl query with an nginx unit for controlling API.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to NGINX Unit. Here we discuss the introduction using the NGINX unit, configuration files, and critical features. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

The Limitation Act: Meaning And Application

The Limitation Act, 1963, is a crucial piece of legislation in India that establishes the time limit within which a legal action must be initiated. This act provides a legal framework for determining the period within which a lawsuit must be filed, ensuring that justice is not unduly delayed. This article provides an overview of the meaning, application, history, and conclusion of the Limitation Act, along with some frequently asked questions.

Meaning of the Limitation Act

The Limitation Act, 1963, is a law that prescribes the time limit for filing a legal action or suit. These time limits, known as limitation periods, are designed to promote legal certainty, prevent the use of stale claims, and encourage prompt resolution of disputes. However, there are some limitations of suits under the Limitation Act that can affect the rights of parties seeking to enforce their legal claims.

The Act specifies the maximum time within which a case can be filed. If the case is not filed within the prescribed time, it will be considered barred by law, and the plaintiff will lose the right to sue. The purpose of this Act is to prevent the undue delay in justice and ensure the speedy resolution of disputes.

It provides a general limitation period of three years for most civil suits. This means that any legal action seeking to enforce a civil right must be initiated within three years from the date on which the right accrued. However, there are exceptions to this general rule, and some types of claims have different limitation periods.

For example, suits for breach of contract must be initiated within three years from the date on which the breach occurred, whereas suits for recovery of possession of immovable property must be initiated within 12 years from the date on which the possession was lost. Similarly, suits for declaration of title to immovable property must be initiated within 12 years from the date on which the right to sue first accrued.

Application of the Limitation Act

The Limitation Act applies to all civil and commercial lawsuits, including breach of contract, recovery of debts, damages for negligence, etc. The Act prescribes different time limits for different types of lawsuits.

For instance, the time limit for filing a suit for breach of contract is three years from the date on which the breach occurred. The time limit for filing a suit for recovery of money is three years from the date on which the money became due. In certain cases, the time limit may be extended if the plaintiff can show that he was prevented from filing the suit due to reasons beyond his control.

In such cases, the limitation period may start only when the plaintiff becomes aware of their right to sue. This is known as the “discovery rule”. However, this rule is subject to certain limitations and exceptions.

For example, the discovery rule does not apply to cases of fraud, where the plaintiff is deemed to have discovered their right to sue when the fraud is discovered. Similarly, the discovery rule does not apply to cases of breach of trust, where the plaintiff is deemed to have discovered their right to sue when the breach of trust occurred.

History of the Limitation Act

The Limitation Act, 1963, replaced the Limitation Act, 1908, which was based on the English Limitation Act, 1623.

The 1908 Act was applicable to the entire British India and continued to be in force even after India gained independence in 1947. However, several amendments were made to the Act, resulting in confusion and inconsistencies in the law.

To address these issues, the Indian Parliament enacted the Limitation Act, 1963, which replaced the 1908 Act.

The new Act consolidated the law on limitation and provided a uniform framework for the entire country.

Conclusion

The Limitation Act, 1963, is an essential piece of legislation that provides a legal framework for determining the time limit for filing a lawsuit. It ensures that justice is not unduly delayed and that disputes are resolved quickly. The Act prescribes different time limits for different types of lawsuits and can be extended in certain circumstances. The Act replaced the Limitation Act, 1908, and provided a uniform framework for the entire country.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is the meaning of Limitation Act, 1963?

Ans. The Limitation Act 1963 (c. 47), an act of the British Parliament, changed the statute of limitations to permit lawsuits in some circumstances when the aggrieved party did not learn of the injury until after the usual deadline for filing one.

Q2. What is the limitation period for civil cases?

Ans. Typically, the period of limitation for instituting civil suits (as per the Limitation Act, 1963) is three years from the date on which the cause of action arose; however, it depends upon the subject matter, if subject matter varies, limitation period also varies.

Q3. What is limitation period delay?

Ans. If it can be demonstrated that the delay resulted from a valid reason under unavoidable circumstances, a court may grant forgiveness of the delay in accordance with the Limitation Act, 1963.

Q4. Where is Limitation Act applicable?

Ans. The Act extends to the whole of India. It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

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