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What is SAP MM Module?

SAP MM (Material Management) Module is a SAP ERP component that helps organizations with material management, inventory management, and warehouse management in the supply chain process. It is a part of SAP ECC’s logistics functions which consists of several components and sub-components. The most prominent and widely used components are Master Data, Purchasing, and Inventory.

SAP MM Module

All of these components have their subcomponents that are essential in specific business processes, and all of the processes are executed by using transactions in SAP MM process flow.

Transaction (in SAP) means processing of certain information in order to complete business process requirement. For example, if you have purchased 10 pieces of litter buckets, you can perform particular transaction code (t-code) that will reflect those changes in SAP. Most of the business processes involve multiple SAP transactions to be accomplished and are spread over one, two or more modules.

Now in this SAP MM basics tutorial, let’s briefly talk about the various sub-modules in SAP Materials Management:

SAP MM – Master Data

Data stored in SAP R/3 is categorized as

Master Data and

Transactional Data.

Master data in SAP materials management is the core data that is used as a base for any transaction. If you are producing, transferring stock, selling, purchasing, doing a physical inventory, whatever your activity may be, it requires certain master data to be maintained.

Example of Master Data

Material master data

Customer master data

Vendor master data

Pricing/conditions master data

Warehouse management master data (storage bin master data)



Purchasing is a component of SAP MM module, and its process can be roughly depicted in below diagram.

MRP (material resource planning) creates procurement proposal and later gets converted into Purchase Requisition. Next step is assigning a source to Purchase Requisition, and release of Purchase Requisition. The PR gets converted to Purchase Order, and upon goods receipt, an invoice receipt can be done to complete the purchasing process. Additionally, payment is processed (in FI module).

Learn more about Purchasing here

Inventory Management

Inventory management is used to manage the inventory of the goods. It is based on several key processes like

Definition of movement types


Goods issue

Goods receipt

There are a number of functions and transactions used in the Inventory management processes.

Learn more about Inventory Management here

Pricing Procedure

Pricing procedure in MM module is a way to determine prices in purchasing documents. It gives us functionality to assign different calculation types for different needs. Defining a pricing procedure can be done by creating an access sequence, and assigning it to condition types. Access sequence tells the system where to look for the condition values.

Learn more about Pricing Procedure here

Features of SAP MM

It can deal with both material management and inventory management.

Ensures no shortage of material in the supply chain process.

Helps to speed up material management and procurement activities.

It helps to accelerate productivity and reduce costs while maintaining accommodations for frequent changes in a business environment.

It helps organizations to deal with various business aspects like Procurement, Master data, Material valuation, Inventory management, Invoice verification, Material requirement planning, etc.


SAP MM meaning: SAP Material Management module is a SAP ERP component that helps organizations with material management, inventory management, and warehouse management in the supply chain process.

SAP MM full form is SAP Material Management.

Transaction in SAP means processing of certain information in order to complete business process requirement.

Master data is the core data that is used as a base for any transaction.

Purchasing is a component of SAP MM module, and its process can be roughly depicted in below diagram.

Inventory management is used to manage the inventory of the goods.

Pricing procedure for MM module in SAP is a way to determine prices in purchasing documents.

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What Are 5 Easy Steps Of Process Management In ’23?

Process management can assist business leaders and analysts to develop a new product or service, complete a process such as a product order, manage customer service, and educate a new employee.

Although process management is a beneficial practice, implementing it can be challenging for business analysts might confuse it with other, slightly similar process, such as process improvement, process workflow management, process intelligence, process planning and process design.

We aim to describe process management, explain its differences with process improvement and workflow management and explore 5 BPM stages.

What is process management?

Business process management, BPM, is the method for standardizing and aligning company processes with their strategies and goals for effective management of business operations. BPM includes the analysis of firm’s processes to ensure efficient and smooth cross-departmental operations and exchange of information. The processes can be relevant to customers, partner companies, systems or suppliers.

Process management can automatically measure processes, check processes workflows, and manage them effectively with Business Process Management (BPM) Software or with a process intelligence tool, such as process mining.

BPM vs workflow management vs process improvement

Process management and workflow management are distinct concepts because process management deals with business processes as a whole. Workflow management, on the other hand, deals with the definition, analysis, and coordination of a single process’ workflows, unlike workflow management where a single process’s workflows (e.g., invoice register).

These two concepts are related to each other because process management and workflow management ultimately fuel process improvement. Process improvement detects inefficiencies and improves the process performance for a better customer experience. Explore other benefits of process improvement through real life examples and case studies.

What are the 5 stages of process management?

