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SAP TAO (Test Acceleration and Optimization) is an automation testing tool for SAP software systems. It helps to automate test cases for end to end scenarios in SAP systems. The purpose of using SAP TAO is that it helps to break down whole software into small components in order to integrate automated test cases using a simple interface.
SAP released the automation tool SAP TAO in collaboration with Focus Frame (now acquired by Hexaware).
It is used to automatically create test components and upload them to QC (Quality Center) and run automated tests on SAP systems.
SAP TAO testing tool wraps up QTP (Quick Test Professional) and QC, where QTP acts as execution engine while test scenarios are created and driven from QC through business components.
SAP TAO streamlines the creation and maintenance of ERP business processing testing. Using SAP Testing TAO and HP do have added benefits compared to other testing tools as there is a massive corporate support for both SAP software products and HP.
SAP TAO client application performs three functions:
Inspecting transactions from an SAP server
Exporting the transactions to HP Quality Center
Consolidating components or scripts from HP Quality Center.
SAP TAO performs end to end business process testing solution that accelerates testing of business processes; it runs alongside QC (Quality Center). TAO is created to help facilitate testing the SAP environment and to change the testing process trends from manual testing to testing by composition. TAO SAP helps to reduce the risk associated with business and support the entire SAP application. For selected SAP transactions and SAP GUI, it automates the management of Transaction Screen Inspections. Also, the migration of testing components is facilitated in and out of Quality Center.
In this training, you will learn –SAP TAO Framework
Window System supports SAP TAO client applications. It performs the function in following manner.
SAP TAO Framework
Connect: To use TAO, connect module is used to establish a connection between SAP system you are using and Quality Center project
Inspect: With the help of Inspection and UI Scanner, you can generate components locally and can upload the components to Quality Center
In this module, we add T-code to the transactions list
Tao will return all the screens associated with that particular transaction
Process Flow Analyzer: Process flow analyzer ( PFA) records a sequence of screens and all user interactions in a business process and it is stored in an SAP Test Acceleration and Optimization repository. It automates creation of components, retrieval of dynamic SAP GUI properties at run time and automates inspection.
TAO will launch SAP for you and log you to the SAP transaction
Once transaction process is completed TAO will create the Analysis and return all SAP screens used to create flow with.
Consolidate: For the fast execution of test scripts, this function helps to combine all business process or components into a single component
Import/Export: To transfer components from SAP QC (Quality Center) to a SAP Test Acceleration and Optimization client, this function is used. If you’re new to SAP testing or wish to improve your knowledge, you might find this guide on how to create your first SAP test case quite helpful.Walk-Through to SAP TAO
The next step is a connection to HP QC server. Fill in all the information as shown in screenshot. Once you are connected to project- you will see icon “connected to project”
Now you can import/export components to Quality Center (QC) using import/ export icon on the left side menu bar, as highlighted in screenshot
Once you export components to Quality Center (QC), you will see components library (Buttons, Body Screen Buttons, Header buttons etc) as highlighted in the below screenshot.
To create test components you can use the “Inspect” tool. On the right-hand side you will see the rows, and these rows represent screen configured in the system and are part of T-code. For example, VA01 has 283 screens that we can inspect.
The naming convention of component created in Quality Center for the inspection is Tcode_screenNumber_Name for eg: VA01_ 0101_SalesdoclnitialscreenCreate.SAP TAO Integration with other Tools
SAP Solution Manager Adapter- It helps to transfer the requirement to HP Quality Center and transfer the HPQC result back to Solution Manager.
HP Quality Center- Application Life Cycle Management (ALM)- It is a test management tool used for Automation and manual testing. The Business Process Testing module of HPDQC is used to consolidate the components created from SAP TAO.
HP Quick Test Professional (QTP): It is required to execute testing scripts.
Object Spy is another tool apart from these that retrieves the information identifying the UI elements.Test Automation Approach with SAP TAO
Via inspection, SAP TAO generates Test components or by scanning of sub-screens of SAP Business Process (SAP GUI frontend only), the fields are parameterized
Automated test cases are composed out of test components and not single command lines
Through auto-created MS Excel files, test data can be applied to input parameters which include parameterized columns and test data for first iterations
Draft test cases and generated test components are uploaded to SAP Quality CenterBenefits of SAP TAO
Testing Deployment: It reduces the amount of time required for building and executing the test scripts
Reuse test: SAP TAO eliminates the need to create new tests whenever a component chúng tôi one component changes in a group of test, you can replace that component and then re-consolidate the test.
