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Overview of SAP CRM WebUI

CRM WebClient UI is a web based application for the modules covered in SAP CRM.

This framework has evolved over the period of time as successor of different user interfaces provided by SAP for the SAP CRM.

Web UI history

It is a business role based application:

This means that through this interface the user will be able to access only those applications for which he/she is having authorizations.

If a user is assigned a single role, he will not have to select the role on logon.

But in case there are multiple roles assigned to a user, he/she will have to select one of the available roles in order to log in to the CRM Web UI

Business Role selection in first page of SAP CRM Web UI

Irrespective of the role selected the screens of the CRM Web UI are structured in L-Shape.

But the applications and functionalities which user will be able to access in the CRM Web UI depends up on the role selected.


Once logged in, user can see the Web UI screens in L-Shape.

L-Shape display in SAP CRM Web UI

It consists of following components:

Header Area

Navigation Area

Work Area

Positions of all components of the L-Shape are fixed and cannot be changed.

An administrator can change the skin and logo of the web client as per company specific requirements.

Header area is provided to access application independent URLs and functionalities.

Using navigation bar user can access different applications, to which he is having authorizations.

Work Area gets updated based on actions a user takes on the Navigation bar.

It also gets updated for few actions on the header area.

Header Area

Header area is static and its position is fixed.

It is possible to set its height in the CRM customizing but its position is fixed.

Header area consists of following components

System Links

Saved Searches

Work Area Title


Components in SAP CRM Web UI Header

Navigation Bar

Using navigation bar, user can accesses the application to which he/she is having authorizations.

It also has few links for generic pages like:



E-Mail Inbox


Other links available in the navigation bar are application specific and vary from one business role to another business role. These links are divided into following:

Application link

Quick create links

Recent Items

Navigation Bar in SAP CRM Web UI

Application links can be configured at two levels.

Using first level application links user can access the search, create and report links of a particular application.

Levels of navigation via Navigation bar

Second level application links directly takes user to particular search page.

Quick create links are meant for direct access to the create page for a particular business process document.

Quick create block in the navigation bar

Recent items in navigation bar represent a kind of history and maintain last visited business documents or applications by the user.

Work Area

Work area is the place where user works!

It gets updated with actions that user takes on the navigation bar.

It can consist of


e-mail Inbox,

work center groups,

search-result page,

overview pages,

sub overview page

Following are few generic pages available:

Home Page:

Depending upon the business requirement, content of the Home page can be configured for standard (My Open Tasks) or custom functionality (CRM Links).

Navigation from the Home page will depend upon its content.

Home page

Worklist page:

It displays alerts, workflow tasks and business transactions which are currently pending with or assigned to the logged in user.

It is possible to navigate to different application or business transaction from worklist page.

Worklist page

E-Mail Inbox and Calendar

This page can be configured to be in sync with the user mailbox

For this, CRM middleware settings are used so that user can access mailbox within Web UI

Different views are possible within the calendar page – single day, week, month view

Calendar View

Similarly user can see the E-Mail inbox in sync with the Lotus Notes server or Outlook.

Work Area

Applications assigned to the logged in user are accessed in the Work Area

Work Area with Work Centre Groups

From work center user can navigate to Create page, search page or report page.

As discussed above, in case of generic pages like Home page, WorkList page, etc. work area has different layout and content.

But for the applications in the navigation bar, the structure and layout of work area is identical across the applications.

To implement “work area”, knowledge of both Web UI programming and CRM customizing is needed.

Search Page

Search page is divided into search criteria, result table and saved search area.

Advanced Search Page

Within search criteria user can set the criteria to find an element.

It is possible to add or remove search criteria using the buttons available next to search criteria fields.

Search criteria fields can be implemented with F4 help or dropdown help.

Multiple operators can be configured for each search criteria.

Search result shows the result obtained from the search.

Once search is performed, result table shows the number of records found, if any.

It possible to have buttons on top of the result table header to provide some business process. For example, there are buttons to create different type accounts in the above figure.

In general, buttons to create new record are presented on the search result table header.

On the right-side end, search result table also contains buttons which enable user to export the records to Excel sheet and the button for personalization of the search result table.

The record found in the search result can also contain hyperlink in columns.

With these hyperlinks, it is possible to navigate to the individual record which is displayed in the Overview page.

Personalization settings pop-up view

Using the personalization button on the search result table header, user can personalize this view for the columns displayed and the order in which the columns are displayed.

As highlighted above:

User can the value of row count after which scroll bar will be visible.

Also user can set the values for number of records in single page.