Business Process Management (BPM) contains five main steps:

1. Analyzing

At this pre-step to management, business analysts gather data, analyze it, and model it to understand the processes and to identify the ones to improve. The analysts prepare performance metrics that assess whether the process is efficiently executing the operations and adding value to the company.

Quick tip:

The analysts should dedicate some time to choose a relevant set of tools to analyze their data. For example, data science tools can be limited for the companies that to leverage their process event log data. In this case, these firms should look for a process mining and task mining software which apply data science techniques to process data.

2. Designing & Modeling

After understanding the current situation, the analysts should design or modify already created models to map and document ideal end-to-end processes. The documents can include information about the time, duration of each task, employees involved in the workflow.

Quick tip:

The analysts should ensure that the designed or updated processes are accurate and worthy of implementation. Also, once it is designed, analysts should plan the process by diving into the process workflows visualization to identify steps and activities.

3. Implementing

At this stage, analysts apply the formerly designed and planned process. Implementing the process is often required to update procedures, change the resourcing, train employees, and look for the relevant technology.

Quick tip:

Applying and monitoring the process at a small scale is recommended to measure the impact and revise it before using it.

4. Monitoring

At this stage, the entire process is executed at a broader scale, and analysts monitor and collect data to measure the process performance. With this phase, business analysts can see if the process is effective and fulfills the main goal or if it requires more improvements.

Quick tip:

It is recommended to compare the ideal model against the actual data to calculate the exact return on investment. Business analysts can generate relevant metrics or leverage process intelligence tools such as process mining or a digital twin of an organization to assess and compare the process models.

5. Optimizing

In this final step, business analysts should monitor and refine their processes based on data-driven models. Some analysts can identify process automation opportunities to avoid repetitive or manual activities. In some cases, business analysts need to update their processes due to a market or internal change.

Quick tip:

It is important to remember that sometimes processes may need to be re-design because they do not correspond to the changes happening, or they might require innovation.

Further reading

Download our whitepaper on process mining to see its benefits, use cases and a 6 steps guidance to choose the right vendor:

If you want to to manage and improve your processes, start comparing vendors through our comprehensive and data-driven process mining vendor lists and BPM software lists.

Assess different vendors with a transparent methodology yourself by downloading our checklist: 

And, if you still need more help:

Hazal Şimşek

Hazal is an industry analyst in AIMultiple. She is experienced in market research, quantitative research and data analytics. She received her master’s degree in Social Sciences from the University of Carlos III of Madrid and her bachelor’s degree in International Relations from Bilkent University.





Process Memory Management In Linux

Process memory management is a crucial aspect of any operating system. In Linux, memory management system is designed to efficiently manage memory usage, allowing processes to access and use memory they require while preventing them from accessing memory they do not own. In this article, we will discuss process memory management in Linux in detail, covering various aspects such as memory allocation, virtual memory, memory mapping, and more.

Memory Allocation

Memory allocation is process of assigning memory to a process or program. In Linux, kernel provides two main methods for memory allocation: static and dynamic.

Static Memory Allocation

Static memory allocation is done at compile-time, where memory allocation for a program is fixed and cannot be changed during runtime. memory is allocated in program’s data section or stack segment. data section contains global variables and static variables, while stack segment contains local variables.

Dynamic Memory Allocation

Dynamic memory allocation is done during runtime, where memory allocation for a program can be dynamically adjusted based on program’s requirements. kernel provides various system calls such as malloc(), calloc(), and realloc() to dynamically allocate memory. These functions allocate memory from heap segment of program’s address space.

Virtual Memory

Virtual memory is a memory management technique that allows a program to use more memory than is physically available in system. In Linux, virtual memory is implemented using a combination of hardware and software. hardware component is Memory Management Unit (MMU), which is responsible for translating virtual memory addresses to physical memory addresses. software component is kernel’s Virtual Memory Manager (VMM), which manages allocation and deallocation of virtual memory.

Memory Mapping

Memory mapping is a technique that allows a process to access a file’s contents as if it were part of process’s memory. In Linux, memory mapping is implemented using mmap() system call. mmap() system call maps a file into a process’s virtual memory address space, allowing process to read and write to file’s contents as if it were part of its own memory. Memory mapping is commonly used in applications such as databases and multimedia players, where large files need to be accessed efficiently.

Shared Memory

Shared memory is a technique that allows multiple processes to access same portion of memory. In Linux, shared memory is implemented using shmget(), shmat(), and shmdt() system calls. shmget() system call creates a shared memory segment, shmat() attaches shared memory segment to a process’s address space, and shmdt() detaches shared memory segment from process’s address space. Shared memory is commonly used in inter-process communication, where multiple processes need to share data efficiently.