Maintenance: Eliminates record/ replay activities significantly reduces maintenance cost.
SME’s (Subject Matter Experts) are not required to develop the automated test cases
Robustness: The SAP TAO inspection process makes sure that SAP TAO tests are more robust during changes. Inspection process checks the data content with a component, and not just the screen object behavior.Summary
SAP TAO is an automation testing tool for SAP software systems.
SAP TAO full form is Test Acceleration and Optimization.
SAP TAO streamlines the creation and maintenance of ERP business processing testing.
SAP TAO Framework: Connect, Inspect, Process Flow Analyzer, Consolidate, Import/Export
SAP TAO integrates with various tools like SAP Solution Manager Adapter, HP Quality Center, HP Quik Test Professional, Object Spy, etc.
Via inspection, SAP TAO generates Test components or by scanning of sub-screens of SAP Business Process (SAP GUI frontend only), the fields are parameterized.
SAP TAO reduces the amount of time required for building and executing the test scripts.
You're reading Sap Tao Tutorial For Business Processing Testing
ByOverview of SAP CRM WebUI
CRM WebClient UI is a web based application for the modules covered in SAP CRM.
This framework has evolved over the period of time as successor of different user interfaces provided by SAP for the SAP CRM.
Web UI history
It is a business role based application:
This means that through this interface the user will be able to access only those applications for which he/she is having authorizations.
If a user is assigned a single role, he will not have to select the role on logon.
But in case there are multiple roles assigned to a user, he/she will have to select one of the available roles in order to log in to the CRM Web UI
Business Role selection in first page of SAP CRM Web UI
Irrespective of the role selected the screens of the CRM Web UI are structured in L-Shape.
But the applications and functionalities which user will be able to access in the CRM Web UI depends up on the role selected.L-Shape
Once logged in, user can see the Web UI screens in L-Shape.
L-Shape display in SAP CRM Web UI
It consists of following components:
Positions of all components of the L-Shape are fixed and cannot be changed.
An administrator can change the skin and logo of the web client as per company specific requirements.
Header area is provided to access application independent URLs and functionalities.
Using navigation bar user can access different applications, to which he is having authorizations.
Work Area gets updated based on actions a user takes on the Navigation bar.
It also gets updated for few actions on the header area.Header Area
Header area is static and its position is fixed.
It is possible to set its height in the CRM customizing but its position is fixed.
Header area consists of following components
Work Area Title
Components in SAP CRM Web UI HeaderNavigation Bar
Using navigation bar, user can accesses the application to which he/she is having authorizations.
It also has few links for generic pages like:
Other links available in the navigation bar are application specific and vary from one business role to another business role. These links are divided into following:
Quick create links
Navigation Bar in SAP CRM Web UI
Application links can be configured at two levels.
Using first level application links user can access the search, create and report links of a particular application.
Levels of navigation via Navigation bar
Second level application links directly takes user to particular search page.
Quick create links are meant for direct access to the create page for a particular business process document.
Quick create block in the navigation bar
Recent items in navigation bar represent a kind of history and maintain last visited business documents or applications by the user.Work Area
Work area is the place where user works!
It gets updated with actions that user takes on the navigation bar.
It can consist of
work center groups,
sub overview page
Following are few generic pages available:
Depending upon the business requirement, content of the Home page can be configured for standard (My Open Tasks) or custom functionality (CRM Links).
Navigation from the Home page will depend upon its content.
It displays alerts, workflow tasks and business transactions which are currently pending with or assigned to the logged in user.
It is possible to navigate to different application or business transaction from worklist page.
E-Mail Inbox and Calendar
This page can be configured to be in sync with the user mailbox
For this, CRM middleware settings are used so that user can access mailbox within Web UI
Different views are possible within the calendar page – single day, week, month view
Similarly user can see the E-Mail inbox in sync with the Lotus Notes server or Outlook.Work Area
Applications assigned to the logged in user are accessed in the Work Area
Work Area with Work Centre Groups
From work center user can navigate to Create page, search page or report page.