Overview Pages

Overview page can be used to work on complete data related to a single record.

It is used to display, update and create new data such as business partner, sales order, etc.

The data from single application or business transaction is organized into assignment blocks.

First assignments block shows the header or main details and other data are grouped in to different assignment blocks as per the requirement.

Possible views in an assignment block:

Form view

Table view

Tree view

The header of the Overview page displays the title of the object which is open and its description.

The header also consists of the header buttons with which user can perform different task on the overview page.

Another component of the header is the History buttons with which user can navigate back and forward within the work area.

Overview Page Search Page – Form and Table View

Tree View

Similar to search result table, overview page contains a personalization button with which user can select which assignment blocks user can see within the page.

An assignment block can by default be loaded in expanded or lazy mode. This helps in the performance improvement of the application.

All types of view in assignment block i.e. form view, table view and tree view can contain input fields with F4 input help or dropdown input help.

Value help Pop-Up using F4

Date fields in the views are displayed with date help.

Within form view we can group the data using the Captions.

Individual assignment block can also contain buttons on the header.

Search help Pop-Up

Table view and tree view can contain header which can also have buttons.

Also, it is possible to have buttons in the first column of a table view.

It is possible to have hyperlinks within all these types of view.

Using these hyperlinks it is possible to navigate from one application or business transaction to another. For example, to Sold-to party from a Sales Order.

As per requirement, it is possible to have attachments assignment block in Overview page.

Assignment block for Attachments

In this block it is possible to attach documents or URLs.

It is possible to attach document from content management or from the local hard disk:

Pop-up to add attachment

Once attached you can see the document properties, open it or delete it.

Assignment block for Attachments

There is also a region for the error messages in the header area:


There is an option for personalization of the CRM Web UI.

Here it is possible to set settings which are applicable across the applications for logged in user.

Here user can also change the skin of the application.

In the “Personalize My Data” section user can set values for the settings like format of date.

In layout section user can set Skin of the application.

Personalization Options

Setting skin in personalization

There is a separate block for settings related to the Groupware integration.

In this block user can maintain required settings for the integration of CRM with user mailbox for E-Mail and Calendar pages.

You're reading Sap Crm Webui Concepts Tutorial: Step By Step Guide

Intel Edison Step By Step

This is an introductory level course on Intel Edison. This course is designed for absolute beginners makers. We have come up with an Introductory course on Intel Edison in which will show you how to get started from the basic level of this cool single board computer. The course requires basic knowledge of Arduino programming language. We’ll help you to get started with the basics of setting up and installation process and also creating circuits with the Intel Edison board.

In this course will show you how to use Intel Edison for the first time and how to use Flex sensor with LED, Servo motor, Buzzer and also to control power of light using the serial-3-channel-ac-230v light dimmer module using multiple Flex sensors. Intel Edison and its development board are also very interesting.

We makers love microcontrollers a lot! The endless possibilities that these pieces of hardware give to us. Ever wondered how small they keep getting. A board is so small that it removes huge barriers in the world of wearables and the Internet of Things! It’s the Intel Edison Board. This Introduction to Intel Edison for beginner’s course will show you how to get started on working with this cool single board computer.

On one way, you can use this board as Arduino with its shields; these are suitable easily. On the other hand, you can connect your board via Wi-Fi to get on the internet.

The Intel Edison board is a cool single computer board platform that helps you build amazing stuff just like the Arduino board. Here, you can use platforms like Arduino, Eclipse for working on it. This board uses an Intel Atom processor with a dual-core CPU at 500 MHz and a microcontroller at 100 MHz.

The Edison board sports 1GB of memory, 4GB of storage and even has Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.0 capabilities. It also has 40 GPIOs for plugging in all sorts of crazy sensors and motors you can think.

The module of Intel named Intel Edison is slightly larger than an SD card. After playing around with Edison. The specialty of Edison is that it can use for wearables, and it is powerful enough to control robots. This module equipped with Yocto, a Linux OS. It has an onboard Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, perfect for IoT projects. We can connect to Edison remotely and run commands or access the file system. It gives lots of flexibility to developers via SSH.

The prerequisite for this course is a basic understanding of electrical and electronic concepts and ability to download and install software on your computer. Along the way, you will learn about programming, sensors, and communications.

The goal of this project is to create a wearable glove integrated with flex sensors so that as the wearer bends his/her fingers it translates to a quantitative value on the circuit board. The goal is that when you bend your fingers, we can control the 230V of light dimmer.

