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Recently the principles of lean manufacturing pioneered by Toyota have become popular topics in application development. In particular, Mary and Tom Poppendieck have written several excellent books describing how lean principles could be applied to software development.

These lean principles have been particularly popular in the agile methods community, where they’re used to justify the elimination of wasteful practices that don’t contribute to deliverable code during tightly bounded iterations.

Fundamental to implementing lean techniques is the identification and elimination of waste–any activity that absorbs resources without creating value. The Japanese have a wonderful word for waste, muda.

The problem in how most software organizations approach the elimination of muda is that they make assumptions about where waste hides rather than deducing it from measurement. By working from assumptions rather than data, they often miss some of the largest sources of muda and may attack the symptoms of waste rather than its sources.

The largest source of muda on most software projects is rework — the effort required to fix mistakes. The elimination of this source of muda offers a large and immediate opportunity for improving productivity and reducing development and maintenance costs.

Tragically, however, most software organizations don’t measure the effort and cost of rework. It lies hidden below the surface, sinking budgets and schedules that crash headlong into its ruinous bulges.

Why is rework not measured? Probably because most IT organizations do a poor job of tracking effort, and even those that do find it hard to get developers to separate rework from initial effort in a knowledge-intense occupation. Since few people record overtime, especially in the maelstrom of a death march, the full extent of rework goes unreported.

The few available studies of rework report that it accounts for between 30% and 50% of project effort in most organizations that have not undertaken successful process improvement. Rework numbers are painful, not only in the collecting, but also in the fessing up. Few executives want to admit they are flushing away an average 40% of their investment in applications.

The war on muda must begin as a war on rework. An attack on rework must be guided by data.

How many and what types of defects are we injecting? At what point in the development cycle are these defects being injected and detected? What is the full effort/cost of identifying, correcting, and retesting different types of defects, and how are these hours spread across the development or maintenance cycle? What is the cost of defects that escape into operations in terms of rework, liability, and lost business opportunity?

Armed with these data an organization can begin analyzing the profiles of defects causing the most rework, assess their typical causes and prioritize actions to eliminate them. (I’ve written about the Top Five Causes of Poor Software Quality).

These data are also helpful for evaluating the value of new methods and technologies. Will it really help to eliminate a significant source of defects and wasted effort?

Determining the underlying causes of defects and the most appropriate remedial actions is not simple. Too many executives have long held that they just needed to hire smarter people, when their real problem was giving impossible delivery dates to the smart people they already employed.

The types of defects made in wee morning hours are typically different from those made when work can be completed within normal working hours. Without data it is difficult to achieve profound insight into the causes and cures of software muda.

Lean techniques have worked in many other industries and they can work in software. However, lean techniques must be guided by the type of insightful data that many organizations do not collect today. Historical data tells us that rework is the largest source of muda in most software organizations. Attacking rework is the first beachhead in the war on muda.

Dr. Bill Curtis is the SVP & Chief Scientist at CAST Software.

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What Is The Role Of Project Management In Agile Software Development?

Project managers must coordinate teams, monitor progress, and ensure that the project’s objectives are aligned with those of the organization in order to successfully implement Agile practices. This article delves into various aspects of Agile project management, such as popular frameworks such as Scrum, Kanban, and XP, project managers’ roles in Agile software development, planning and estimation techniques, collaboration and communication strategies, risk management, and success measurement.

The Agile Manifesto and Project Management

The Agile Manifesto is a set of principles for developing software that places an emphasis on adaptability and teamwork. It places an emphasis on adapting to new circumstances and developing products that customers truly value through close collaboration. In order to successfully implement Agile practices, project management must coordinate teams, monitor progress, and ensure that the project’s objectives are in line with those of the organization.

The Project Management Institute found that companies that employ Agile methodologies on software development projects have a 62% success rate, while those that don’t have a 49% success rate. This demonstrates that software development projects can have a greater chance of success when using an Agile methodology. Project managers can gain a lot from adopting Agile practices, but only if they know how to do so properly.

Agile Project Management Frameworks: Scrum, Kanban, and XP

Scrum, one of the most well-known Agile frameworks, centers on this concept of incremental improvement. Projects are broken down into manageable chunks of time, or “sprints,” that typically last between two and four weeks. The team produces a testable, reviewable increment of the product at the end of each sprint. Scrum is an Agile project management framework, and 58 percent of survey respondents said they use Scrum.