As discussed above, in case of generic pages like Home page, WorkList page, etc. work area has different layout and content.
But for the applications in the navigation bar, the structure and layout of work area is identical across the applications.
To implement “work area”, knowledge of both Web UI programming and CRM customizing is needed.Search Page
Search page is divided into search criteria, result table and saved search area.
Advanced Search Page
Within search criteria user can set the criteria to find an element.
It is possible to add or remove search criteria using the buttons available next to search criteria fields.
Search criteria fields can be implemented with F4 help or dropdown help.
Multiple operators can be configured for each search criteria.
Search result shows the result obtained from the search.
Once search is performed, result table shows the number of records found, if any.
It possible to have buttons on top of the result table header to provide some business process. For example, there are buttons to create different type accounts in the above figure.
In general, buttons to create new record are presented on the search result table header.
On the right-side end, search result table also contains buttons which enable user to export the records to Excel sheet and the button for personalization of the search result table.
The record found in the search result can also contain hyperlink in columns.
With these hyperlinks, it is possible to navigate to the individual record which is displayed in the Overview page.
Personalization settings pop-up view
Using the personalization button on the search result table header, user can personalize this view for the columns displayed and the order in which the columns are displayed.
As highlighted above:
User can the value of row count after which scroll bar will be visible.
Also user can set the values for number of records in single page.Overview Pages
Overview page can be used to work on complete data related to a single record.
It is used to display, update and create new data such as business partner, sales order, etc.
The data from single application or business transaction is organized into assignment blocks.
First assignments block shows the header or main details and other data are grouped in to different assignment blocks as per the requirement.
Possible views in an assignment block:
The header of the Overview page displays the title of the object which is open and its description.
The header also consists of the header buttons with which user can perform different task on the overview page.
Another component of the header is the History buttons with which user can navigate back and forward within the work area.
Overview Page Search Page – Form and Table View
Similar to search result table, overview page contains a personalization button with which user can select which assignment blocks user can see within the page.
An assignment block can by default be loaded in expanded or lazy mode. This helps in the performance improvement of the application.
All types of view in assignment block i.e. form view, table view and tree view can contain input fields with F4 input help or dropdown input help.
Value help Pop-Up using F4
Date fields in the views are displayed with date help.
Within form view we can group the data using the Captions.
Individual assignment block can also contain buttons on the header.
Search help Pop-Up
Table view and tree view can contain header which can also have buttons.
Also, it is possible to have buttons in the first column of a table view.
It is possible to have hyperlinks within all these types of view.
Using these hyperlinks it is possible to navigate from one application or business transaction to another. For example, to Sold-to party from a Sales Order.
As per requirement, it is possible to have attachments assignment block in Overview page.
Assignment block for Attachments
In this block it is possible to attach documents or URLs.
It is possible to attach document from content management or from the local hard disk:
Pop-up to add attachment
Once attached you can see the document properties, open it or delete it.
Assignment block for Attachments
There is also a region for the error messages in the header area:
There is an option for personalization of the CRM Web UI.
Here it is possible to set settings which are applicable across the applications for logged in user.
Here user can also change the skin of the application.
In the “Personalize My Data” section user can set values for the settings like format of date.
In layout section user can set Skin of the application.
Setting skin in personalization
There is a separate block for settings related to the Groupware integration.
In this block user can maintain required settings for the integration of CRM with user mailbox for E-Mail and Calendar pages.
SAP ERP Materials Management (MM) – Procure To Pay (P2P) Business Process skill has become a necessity in the career space for those who want to remain relevant and outstanding in areas like supply chain, Procurement, Purchasing, and even inventory management. This course is also designed for those beginners who want to learn SAP ERP from scratch.
Material is the engine of the supply chain and functional logistics, so in this course, with the aid of the SAP ERP System, I demonstrate the effective and efficient management of the organization’s materials to ensure the appropriate availability of the materials at the right cost and quality.
We provide affordable SAP ERP Software Access to our participants for an effective hands-on experience using the SAP ERP system.