If you are a technology enthusiast and want to learn the cutting-edge technology, then this is the right course for you. In this course, I will show you how to get up and running on the Intel Edison platform so you can do your projects to interact with the world.

I will teach you step by step how to go about building this project. I will also share the code with you so that you can replicate the project yourself. I look forward to you joining this course. It provides the complete source code of the real time project.

What are you waiting for? Enroll now.

Who this course is for:

People who want to learn Intel Edison from the basic and microcontrollers

Makers who have an existing intermediate or better understanding of electronics

Individuals wanting to learn more about controlling the power of 230V using the light dimmer module

Engineering Students – Electronics, Electrical & Computer Science

Electronic Geeks, Hobbiest & Art Students

High School Science Students


Start with the Introduction to Intel Edison for beginner’s to get started on working with this cool single board computer

Control the power of light using the Serial-3-channel-ac-230v light dimmer module

Control Servo motor using Flex sensor

Calibrate the Flex sensor range values

Use Flex sensor to fade an LED

Control the tone of Buzzer using Flex sensor


You would need to download the Intel Edison and Arduino IDE software

Intel Edison board

3 x Flex sensor, 1 x breadboard, 3 x 10k ohm resistor, 1 x Buzzer, 1 x LED, 1 x Servo motor

1 x Serial 3 channel AC 230v SSR and Dimmer

Thin wires to solder and jumper wires

How To Create An Online Course – Step By Step Guide

So you know something, and you want others to learn it too. That’s a great step. It is tremendous to think about knowledge sharing. We all live in this world, every day, learn, implement in life and get to know more about many other things. This happens when you get to know them from someone.

Sharing your ideas and insights with others is an excellent means to learn new things. With the world going completely digital, we have seen even education systems taking syllabus to online teaching due to the recent events. 

In times like these, it is a very profitable and smart step to consider creating courses online. Before that, it is essential to learn the basics of how to create an online course. With all the time in hand, most people make the best use of it by studying various courses. So if you have an idea in mind to curate an online course, then this is for you to read. Once you learn how to create a money-making online course, you will find it the best thing.

Steps to Create an Online Course 1. Personal Branded Website

Before you jump to know how to create an online course, the very first thing to do is to create a website of your own. It would be best if you had an adequately curated homepage for your audience to know more about you and your work. There are various platforms for selling online courses but having a website of your own is a must to add value to your teaching.

For beginners, GoDaddy works excellent. It is considered the most stable web hosting provider. The best feature about this is the 24/7 customer support through any server. 

It can be easily integrated with Microsoft apps and also provides hosting for WordPress. It is reasonably priced for starters and so is highly recommended. Selling online courses from your own website is a remarkable thing for you to know how strong is your ownership over your product.

2. Get A Logo

When you start to learn how to create an online course, it becomes important to know that every brand needs an identity, and similarly, every blog too needs an identity. It will make you stand apart from other blog writers. Curating a logo is also a professional way of showing that you can be trusted with the information that you share on your page. 

Looka’s Logo Maker is one of the simplest logo makers to try. You will be able to choose from a wide range of options but at the same time making sure the design sticks to your requirements. 

The website also helps in designing your page. The best hit is that it is entirely free to create a logo! Give a new life to your page by creating an identity for it. Also creating a logo i.e., an identity will help you better in selling your online course from your own website.

Besides quality content, another most critical requirement is quality videos. It is one of the most important steps in creating an online course. Even if you do not have enough capital to invest in a professional camera, making use of the right video making tools will help you put everything in the right place.

This application also makes the uploading process easier across multiple platforms.

4. LMS

Having an LMS or a Learning Management System in place is essential to make learning easier and hassle-free. You can now store documents, assessment sheets, and other learning materials on a cloud-based platform. Zenler makes e-learning easier. 

You can edit your course material even offline and help you manage courses assigned to trainees, track them and issue course certificates. Zenler makes your course management and tracking a piece of cake!

6. Email Marketing Tool

The best way to keep in touch with customers is by interacting with them frequently. It would help if you told them that your business is active. Most brands use email marketing as a mode for this. This is the most effective step in knowing how to create an online course. 

Email marketing tools make your task of sending emails more accessible. It can have anything to do with sending emails like subject line generators or an inbox placement testing tool, and so on. 

GetResponse is the most convenient way to generate and channelize all your email needs. Newsletters, auto-emails, auto-responders, automated blog digests, you name it, you can get it done through this tool. The tool is well structured to send out correctly – timed emails.

7. Webinar Platform to Sell

Visitors prefer videos more than long texts, and that’s why it is vital to hosting webinars once in a while. WebinarNinja is a tool that will help you host webinars for professional use. Creating an online workshop can help boost this.