Kanban is another Agile framework that uses boards to track tasks. A Kanban board is used to monitor the progression of individual tasks as they are worked on. For teams with a lot on their plates who need to prioritize tasks in order of importance, Kanban is an excellent tool. LeanKit found that among Agile project managers, 61% of respondents were using Kanban.

Extreme Programming, or XP, is an Agile framework that stresses the importance of pair programming, test-driven development, and continuous integration among other software engineering practices. It is intended to facilitate the efficient and rapid delivery of high-quality software by teams. VersionOne found that among Agile project managers, 20% of respondents were using XP.

The Role of a Project Manager in Agile Software Development

In agile software development, a project manager’s job is to see that the project is finished successfully. The project manager’s role in agile development is to collaborate closely with the team throughout the duration of the project.

The project manager is responsible for coordinating the team’s efforts, keeping everyone informed, and keeping things on track. They also aid the team in finding and fixing any problems that crop up during the course of the project.

Project managers also routinely request and incorporate customer feedback to guarantee that their work is satisfying those customers. In addition, they make sure the team is working efficiently and effectively by setting priorities based on the project’s goals.

Agile Project Planning and Estimation Techniques

Agile project planning and estimation techniques are critical components of agile software development project management. In layman’s terms, these techniques are used to plan and estimate the time, effort, and resources needed to complete an agile project.

Agile project planning entails breaking the project down into smaller, more manageable tasks known as user stories. The team then prioritizes these stories based on their importance to the overall project goal. This allows the team to prioritize the most important tasks and avoid wasting time on less important ones.

Estimation techniques are employed to determine the amount of time and effort required to complete each user story. To name a few, agile teams employ a variety of estimation techniques, such as relative sizing, planning poker, and affinity grouping. The goal is to arrive at a reasonable estimate that the team can use to plan and track their work.

Collaboration and Communication in Agile Project Management

Agile Project Management relies heavily on collaboration and communication. The project team in an Agile software development project collaborates closely and communicates constantly to achieve the project goals.

The Agile methodology promotes daily team meetings to discuss progress, identify any challenges or issues, and make any necessary changes to the project plan. This method ensures that everyone on the team is aware of the project’s status and can effectively collaborate to resolve any issues that arise.

Working with customers or stakeholders requires effective communication as well. Agile project management encourages frequent customer feedback throughout the project, allowing the team to adjust the project’s direction and priorities to better meet the needs of the customers.

Agile Risk Management Strategies

One common strategy is to prioritize and address the most important risks first. This enables the team to concentrate its efforts on the risks with the greatest potential impact on the project’s success.

Another strategy is to monitor and evaluate risks continuously throughout the project, rather than just at the start. This enables the team to adjust their risk management strategies in response to changing circumstances.

Agile risk management also emphasizes team members’ open communication and collaboration. By encouraging everyone to share their concerns and ideas, the team can more effectively identify and address risks.

Measuring Success in Agile Project Management

Measuring success in agile project management entails determining whether or not the agile software development project met its goals and objectives. The ability to deliver value to the customer in a timely and efficient manner determines success in agile project management.

The timely delivery of working software, meeting customer requirements, and maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction are key indicators of success in agile project management. To assess success, agile project teams employ a variety of metrics such as velocity, burn-down charts, and customer feedback.

The amount of work completed by the team during each iteration is measured by velocity. Burn-down charts show how much work is left to do in each iteration. Customer feedback is collected throughout the project to ensure that the team is meeting the needs and expectations of the customer.

Managing Change and Continuous Improvement in Agile Projects

In agile projects, managing change and continuous improvement refers to the process of adapting to changing requirements and improving the project as it progresses. Change is viewed as a natural part of the development process in agile project management, and it is welcomed rather than resisted.

Project teams use techniques such as backlog prioritization, iterative development, and frequent communication with stakeholders to effectively manage change in agile projects. Backlog prioritization entails reassessing project priorities on a regular basis and adjusting the project backlog accordingly. Iterative development entails breaking the project down into small, manageable pieces and delivering working software on a regular basis.

Business Analysis & Scrum With Jira For Software Development

Masterclass on business analysis, software development, scrum agile and product management. Learn through case studies.

Create user stories, epics, features, product vision, SWOT analysis, competition analysis and product backlog in JIRA.

Learn business analysis & scrum to become great business analyst, product owner & scrum master. Bonus lectures on product management also available as part of course.

Interview preparation for job seekers and training for professionals to become great product managers, business analysts, product owners & scrum masters.