Swapping is a technique that allows kernel to move pages of memory from RAM to a swap space on disk when system’s memory is low. In Linux, swapping is implemented using a combination of hardware and software. hardware component is disk, which is used as swap space. software component is kernel’s Swapping Manager, which manages swapping process. When system’s memory is low, Swapping Manager selects pages of memory to swap out to disk, freeing up memory for other processes.

Some additional concepts to consider include −

Kernel Memory Management

The Linux kernel itself also requires memory management, and it uses a separate set of memory management techniques to manage kernel memory. Kernel memory is used to store data structures and code required by kernel to operate. kernel uses techniques like memory mapping, page caching, and memory allocation to manage kernel memory.

Memory Protection

Memory protection is another critical aspect of memory management in Linux. Memory protection techniques prevent processes from accessing memory they are not authorized to access. MMU implements memory protection by using page tables, which map virtual memory addresses to physical memory addresses and track permissions for each memory page.

Memory Fragmentation

Memory fragmentation occurs when available memory is divided into small, non-contiguous chunks, making it difficult to allocate larger blocks of memory. Memory fragmentation can lead to performance issues and even crashes if system runs out of memory. Linux kernel uses several techniques to manage memory fragmentation, including memory compaction and defragmentation.

Memory Leak Detection

As mentioned earlier, failing to release dynamically allocated memory can result in memory leaks, where memory is not returned to system and can eventually cause program to crash due to insufficient memory. Detecting and fixing memory leaks is crucial for maintaining system stability and performance. Linux provides several tools for detecting memory leaks, including valgrind, which can detect memory leaks and other memory-related issues.


In conclusion, process memory management is a crucial aspect of any operating system, and Linux is no exception. Linux kernel provides a robust and efficient memory management system, allowing processes to access and use memory they require while preventing them from accessing memory they do not own. In this article, we discussed various aspects of process memory management in Linux, including memory allocation, virtual memory, memory mapping, shared memory, and swapping. Understanding these concepts is essential for any Linux developer or administrator to efficiently manage memory usage in their systems.

What Is Hybrid Cloud Management?

The application of cloud-supported solutions for commercial use is steadily becoming mainstream development. As commercial users jump on the cloud-supported solutions bandwagon, they always look for the proper solutions for company operations. Many commercial users deploy unique cloud-supported solutions that neither the private nor the public solution works for them. In this case, there will have to be an integration of both self-hosting and cloud-supported solutions. A hybrid cloud-supported solution is one whose integration procedure doesn’t always go well with many existing businesses.

Hybrid cloud-supported solutions are usually meant for companies that are looking for the flexibility that cloud solutions provide while choosing not to outsource their IT services to unknown external service providers fully. In this case, such an organization wants a hybrid-hosted solution.

What are hybrid cloud-supported services?

Many companies tend to choose a blend of the two most common methods of hosting IT solutions. While companies are usually expected to choose between cloud-based or on-premise services, others tend to blend both. The use of both cloud-based and on-premise services is what is known as hybrid cloud-supported solutions.

The good thing about this hybrid cloud-supported solution is that it is flexible. Companies can deploy the hybrid cloud-supported solution as a temporary service while finishing their cloud-supported migration process. Also, this hybrid system gets deployed as a blended solution.

Hybrid cloud-supported management gets performed by IT teams that have combined expertise with both solutions. This means that the IT team will be made up of experts skilled in on-premise IT solutions, while the cloud systems management can be outsourced. Alternatively, this can be done and vice versa depending on the company’s requirement.

Why do companies choose hybrid cloud-supported solutions?

Hybrid cloud systems are essential to many businesses due to several reasons. This can be −

Any available technical need

Needing more security

To introduce redundancy in the solution

The need for quick and frequent data access

The existence of services or processes that do not work as offsite systems

Strategies for hybrid cloud-supported management

Managing hybrid-type cloud-supported systems usually depends on several key strategies. These strategies are the basis of managing the solution. These strategies are −

Adoption planning − When managing hybrid IT solutions, companies must account for several elements. They would usually understand the following −

How much it takes to adopt the solution

The labor needed to deploy this solution

The level of provided security

Procedures for disaster recovery

Total time it takes for complete adoption

When considering adoption, they must be clear on the contract/agreements. The SLA (Service level agreement) terms should be plain and straightforward to ensure they don’t get to pay for something they won’t get. Checking contracts and SLAs means they will not end up with a solution that does not provide any real value to the business. After they might have deployed the Hybrid IT system, the initial stages would help them decide whether they will take off or add some features. Also, to ensure complete and effective hybrid-type cloud-supported system management, security policies, restrictions to access, and training will have to be performed.