8. ChatBot

Chatbots improve customer experience, and this helps create new business opportunities. While creating an online course, a chatbot feature is essential as it helps your audience connect with you in a better way. chúng tôi is a very user-friendly tool for this. This tool will help you and is handy when you are creating an e-learning course.

Now channel your email notifications and integrations in simple steps. Simple drag and drop tool toad relevant questions, installation through HTML code, WordPress plugin or landing page links, instant notifications via email and sophisticated dashboard are some of the key features. 

9. Conversion Tracking

How do you know if someone visiting your page has actually considered your course and signed up for it? If you did get to know won’t the result help n analyze your performance and the content quality? Well, a conversion tracking tool does exactly the trick. 

One of the features with this tool is that it measures the quality of your traffic and it is imperative to know where you stand in the competition. 

10. Running Facebook Ads/ YouTube Ads 11. Messenger Chat

Want to build a Messenger bot? ManyChat can make it for you in simple steps. It is one of the most straightforward tools as it does not need any coding skills. It has a very user-friendly interface, and the basic plan is free. Messenger Chat will help you connect with your students better especially when you are creating e-learning modules.

It can send both broadcasts and campaigns to targeted customers. ManyChat also has a payment feature that lets customers pay through the bot itself. You can automatically reply to the keywords by setting up answers prior, and the same goes with frequently asked questions. 

The analytics provided can help you see numbers for subscribers, the total number of users, reports for stats, and conversation rate.


Creating an online course can sound more straightforward, but it does require a lot of homework and pre-setting to reach the right audience and also for them to get the best out of what you would like to teach them. These pre-steps in creating an online course can help you make your course a hit and also enables you to get excellent revenue out of it.

How To Buy Abortion Pills Online: Step By Step Guide?

According to the World Health Organization, medication abortions are a safe technique to end pregnancy up to 12 weeks. In the conventional healthcare model, patients receive two drugs to cause a miscarriage: mifepristone which prevents the body from releasing the hormone progesterone, and misoprostol straight away or 48 hours later, before a pregnancy is confirmed via urine, blood, or ultrasound testing.  

However, performing an abortion at home also referred to as a “self-managed abortion,” can be both secure and prosperous. The second medication makes telemedicine abortions inaccessible in specific locations by causing cramping and bleeding to remove fetal tissue from the uterus. The results of medically induced abortions in patients who were given their first medicine dosage and an ultrasound in a clinic.

The FDA warns consumers who buy their medicine online to ensure the pills are obtained from reputable telehealth providers. Fake abortion pills can be expired, potentially dangerous due to contaminants or improper medications, ineffective (sold without the correct active ingredients), or both. Buyers must purchase their medicines from verified sources to ensure it is safe. The changing landscape for access to contraceptives has allowed rogue online pharmacies to sell fake or sub-par abortion pills.

Self-managed abortion allows pregnant women to purchase pills from online pharmacies without a prescription, but it’s essential to ensure these pharmacies provide the right drugs. Board-certified medical professionals should consult with patients before writing a prescription that the service will fill and send to the patient.

How to buy online?

Verify Your Pregnancy An ultrasound is valuable because it can rule out the extremely unusual but potentially fatal condition known as ectopic pregnancy, in which a fertilised egg implants itself outside the uterus. If you think you might be pregnant, confirm it with an ultrasound or a home pregnancy test.

Utilize a Private Connection to Go Online

It’s better to open a private window, use a search engine that protects your privacy, or use the Tor web browser, which doesn’t save your search history, if you reside in a state where abortion is currently illegal (or you want to keep your online activity private).

Consult a Reputable Organization Promoting Access to Abortion

There is also the website, which provides a regional director for those looking for abortion medical assistance. A trustworthy resource for information on reproductive health issues, such as the availability of and access to abortions, is Planned Parenthood. A non-profit website that offers state-by-state details on how Americans can obtain abortion medication. For those who might not be able to get this information elsewhere, it is crucial to provide reproductive justice information online. “[Abortion tablets] are a cutting-edge medical innovation. Everyone who need it and is eligible for it medically should have access to it. All fifty states ought to have access to it, she asserts. Sadly, “rules in certain jurisdictions are restricting access to both telemedicine abortion and abortion treatment in general,

Consult a Doctor to Verify Your Eligibility for the Abortion Pill Have follow-up inquiries using a telehealth Decide on the price of abortion pills and purchase them from a reputable pharmacy

Plan C’s independent laboratory, for instance, examines prescription drugs that may be picked up in person (for example, certain pharmacies in Mexico will send. For instance, Plan C’s independent laboratory examines medicines that can be obtained in person (for example, certain pharmacies in Mexico will ship to the Texas-Mexico border), sent directly to your home from pharmacies in India, or obtained through a mail-forwarding service. Certain state agencies and businesses like Reprocare offer financial aid if you cannot pay. Aid Access may be able to provide financial assistance in states without access to telehealth abortion. If none of these options suit you, you can still purchase abortion pills by using foreign online pharmacies.