Business Analysis & Scrum Agile with BRD, User stories, Scrum events, sprints ,product owner, scrum master & rituals.

Bonus includes product management videos.

Learn Business Analysis & Scrum Agile Implementation- Learn Business analysis knowledge Areas, write business requirement document aka BRD, create Product Backlog & Download Free CV. Don’t be an average business analyst pr product owner, become an excellent one.

Learn software development process with a complete case study with end to end implementation and requirement gathering. You will also get templates for product backlog and other documents.

You will understand the various concepts of scrum like scrum product backlog, scrum roles like product owner, scrum master etc. 

You will also learn requirement gathering and analysis with a detailed case study.

This course will focus on following;  

Product management fundamentals

Roles, responsibilities and skills for product managers

Product vision, product strategy and market research(templates to help you create these)

SWOT analysis, competition analysis

Customer persona

BA Approach Planning   

Stakeholder Engagement Planning   

BA Information and Governance Planning   

Requirement Elicitation Techniques and how to select a good one for your project?   

Planning and Conducting Requirement Elicitation.   

Requirement and Solution Management including SMART Requirements/Objectives, Verify, Validate and Maintain Requirements for Reuse.

Requirement Modeling

How to write professional end to end Business Requirement Documents (BRD).   

Scrum Agile Fundamentals

Why Scrum is better than Waterfall

Scrum Events, Scrum Artifacts, Scrum Roles like product owners & scrum master along with Scrum agile Overview

How To Write Product Backlogs and User Stories in scrum

How To Prepare & use Burn down charts in scrum

Various business analysis concepts like prioritization, base-lining, change control process, etc.    

This course will be helpful if you are preparing for IIBA’s certification like ECBA, CCBA or CBAP.

Business analysis section is aligned with IIBA’s BABOK guide so if you are planning for IIBA’s certification like CBAP, you will find this course useful. Please note that this course is a supplemental material. Even if you don’t purchase this course, make sure to completely read BABOK guide before your IIBA’s Exam. 

So whether you are looking for a business analyst jobs, product owner jobs, product manager job, business analysis certifications or business analysis courses online, it can help you.

Course Output

By the end of this course, you will be able to write your own BRD(Business Requirement Document).

You will be able to understand the concept and practices of business analysis.

You will know more about the roles and responsibilities of the business analyst.

This course will be helpful for those who are preparing for IIBA’s certifications like CCBA, CBAP etc.

Good understanding of product management.

Who this course is for:

Anybody who is preparing for IIBA’s Certifications like CCBA, CBAP & need additional resource

Anybody who is preparing for a business analyst job

Junior To Mid Level Business Analysts who are looking to improve their knowledge and skills

Programmers and Project Managers who are looking to increase their understanding of business analysis & Scrum Agile

Anyone who want to learn Business Analysis & Scrum Agile

Product owners

IT professionals

Scrum master


Business Analysis Fundamentals and Practical Application

Understand various knowledge Areas of Business Analysis mentioned in BABOK

Scrum Agile fundamentals, Estimations, Roles like scrum master & scrum product owner, Events & Overview

Create Epics, Features and user stories in JIRA

Perform Requirement Elicitation & Gathering

Roles & responsibilities of product owner & product manager

Product strategy and how to handle these questions in interview along with custom framework to help you

Write Business Requirement Documents, Template available as Free Resource.

Prepare for product management interview with real examples

Roles & responsibilities of scrum master

Prepare for Business Analyst Jobs & if working, perform better business analysis.

Create Epics, Features and user stories in Confluence

Sprint planning in JIRA

Project setup in JIRA

Case study with end to end implementation

Stakeholder Management & Coordination

Understand Project Scope, Requirement Prioritization and Change Control Process

Download Free Sample IT Business Analyst Resume/CV

Implement Scrum Agile

Create & maintain product backlog

Write better requirements & user stories

Create project burndown chart

Job hunting strategies to get desired job with desired employers

Product vision

Market research & customer research


Interest in the field of Business Analysis

The Services And Importance Of Android Application Development!

Smartphones have overwhelmed the digital technology, and everyone is using mobile phones to connect with the people around the globe. The software technology has made posh progress in building various mobile applications for enterprises. 

You have already heard about the word “Android” and “IOS” these both are the mobile operating software that allows various applications to run on multiple smartphones. Android applications gain much importance with the massive usage of smartphones. The mobile phone with the Android operating system provides various mobile applications according to your needs and requirements. 