This course will take you from scratch (even though you are just getting to know about SAP ERP) to the Global Best Practices on External Procurement Business Processes for Stock Items and Consumable Items.
The scope of this course is for SAP ERP New Users up to End Users. It covers the Introduction, SAP ERP Navigation, Purchasing Processes for Stock Items and Consumable Items, Inventory Management and Purchase Order Based Invoice Verification, and Goods Receipt Based Invoice Verification for partial delivery scenarios.
In this course, you also come to understand the Enterprise Structure and Organizational Levels for Procurement in the SAP ERP system (Client, Company Code, Purchasing Organization, and more). You will understand Material Types and the control functionality on the procurement business process, Material Groups etc.
This course covers
SAP New User Training
SAP ERP Navigation for new users
Overview of Procure–To–Pay Business Process (External Procurement Process)
Determination of Requirements using Purchase Requisition (Stock Items)
Purchase Order for (Stock Items)
Determination of Sources of Supply using RFQ
Purchase Requisition for Consumable Items (Including PR Approval Process)
Purchase Order for (Stock Items)
Goods Receipt (Planned & Unplanned Scenarios)
Transfer Posting from Quality Inspection to Unrestricted Use Stock Type.
Transfer Posting from Quality Inspection to Blocked Stock Type.
Process Return Delivery to Vendor
Goods Issue to Cost Center
Purchase Order-Based Invoice Verification
Goods Receipt Based Invoice verification
Purchase Order Monitoring and Closing of Open Purchase Order
Releasing Block Invoices.
Note that this course is a certificate course therefore a certificate will be issued at the end of the training.Who this course is for:
Supply chain Practitioners and those interested in Supply chain
Purchasing & Procurement Practitioners and all those interested in Purchasing & Procurement
Inventory Management Practitioners and all those interested in Inventory Management
Beginners who are trying to get a job in the field of Supply chain, Purchasing, or Procurement and Inventory Management
Beginners who want to learn SAP ERP Materials Management
SAP ERP End Users who want to learn the End-to-end the Procurement ProcessGoals
Gain Free Access to the SAP ERP System for effective practice
Introduction to SAP ERP and Understanding the System-wide Concept
Practically learn how to Navigate the SAP ERP System
Understanding the Procure-To-Pay Business Process Best Practice and the Enterprise Structure
Best Practise on how to Purchase stock material items using Purchase Requisition (PR), RFQ, and Purchase Orders (PO).
3 Scenarios of Consumable Material items with real-life examples and how to Purchase consumable material items using Purchase Requisition and Purchase Order
How to Approve/Release PR, PO, and how to release blocked Invoices
How to receive materials items from vendors and post Goods Receipt, Transfer Posting, Vendor Return, and Goods Issue
How to handle Purchasing Based Invoice Verification (3 Way Match) and Goods Receipt Based Invoice Verification (2 Way Match).
How to clear On-Order from the PO/ How to Close Open Items in a PO
How to Close Open Items in a PO
How to generate SAP ERP Standard Business Reports and export reports to Microsoft ExcelPrerequisites
Basic Understanding of Purchasing Process
viewing products, adding and removing items from the cart, purchasing the product, etc.
The number of users is increased to the point, until the app crashes or fails and can no longer handle the traffic.
The results of the tests are examined to discover bottlenecks or drawbacks in the system, performance improvement or optimization areas, recovery mechanism, etc.Tools for Stress Testing
LoadRunner − This tool from Hewlett-Packard Enterprise (HP) is widely used for load testing. The results shaped by LoadRunner are used as a benchmark. It works on the concept of recording and replaying users’ activities and then generates the desired load on the server. It simulates the real-world actions and determines the performance of the system or application by generating virtual load.
Jmeter − This is an open-source tool used for stress and performance testing. It is purely written in Java. It covers types of tests like load tests, functional tests, stress tests, etc. Jmeter requires JDK 5 or higher for functioning. It is mainly used to test web and web service applications. It was developed by Apache Software Foundation to test functional behavior and measure performance. It is also used to measure performance of a variety of services. It is originally used for testing web applications and File Transfer Protocol (FTP) applications. Now, it is also used for a functional test, database server test, etc. It is extremely easy and simple to use, one can get quickly acquainted with this tool. Being a pure Java application, Jmeter is platform independent. The test results can be viewed in different formats, such as chart, table, tree, etc. It supports all the basic protocols including HTTP, JDBC, LDAP, SOAP, and JMS.