Wait 4 to 14 days for the delivery of abortion pills

Giving patients the choice to get abortion pills via telehealth is an innovative, practical, and secure method of patient-centred care. You should anticipate a delivery time of 4 to 14 days for tablets. While some pharmacies and telehealth companies provide overnight or rapid delivery alternatives, people who wait for their medication to come from an overseas pharmacy can expect additional delays while items clear customs. Additionally, it can take a few days for certain telehealth providers to process intake forms or schedule an appointment. And a lot of individuals adore this access method. It’s not the only type of access we want; it is a contemporary and practical method too.

How To Go Live On Tiktok: A Step By Step Guide

The TikTok LIVE feature isn’t new to social media platforms. It’s a feature Facebook, Instagram, and Twitch already have.

Simply put, it’s called livestreaming.

Here’s why you should be excited to test it out.

TikTok was the most downloaded platform in the first three months of 2023, and with its 1 billion monthly active users, there’s no denying that TikTok is taking over more feeds with its easy-to-use, short-form video format.

Aside from granting creators worldwide a chance to go viral, some users report using TikTok as a viable search engine vs. Google.

Creators and brands alike can attract more viewers and keep them captivated with TikTok’s powerful features.

Going live on TikTok takes things a step further, as you can neither edit nor script your video in real-time.

It offers a chance to truly connect with your followers.

However, not everyone can go live on TikTok. Your account needs to meet a required number of followers to use the feature.

So, how do you get a live video going?

Whether you’re an individual influencer or part of a social media team for a brand, here’s how to set up your first ever TikTok LIVE with this detailed, step-by-step guide.

Here’s what you need to know.

What Is TikTok LIVE?

TikTok LIVE is just as it sounds – it’s a live video feature that lets you engage in real-time with your audience.

In May 2023, TikTok introduced a limited version of LIVE Subscription – a monthly subscription where fans can show appreciation for their favorite live creators with custom emotes, subscriber badges, and subscriber-only chats.

Additional features will be rolled out gradually worldwide in the next few months as it becomes available to more creators (the offering was initially invite-only).

Requirements For Going Live On TikTok

Before we jump right into it, here are the requirements for TikTok LIVE:

Tiktok only allows this feature for accounts with over 1,000 followers. Those with fewer followers can try their luck, but it might not work.

Creators must be at least age 16 for legal reasons and can only earn money if aged 18 and up, per the platform’s community guidelines.

TikTok LIVE: Key Features To Note

Once you’re eligible, here’s a rundown of the official features to maximize your use of TikTok LIVE.

More features are being added, but here’s what we know so far:

Go LIVE together: People can “go live” simultaneously, fostering more authentic and funny moments.

Q&A: A special suite of tools help creators seamlessly select, answer, or showcase questions during the event.

Live Events notifications: Hosts can promote, schedule, and manage live events like concerts. Notifications will alert fans before the event, so they don’t miss the action.

Gifts: What’s in it for hosts? Those over 18 can enjoy LIVE gifts or Diamonds, which are given by viewers and convertible to cash in your PayPal or bank account.

Here’s How To Set Up And Schedule Your Live

Open the app and tap the create icon (+).

Slide and select LIVE from the bottom of the menu.

Select a cover pic and a title (32 characters) – make sure it’s eye-catching!

Then tap: “Go LIVE,” which immediately alerts your followers.

End the livestream by tapping the X on the top left-hand corner of your screen.

That’s it! The steps are pretty simple and intuitive.

Pick A Relevant Topic For Your TikTok Live

Going live might be less edited and more spontaneous, but it’s best to come prepared.

To ensure viewer interest in your first LIVE experience, try looking at the TikTok Insight Tool to see how different demographics respond to holidays, industries, and more.

It doesn’t hurt to make sure you know your well-defined audience and how they feel about certain brands and content.

Discovery is where TikTok truly shines; observe how TikTok recommends videos for the Following feed, Search results, and Friends tab, and find a way that works for your brand.

There are a lot of creative formats you can play with.