Security of user data − Management of hybrid-based systems can still involve ensuring the safety of the hybrid environment. Commercial users need to begin this management procedure by carrying out a comprehensive auditing of security protocols. It is important to evaluate existing users and their different access grants. This evaluation will ensure they have secured credentials and the correct permissions. This management plan should also feature training of IT teams for managing hybrid cloud-supported infrastructure. There could be liabilities if IT teams do not know what to do with cloud-hosting systems. Also, the right strategies should be deployed to ensure the security of the whole configuration process. This will help the company know that its implementation process is effective.

Continuous optimization for total performance − As soon as the hybrid system has been deployed completely, it is essential that they be managed and monitored continuously. This way, the teams ensure that there are no performance or security gaps. This means a policy should be drafted for the monitoring process. It should be able to dictate the following −

The frequency of the evaluation of this hybrid system

Who does this evaluation

The measures to be considered during the process

Hybrid infrastructure: Its commercial benefits

Hybrid cloud infrastructure has a lot of benefits; companies may be able to enjoy a lot of features that are not available with cloud-only or traditional systems. They are −

Flexibility − Hybrid systems allow IT teams to independently use the cloud or on-premise system whenever it favors them. This can maximize performance and resources by deploying the cloud-hosted solution and the supporting old solutions that cannot be migrated easily.

Cost − When it comes to hybridization, prices can be tricky. However, there could be significant savings if the process is monitored carefully. And this can be used to ensure that the investment yields a maximum return on investment (ROI). Hybrid storage solutions allow companies to pay as they expand their operations. This is a benefit that you wouldn’t get from legacy systems.

Security − It supports businesses in deploying their data-supported solutions based on their requirements. Many hybrid teams have empowered the potential to manage security concerns using hybrid systems.


In managing hybrid systems, looking for the right service providers is essential. Since this process usually requires a knowledge of both solutions, it is vital to use the right company.

Sap Erp Procurement(P2P) Business Process From Scratch

SAP ERP Materials Management (MM) – Procure To Pay (P2P) Business Process skill has become a necessity in the career space for those who want to remain relevant and outstanding in areas like supply chain, Procurement, Purchasing, and even inventory management. This course is also designed for those beginners who want to learn SAP ERP from scratch.

Material is the engine of the supply chain and functional logistics, so in this course, with the aid of the SAP ERP System, I demonstrate the effective and efficient management of the organization’s materials to ensure the appropriate availability of the materials at the right cost and quality.

We provide affordable SAP ERP Software Access to our participants for an effective hands-on experience using the SAP ERP system.

This course will take you from scratch (even though you are just getting to know about SAP ERP) to the Global Best Practices on External Procurement Business Processes for Stock Items and Consumable Items.

The scope of this course is for SAP ERP New Users up to End Users. It covers the Introduction, SAP ERP Navigation, Purchasing Processes for Stock Items and Consumable Items, Inventory Management and Purchase Order Based Invoice Verification, and Goods Receipt Based Invoice Verification for partial delivery scenarios.

In this course, you also come to understand the Enterprise Structure and Organizational Levels for Procurement in the SAP ERP system (Client, Company Code, Purchasing Organization, and more). You will understand Material Types and the control functionality on the procurement business process, Material Groups etc.

This course covers

SAP New User Training


SAP ERP Navigation for new users

Overview of Procure–To–Pay Business Process (External Procurement Process)

Determination of Requirements using Purchase Requisition (Stock Items)

Purchase Order for (Stock Items)

Determination of Sources of Supply using RFQ

Purchase Order

Purchase Requisition for Consumable Items (Including PR Approval Process)

Purchase Order for (Stock Items)

Goods Receipt (Planned & Unplanned Scenarios)

Transfer Posting from Quality Inspection to Unrestricted Use Stock Type.

Transfer Posting from Quality Inspection to Blocked Stock Type.

Process Return Delivery to Vendor

Goods Issue to Cost Center

Purchase Order-Based Invoice Verification

Goods Receipt Based Invoice verification

Purchase Order Monitoring and Closing of Open Purchase Order

Releasing Block Invoices.

Note that this course is a certificate course therefore a certificate will be issued at the end of the training.