Stress Tester − This tool helps in the extensive analysis of the performance of web applications. It is easy to use, and the results can be viewed in graphical format. It gives a good return on investment and does not even demand high-level scripting.
Neo Load − This is one of the most popular tools for testing web and mobile applications. It simulates thousands of users to evaluate the performance of the application under load and analyzes the response times. This tool supports cloud integrated performance, load and stress testing. Neo load is simple and easy to use, cost-effective, and offers good scalability. Moreover, it pinpoints the number of simultaneous users that the Internet, intranet or the mobile app can manage. It enables automated test design, thus providing faster test creation. It supports various protocols such as HTTP, HTTPS, SOAP, REST, Flex Push, AJAX Push, etc.Metrics for Stress Testing
Metrics evaluate the performance of a system and are generally studied at the end of the stress test. Some commonly used metrics in stress testing are −Scalability and performance
Pages per second − Number of pages requested per second.
Throughput − Response data size per second.
Rounds − Number of times test conditions were planned to number of times a client executed.Application response
Hit Time − Average time taken to retrieve a page or an image.
Time to the first byte − Time taken to return the first byte of information.
Page time − Time taken to retrieve all the information in a page.Failures
Failed connections − Number of failed connections refused by client.
Failed rounds − Number of rounds failed.
Failed hits − Number of failed attempts taken by the system.Conclusion
The sole aim of stress testing is to determine system’s performance under extreme conditions or load. It evaluates system resources like memory, processor, network, etc. It also examines the ability of a system to recover from a failure or a crash. It checks if the system displays proper error message upon facing stress.
NumPy arrays and Images
NumPy arrays find wide use in storing and manipulating image data. But what is image data really?
Images are made up of pixels that are stored in the form of an array. Each pixel has a value ranging between 0 to 255 – 0 indicating a black pixel and 255 indicating a white pixel. A colored image consists of three 2-D arrays, one for each of the color channels: Red, Green, and Blue, placed back-to-back thus making a 3-D array. Each value in the array constitutes a pixel value. So, the size of the array depends on the number of pixels along each dimension.
Have a look at the image below:
Python can read the image as an array using the scipy.misc.imread() method in the SciPy library. And when we output it, it is simply a 3-D array containing the pixel values:import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt from scipy import misc # read image im = misc.imread('./original.jpg') # image im array([[[115, 106, 67], [113, 104, 65], [112, 103, 64], ..., [160, 138, 37], [160, 138, 37], [160, 138, 37]], [[117, 108, 69], [115, 106, 67], [114, 105, 66], ..., [157, 135, 36], [157, 135, 34], [158, 136, 37]], [[120, 110, 74], [118, 108, 72], [117, 107, 71], ...,
We can check the shape and type of this NumPy array:print(im.shape) print(type(type)) (561, 997, 3) numpy.ndarray
Now, since an image is just an array, we can easily manipulate it using an array function that we have looked at in the article. Like, we could flip the image horizontally using the np.flip() method:# flip plt.imshow(np.flip(im, axis=1))
Or you could normalize or change the range of values of the pixels. This is sometimes useful for faster computations.im/255 array([[[0.45098039, 0.41568627, 0.2627451 ], [0.44313725, 0.40784314, 0.25490196], [0.43921569, 0.40392157, 0.25098039], ..., [0.62745098, 0.54117647, 0.14509804], [0.62745098, 0.54117647, 0.14509804], [0.62745098, 0.54117647, 0.14509804]], [[0.45882353, 0.42352941, 0.27058824], [0.45098039, 0.41568627, 0.2627451 ], [0.44705882, 0.41176471, 0.25882353], ..., [0.61568627, 0.52941176, 0.14117647], [0.61568627, 0.52941176, 0.13333333], [0.61960784, 0.53333333, 0.14509804]], [[0.47058824, 0.43137255, 0.29019608], [0.4627451 , 0.42352941, 0.28235294], [0.45882353, 0.41960784, 0.27843137], ..., [0.6 , 0.52156863, 0.14117647], [0.6 , 0.52156863, 0.13333333], [0.6 , 0.52156863, 0.14117647]], ...,
Remember this is using the same concept of ufuncs and broadcasting that we saw in the article!