TikTok Live Tips Best Practices/Tips

When it comes to livestreaming, best practices always apply. TikTok recommends the following:

Great lighting – Grainy just won’t do. It helps to have a good tripod and LED light or ring light set up so your viewers can see what’s happening from start to finish.

Eliminate distracting sounds – As much as possible, avoid livestreaming while there’s ongoing construction or loud background noises. Consider a microphone with noise isolation or moving to a quieter area.

Pick a good camera angle – Record in a room with a clean and solid background. Set your device on a stable surface, like a table, and pick a flattering camera angle. Note that TikTok’s software is optimized for vertical focus.

Test your internet connection – The last thing you want is a choppy live session. Double (or triple) check your connection speed before the event.

Come up with a general plan – Awkward moments happen, but you can avoid long pauses and extend the duration of your livestream by writing down a few bullets of what you’ll do. Have an outline or a general idea of what the video will look like from start to finish. (Tip: Avoid a formal script since that defeats the purpose of connecting with viewers organically.)

Cross-promote on other platforms – Not all your followers are on TikTok, but inviting them to the platform can make a big difference. Use Facebook, Instagram, and your other social platforms to announce your TikTok LIVE event.


Now that you understand how to use TikTok LIVE, you can start leveraging the tool to reach your audience on the platform.

When done right, live content can help you connect on a deeper level with your audience because it lets you provide them with a more spontaneous and immersive experience.

Plus, it often feels more personal.

Observe what the top creators are doing and why they’re relatable to audiences.

Keep in mind that different personalities suit different categories.

See how Instagram Reels, Facebook Live, and other platforms differ in terms of best practices when it comes to engagement. Deepen your understanding of what works on each platform, and keep adapting your material to better suit each one.

The TikTok platform tends to showcase more personable content, so livestreaming may be your best bet when it comes to busting industry myths, displaying a sense of humor, going behind the scenes, collaborating with influencers, or using trending sound clips that resonate with your target audience.

Lastly, don’t forget to have fun!

More resources:

Featured Image: DDimaXX/Shutterstock

Part 3: Step By Step Guide To Nlp – Text Cleaning And Preprocessing

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon


This article is part of an ongoing blog series on Natural Language Processing (NLP). In part-1and  part-2 of this blog series, we complete the theoretical concepts related to NLP. Now, in continuation of that part, in this article, we will cover some of the new concepts.

In this article, we will understand the terminologies required and then we start our journey towards text cleaning and preprocessing, which is a very crucial component while we are working with NLP tasks.

This is part-3 of the blog series on the Step by Step Guide to Natural Language Processing.


Table of Contents

1. Familiar with Terminologies




Text object



2. What is Tokenization?

White-space Tokenization

Regular Expression Tokenization

Sentence and Word Tokenization

3. Noise Entities Removal

Removal of Punctuation marks

Removal of stopwords, etc.

4. Data Visualization for Text Data

Word Cloud

5. Parts of Speech (POS) Tagging

Familiar with Terminologies

Before moving further in this blog series, I would like to discuss the terminologies that are used in the series so that you have no confusion related to terminologies:


A Corpus is defined as a collection of text documents.

For Example,

A data set containing news is a corpus or

The tweets containing Twitter data are a corpus.

So corpus consists of documents, documents comprise paragraphs, paragraphs comprise sentences and sentences comprise further smaller units which are called Tokens.


Tokens can be words, phrases, or Engrams, and Engrams are defined as the group of n words together.

For example, consider the sentence given below:

Sentence: I like my iphone

For the above sentence, the different engrams are as follows:

Uni-grams(n=1) are: I, like, my, iphone Di-grams(n=2) are: I like, like my, my iphone Tri-grams(n=3) are: I like my, like my iphone

So, uni-grams are representing one word, di-grams are representing two words together and tri-grams are representing three words together.


It is the process of converting a text into tokens.

Text object

The text object is a sentence or a phrase or a word or an article.


In the field of NLP, a Morpheme is defined as the base form of a word. A token is generally made up of two components,

Morphemes: The base form of the word, and

Inflectional forms: The suffixes and prefixes added to morphemes.

Let’s discuss the structure of the tokens:

For Example, 

Consider the word: Antinationalist

which is made up of the following components:

Inflectional forms- Anti and ist

Morpheme- national


It represents all the words and phrases used in a particular language or subject.

What is Tokenization?

Tokenization is a process of splitting a text object into smaller units which are also called tokens. Examples of tokens include words, numbers, engrams, or even symbols. The most commonly used tokenization process is White-space Tokenization.