Who this course is for:

Supply chain Practitioners and those interested in Supply chain

Purchasing & Procurement Practitioners and all those interested in Purchasing & Procurement

Inventory Management Practitioners and all those interested in Inventory Management

Beginners who are trying to get a job in the field of Supply chain, Purchasing, or Procurement and Inventory Management

Beginners who want to learn SAP ERP Materials Management

SAP ERP End Users who want to learn the End-to-end the Procurement Process


Gain Free Access to the SAP ERP System for effective practice

Introduction to SAP ERP and Understanding the System-wide Concept

Practically learn how to Navigate the SAP ERP System

Understanding the Procure-To-Pay Business Process Best Practice and the Enterprise Structure

Best Practise on how to Purchase stock material items using Purchase Requisition (PR), RFQ, and Purchase Orders (PO).

3 Scenarios of Consumable Material items with real-life examples and how to Purchase consumable material items using Purchase Requisition and Purchase Order

How to Approve/Release PR, PO, and how to release blocked Invoices

How to receive materials items from vendors and post Goods Receipt, Transfer Posting, Vendor Return, and Goods Issue

How to handle Purchasing Based Invoice Verification (3 Way Match) and Goods Receipt Based Invoice Verification (2 Way Match).

How to clear On-Order from the PO/ How to Close Open Items in a PO

How to Close Open Items in a PO

How to generate SAP ERP Standard Business Reports and export reports to Microsoft Excel


Basic Understanding of Purchasing Process

What Is Cryptography? (Definition, Process, And Types)

The study of secure communications techniques that enable only the sender and the intended recipient of messages to read its contents is known as cryptography. The word “kryptos” comes from the Greek word “kryptos,” which means “hidden.” It is closely linked to encryption, which is the process of scrambling plaintext into ciphertext and then back again when it’s received.

In addition, cryptography includes techniques such as microdots and merging to obfuscate information in photographs. Ancient Egyptians were known to apply similar techniques in complicated hieroglyphics, and one of the first modern cyphers is ascribed to Roman Emperor Julius Caesar.

Encryption and Decryption

At its most basic level, cryptography entails two steps: Encryption and Decryption. To encrypt the plaintext and convert it to ciphertext, the encryption process employs a cipher. Decryption, on the other hand, uses the same cipher to convert the ciphertext to plaintext.

Encrypting and decrypting email and other plain-text messages is the most common use of cryptography when transmitting electronic data. The symmetric or “secret key” approach is the most basic way.

Data is encrypted using the secret key, and the encoded message and secret key are then delivered to the receiver for decoding. What is the issue then? A third party is all they need to decode and read the communication if it is intercepted. Cryptologists invented the asymmetric or “public key” scheme to overcome this problem. Every user has two keys in this case: one public and one private. Senders encrypt the message and transmit it along after requesting the recipient’s public key.

How Does Cryptography Work? An Example

Here’s an illustration of how cryptography works.

Assume you wanted to encrypt a basic message like “Hello.” So “Hello” is our plaintext (message).

We may now encrypt the message using “Caesar’s Cipher” (also known as a shift cipher), which is one of the basic types of encryption.

We just move each letter a predetermined number of spaces up or down the alphabet with this cypher.

That is to say, A = D, B = E, C = F, D = G, E = H, F = I, and so forth.

Our plaintext “Hello” becomes the ciphertext “Khoor” when we use this cypher.

“Khoor” does not resemble “Hello” to the untrained eye. However, even the most inexperienced cryptographer could easily decipher the message and reveal its contents if they knew Caesar’s encryption.

Types of Cryptography

Depending on the process they follow to encrypt and decrypt the data, cryptography can be categorized into different types such as Hashing, Symmetric Cryptography, Asymmetric Cryptography, and Key Exchange Algorithms.


Hashing is a sort of encryption in which a message is converted into an unreadable string of text for the purpose of confirming its contents rather than hiding it.

When the publisher of the files or software provides them for download, this sort of encryption is most typically employed to safeguard the transmission of software and huge files. The reason for this is that while calculating the hash is simple, finding a starting input that is a precise match for the required result is quite difficult.

Symmetric Cryptography

Symmetric Cryptography is perhaps the most classic kind of cryptography, and it’s also the one you’re most familiar with. This method of cryptography encrypts a message using a single key and then decrypts it after it has been received at the other end.

Asymmetric Cryptography

In contrast to symmetric cryptography which employs a single key for encryption and decryption, asymmetric cryptography uses two distinct keys for encryption and decryption.

The first key is a public key that is used to encrypt messages, while the second key is used to decode them. This method is that it can only decipher encrypted messages received from a public key.

Key Exchange Algorithms

This sort of cryptography isn’t especially relevant to anyone outside of the cyber-security field. To safely exchange encryption keys with an unknown person, a key exchange algorithm such as Diffie-Hellman is utilized.

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