 The software development companies provide android and IOS operating system based applications to run on smartphone devices. The Android App Development Services offered by software development companies play a vital role in delivering various mobile applications with a high-quality interface of the application. 








Online Shopping


Mobile Banking


Online Meetings


Educational Stuff

Each Enterprise must work by taking services of software technology for competing for its competitors in the market. E-Commerce business in this tech era is getting more popularity and success in terms of high sales and revenue. For the successful accomplishment of the company, it’s imperative to launch a mobile application for providing the quick and best services to the customers.

If you are running an enterprise, then you must get a mobile application for the customers in gaining positive consequences in the market. People use smartphones, and mobile application is the best way to interact with the customers to get maximum sales ratio. 

There are many mobile application development services provided by software development companies according to the demands and requirements of the Enterprise or clients.  Some Services are given below:

The service provides custom android applications according to the needs of the client and business requirement. You can customize your existing mobile application by bringing the innovations and innovative features in it. The experts not only develop the mobile application but also provide the best quality reliable product to compete with your competitors.

The custom android application is favorable to your business in launching online services to the customers. The features and tools can assist in boosting sales and revenue of the company.

It’s the valuable service provided by the software development company by ensuring the high-quality design and look of the mobile application. UX/ UI design services assist in developing the attractive and straightforward interface of the mobile application for the better performance of the software.

 The experts understand the customers’ requirements and develop an android application with a simple look and modified features.

Web-based applications require highly skilled and experienced for providing the best services to the client. The experts manage all the front- end, back-end, design and customization of the android mobile application. Web-based applications assist in searching the material online by providing the custom browser database.

It’s the vital service in detecting the bugs and flaws in the mobile application. The experts by finalizing the development and customization of the software check its durability and functionality with the help of various testing tools.  



Android provides a free software development kit (SDK) that reduces the cost of Enterprise on expensive development kits.  The software developer provides the android mobile application at a low cost by simplifying the launching process.


High Technology Framework

Android provides high technology framework by utilizing the latest technology, and you can get open source benefit from licensing. The simple operating system offers quick access to mobile application services to your customers efficiently.


Customization and Integration

Android provides easy and quick channels for integration with other mobile applications. The customization of a mobile application offered by android plays a vital role in making the application more attractive and functional. You can develop mobile application and integrate with it easily according to your business requirement.

The Feds Are Ramping Up For War On Bad Mobile Security

The feds are ramping up for war on bad mobile security

Apple, Google, and a host of other smartphone makers and US carriers have found themselves the subject of a mobile security investigation. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) have kicked off a joint inquiry to figure out how smartphones and other devices are kept secure and up-to-date, given the increasing number of hacking attempts and the amount of personal data users now generally carry around in their pockets or purses.

The FTC has contacted Apple, Blackberry, Alphabet’s Google, HTC, LG, Microsoft, Motorola, and Samsung, while the FCC has done the same with six US carriers, including AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, and Verizon.

On the device and software side, the FTC has requested more information on what factors affect when they decide whether or not to address vulnerabilities, as well as examples of cases when that has taken place in any devices sold since August 2013.

For carriers, meanwhile, there are questions around the hurdles of developing and delivering security updates, the potential impact of modified OSes – like the customized Android builds some operators insist upon – and to what extent unpatched vulnerabilities could damage the networks.

The FCC is also curious about whether carriers know if subscribers are actually installing updates, and – if they’re not – if there’s concern about that.

Though it’s early days in the inquiry, there are already some interesting aspects of the two agencies questioning that could have a big impact on consumers’ devices.

For instance, the FCC is seemingly particularly interested in timescales for addressing vulnerabilities, and the delays involved in dealing with customized software. Figuring out the point where security support ends – and how that’s communicated – is also raised:

“How does [Carrier] decide when to discontinue security update support? Are consumers notified at the time of sale how long security updates will be provided or supported for their device by [Carrier]? Are consumers notified when security updates to their mobile devices are no longer supported? What are consumers’ options for protecting themselves against security vulnerabilities after such discontinuance by [Carrier]?” FCC

The trigger for this renewed level of questioning has been Stagefright, the Android vulnerability which made headlines in 2023 and prompted several device-makers to promise monthly security patches.

Now, the FTC and FCC appear to be trying to pin down accountability for making sure those patches actually reach – and are installed on – devices in the wild.

“Has [Carrier] made a similar commitment to expedite the release of the monthly security updates as they become available?” the FCC asks of the networks. “Have such monthly updates been made available and, if so, has [Carrier] begun to release those updates as they become available? How many have been made available and how many has [Carrier] released?”