Let’s discuss the two different types of Tokenization:

White-space Tokenization

Regular Expression Tokenization

White-space Tokenization

It is also known as unigram tokenization. In this process, we split the entire text into words by splitting them from white spaces.

For Example, Consider the following sentence-

Sentence: I went to New-York to play football Tokens generated are:  “I”, “went”, “to”, “New-York”, “to”, “play”, “football”

Notice that “New-York” is not split further because the tokenization process was based on whitespaces only.

Regular Expression Tokenization

It is another type of Tokenization process, in which a regular expression pattern is used to get the tokens.

For Example, consider the following string containing multiple delimiters such as comma, semi-colon, and white space.

Sentence:=  “Basketball, Hockey; Golf Tennis" re.split(r’[;,s]’, Sentence Tokens generated are:  “Basketball”, ”Hockey”, “Golf”, “Tennis”

Therefore, using Regular expression, we can split the text by passing a splitting pattern.


Tokenization can be performed at the sentence level or at the word level or even at the character level. Based on it we discuss the following two types of Tokenization:

Sentence Tokenization

Word Tokenization

Sentence Tokenization

Sentence tokenization, also known as Sentence Segmentation is the technique of dividing a string of written language into its component sentences. The idea here looks very simple. In English and some other languages, we can split apart the sentences whenever we see a punctuation mark.

However, even in English, this problem is not trivial due to the use of full stop characters for abbreviations. When processing plain text, tables of abbreviations that contain periods can help us to prevent incorrect assignment of sentence boundaries. In many cases, we use libraries to do that job for us, so don’t worry too much about the details for now.

In simple words, the Sentence tokenizer breaks text paragraphs into sentences.

Word Tokenization

Word tokenization, also known as Word Segmentation is the problem of dividing a string of written language into its component words. White space is a good approximation of a word divider in English and many other languages with the help of some form of Latin alphabet.

However, we still can have problems if we only split by space to achieve the wanted results. Some English compound nouns are variably written and sometimes they contain a space. In most cases, we use a library to achieve the wanted results, so again don’t worry too much about the details.

In simple words, Word tokenizer breaks text paragraphs into words.

Noise Entities Removal

Noise is considered as that piece of text which is not relevant to the context of the data and the final output.

For Example,

Language stopwords (commonly used words of a language – is, am, the, of, in, etc),

URLs or links,

Social media entities (mentions, hashtags),

Punctuations, and Industry-Specific words.

The general steps which we have to follow to deal with noise removal are as follows:

Firstly, prepare a dictionary of noisy entities,

Then, iterate the text object by tokens (or by words),

Finally, eliminating those tokens which are present in the noise dictionary.

Removal of Stopwords

                                                       Image Source: Google Images

Let’s first understand what exactly are “Stopwords”?

Stop words are words that are separated out before or after the text preprocessing stage, as when we applying machine learning to textual data, these words can add a lot of noise. That’s why we remove these irrelevant words from our analysis. Stopwords are considered as the noise in the text.

Stop words usually refer to the most common words such as “and”, “the”, “a” in a language.

Note that there is no single universal list of stopwords. The list of the stop words can change depending on your problem statement.

For stopwords, we have an NLTK toolkit that has a predefined list of stopwords that refers to the most common words. If you use it for the first time, you need to download the stop words using this code:

nltk. download(“stopwords”)

After completion of downloading, you can load the package of stopwords from the nltk. corpus and use it to load the stop words.

Now, let’s try to print the List of Stopwords in the English language:

After running the above code, we get the output as:

We would not want these words taking up space in our database, or taking up the valuable processing time. For this, we can remove them easily, by storing a list of words that you consider to stop words. NLTK in python has a list of stopwords stored in 16 different languages, which means you can also work with other languages also.

You can see that the words “is” and “my” have been removed from the sentence.

Homework Problem

Here, we will discuss only one technique of noise removal, but you can try some other techniques also by yourself which we discussed in the above examples. We will discuss all those topics while we implement the NLP project.


Data Visualization for Text Data

To visualize text data, generally, we use the word cloud but there are some other techniques also, which we can try to visualize the data such as,

Let’s discuss the word cloud in a more detailed manner:

Word Cloud

Word Cloud is a data visualization technique in which words from a given text display on the main chart. Some properties associated with this chart are as follows:

In this technique, more frequent or essential words display in a larger and bolder font,

While less frequent or essential words display in smaller or thinner fonts.

This data visualization technique gives us a glance at what text should be analyzed, so it is a very beneficial technique in NLP tasks.