There are a lot more things that you could do to manipulate your images that would be useful when you are classifying images using Neural Networks. If you are interested in building your own image classifier, you could head here for an amazing tutorial on the topic!End Notes
Endurance Testing is non-functional type of software testing where a software is tested with high load extended over a significant amount of time to evaluate the behavior of software application under sustained use. The main purpose of endurance testing is to ensure that the application is capable enough to handle extended load without any deterioration of response time.
Endurance means capacity so in other words, you can term Endurance Testing as Capacity Testing.
In this tutorial, you will learn-Goals of Endurance Testing
Primary goal of Endurance testing is to check for memory leaks.
To discover how the system performs under sustained usage.
To ensure that after a long period, the system response time will remain the same or better than the start of the test.
To determine the number of users and/or transactions a given system will support and meet performance goals.
Endurance testing is generally done by either overloading the system or by reducing certain system resources and evaluating the consequences.
It is performed to ensure that defects or memory leaks do not occur after what is considered to be a relatively “normal” usage period.What to monitor in Endurance Testing
In Endurance Testing following things are tested.
Test memory leakage– Checks are done to verify if there is any memory leakage in the application, which can cause crashing of the system or O.S.
Test connection closure between the layer of the system – If the connection between the layers of the system is not closed successfully, it may stall some or all modules of the system.
Test database connection close successfully– If the database connection is not closed successfully, may result in system crash
Test response time – System is tested for the response time of the system as the application becomes less efficient as a result of the prolonged use of the system.How to perform Endurance Testing
Below is the basic testing approach for Endurance Test
Testing Environment – Identify the hardware, software, operating system require for the endurance testing, assigning roles and responsibilities within the team, etc. The environment should be ready before the test execution. You also need to estimate common database production size and yearly growth. This is required as such you need to test how your application will respond after a year, two or five.
Creating the Test Plan, Scenarios – Based on nature of testing – manual or automation or combination of both, Test Case design, reviews, and execution should be planned. Testing to stress the system, break point testing, etc. should also be part of the test plan. Testing to stress the system determines the break point in the application.
Test Estimation – Provide the estimation of how long it will take to complete the testing phase. It should be analyzed on the basis of a number of testers involved and the number of test cycles required.
Risk Analysis –Analyzing the risk and taking an appropriate action for the prevention. Prioritization of test cases as per the Risk factor and identify the below risk and issues tester may phase during the endurance test.
Will performance remain consistent over time?
Are there other minor issues that have not yet been detected?
Is there external interference that was not addressed?
Test Schedule – Determine the budget, deliverables within the time frames. As Endurance Testing applies a huge but natural load arrangement of transactions to the system/application for a continuous period of time.Endurance Testing Example
While Stress testing takes the tested system to its limits, Endurance testing takes the application to its limit over time.
For Example, the most complex issues – memory leaks, database server utilization, and unresponsive system – happen when software runs for an extended period of time. If you skip the endurance tests, your chances of detecting such defects prior to deployment are quite low.Endurance Testing Tools
Rational Performance TesterAdvantages of Endurance Testing
It helps in determining how workload can the System Under Load handle.
Provides accurate data that customer can use to validate or enhance their infrastructure needs.
Identifies performance problems that may occur after a system has been running at a high level for longer period of time
Typical issues are identified in smaller targeted performance tests, which means it ensures application remain available even when there is huge load in a very short span time.
The endurance test is also used to check whether there is any performance degradation after a long period of execution
It is often hard to define how much stress is worth applying.
Endurance Testing could cause application and/or network failures that may result in significant disruption if Test Environment are not isolated.
Permanent Data loss or corruption can occur by over-stressing the system.
Resource utilization remains very high after the stress is removed.
Some application components fail to respond.
Unhandled exceptions are observed by the end user.Summary:
In Software Engineering, Endurance testing is a subset of load testing.
Endurance testing is a long process and sometimes last for even up to a year
Checks are done to verify
Test memory leakage
Test response time
Test database connection, etc.
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