The impact on security of Android fragmentation, where various different devices run multiple versions of the core OS, has increasingly become a concern as the platform gains traction. No longer limited to smartphones and tablets, but increasingly seen on other mobile devices, in the Internet of Things (IoT), and the smart home, loopholes can potentially allow hackers not only access to contacts and email, but a worryingly broad variety of information.

Though Apple’s iOS is often considered more resilient, that’s not to say it’s been free of malware attempts in the past too.

What, exactly, the FTC and FCC plan to do about it remains to be seen, but a new focus on timeliness of reactions and a commitment to which devices are eligible for updates and patches seems on the cards.


Brain Development And Adolescent Growth Spurts

As tweens enter a period of rapid prefrontal cortex development, familiarize them with their growing executive function skills by teaching time management and organizing information.

As your students move through adolescence, their brains are going through a dynamic change from chaos to clarity. These developmental changes have profound implications for how you’ll be able to guide students during these transformative years.

Brain Remodeling: Chaos to Clarity

The brain first goes through a rapid maturation phase in the months before and after birth, and a second maturation phase throughout later childhood and adolescence. During this second phase of increased brain growth, the prefrontal cortex is the site of the brain’s most active reorganization and growth. Before building your understanding of what is taking place in the prefrontal cortex during its adolescent growth spurt, let’s explore what is housed in this late-developing part of the brain.

The prefrontal cortex is where the highest cognitive and emotional control networks are being constructed, especially during the school years. These networks are what neurologists call executive functions.

The networks of the executive functions direct the complex mental processes that you see emerging as students grow. Executive functions can be thought of as the skills that would make a corporate executive successful, abilities that allow them to:



Communicate effectively

Accurately interpret validity and value of information

Make long-range plans to achieve goals

Assess risk

Solve problems creatively


These networks do not reach full effectiveness until early adulthood. When well nurtured by use, executive functions ultimately guide the brain’s abilities to:

Manage emotional stability

Control impulses


Respond productively to corrective feedback

Learn from mistakes

Remain resilient to setbacks

Reflect thoughtfully before making decisions and choices.

Early adolescence (ages 10-12) is a good time to build students’ skills of organizing and prioritizing information and time management. The opportunities you provide to guide them in using these executive functions also provide the activation to strengthen these networks when they are at peak neuroplastic responsiveness. As a result of this strengthening, your students will build more skills en route to becoming self-directed learners.

Helping Students Organize Themselves

Successful organization is needed for preparing and completing most activities related to school. The development of this executive function becomes even more critical as the responsibilities and requirements of school and extracurricular activities increase each year. Using strategies that increase student awareness of these skills and providing guided opportunities to use them will help adolescents build the brainpower that they need.

Start by promoting student awareness of their existing organizing skills. Ask questions such as:

How do you sort your music on playlists?

How do you organize your files on your computer?

Also, ask questions about familiar things that are already organized systematically, such as:

How is the content of this book organized into chapters?

What organization do you see in the periodic table of elements or in dividing plants and animals into classifications such as kingdoms, genus, and species?

Other Strategies 1. Teacher Modeling and Discussion

Model your systems of organization (filing, recording progress, how you set up the classroom, etc.). Draw students’ attention to the organizational strategies that you use during instruction.

2. Clear Instructions

Initially, when providing organizational strategies, emphasize them both verbally and in writing. Give students clear instructions for procedures, projects, or class transitions as you model organizational structure.

3. Student Modeling

Assign selected students to model the procedures that you’ve described, such as the right way and the wrong way to organize their class groups during collaborative work time.

4. Checking for Understanding

Stop between segments of complex or multi-step instructions, allowing students to organize their thoughts and ask questions. Ask students to repeat back their understanding of the instructions so that they can respond to your feedback and reorganize appropriately.

5. Gradual Release of Responsibility

Throughout the year, plan a gradual decrease in the scaffolding that you provide for student organization of time and goals. For example, back away from giving them your timeline schedule for parts of a book report or project, let them plan and write their own timelines, and revise these as you help them monitor their progress.

6. Feedback

Observe student progress and setbacks and provide feedback with opportunities for them to revise their organizational systems.

The Case for Investing in Executive Functions

As the caretaker of your students’ brains during the years of rapid prefrontal cortex development, the opportunities that you provide for them to use these critical neural networks are precious gifts. The tools and skills that you help them build will empower them to achieve their highest potential now, and will increase their satisfaction and success as they inherit the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century.

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