For more information, check the given documentation: WordCloud

Here, to draw the word cloud, we use the following text:

Code to print the word cloud:

A word cloud formed is shown below:

Conclusions inferred from the above word cloud:

The most frequent words display in larger fonts.

The word cloud can be displayed in any shape or image depend on input parameters.

Homework Problem

You have to make the above word cloud in the form of a circle.

Advantages of Word Cloud

They are fast.

They are engaging.

They are simple to understand.

They are casual and visually appealing.

They are non-perfect for non-clean data.

They lack the context of words.

Parts of Speech (POS) Tagging

If we think about building a system where we can encode all this knowledge, then it may look like a very easy task, but for many decades, coding this knowledge into a machine learning model was a very hard NLP problem. POS tagging algorithms can predict the POS of the given word with a higher degree of precision.

Part of speech tags is the properties of words that define their main context, their function, and their usage in a sentence. It is defined by the relations of words with the other words in the sentence.

In this, our aim is to guess the part of speech for each token— whether it is a noun, a verb, an adjective, and so on. After knowing about the role of each word in the sentence, we will start to find out what the sentence is talking about.

                                                  Image Source: Google Images

Some of the commonly used parts of speech tags are:

Nouns, which define any object or entity

Verbs, which define some action and

Adjectives or Adverbs, which act as modifiers, quantifiers, or intensifiers in any sentence.

In a sentence, every word will be associated with a proper part of the speech tag.

For Example, Let’s consider the following sentence:

 Sentence: David has purchased a new laptop from the Apple store

In the below sentence, every word is associated with a part of the speech tag which defines its functions.

In this case, the associated POS tags with the above sentence are as follows:

“David’ has an NNP tag which means it is a proper noun,

“has” and “purchased” belongs to verb indicating that they are the actions and

“laptop” and “Apple store” are the nouns,

“new” is the adjective whose role is to modify the context of the laptop.

Machine learning models or rule-based models are applied to obtain the part of speech tags of a word. The most commonly used part of speech tagging notations is provided by the Penn Part of Speech Tagging.

You can get the POS of individual words as a tuple.


Why do we need Part of Speech (POS)?

Let’s discuss the need for POS tags with the following example:

Sentence: Can you help me with the can?

Parts of speech (POS) tagging are crucial for syntactic and semantic analysis.

Therefore, for something like

In the sentence above, the word “can” has several semantic meanings.

The first “can” is used for question formation.

The second “can” at the end of the sentence is used to represent a container.

The first “can” is a verb, and the second “can” is a noun.

Therefore, giving the word a specific meaning allows the program to handle it correctly in both semantic and syntactic analysis.

Applications of POS Tagging in NLP

Part of Speech tagging is used for many important purposes in NLP:

Word Sense Disambiguation

Some language words have multiple meanings according to their usage.

For Example, Consider the two sentences given below:

Please book my flight for Jodhpur I am going to read this book in the flight

In the above sentences, the word “Book” is used in different contexts, however, the part of speech tag for both of the cases are different.

In the first sentence, the word “book” is used as a verb, while in the second sentence it is used as a noun. (For similar purposes, we can also use Lesk Algorithm)

Improving Word-based Features

A learning model could learn different contexts of a word when used word as the features, however, if the part of speech tag is linked with them, the context is preserved, thus making strong features.

For Example: Consider the following sentence:

Sentence: "book my flight, I will read this book”

The tokens generated from the above text are as follows:

(“book”, 2), (“my”, 1), (“flight”, 1), (“I”, 1), (“will”, 1), (“read”, 1), (“this”, 1)

The tokens generated from the above text with POS are as follows:

(“book_VB”, 1), (“my_PRP$”, 1), (“flight_NN”, 1), (“I_PRP”, 1), (“will_MD”, 1), (“read_VB”, 1), (“this_DT”, 1), (“book_NN”, 1) Normalization and Lemmatization

POS tags are the basis of the lemmatization process for converting a word to its base form (lemma).

Efficient Stopword Removal

POS tags are also useful in the efficient removal of stopwords.

For Example, there are some tags that always define the low frequency / less important words of a language. For example: (IN – “within”, “upon”, “except”), (CD – “one”,” two”, “hundred”), (MD – “may”, “must” etc)

This ends our Part-3 of the Blog Series on Natural Language Processing!


End Notes

Thanks for reading!

Please feel free to contact me on Linkedin, Email.

About the Author Chirag Goyal

Currently, I am pursuing my Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Computer Science and Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur(IITJ). I am very enthusiastic about Machine learning, Deep Learning, and Artificial Intelligence.

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