Trending March 2024 # Some Of The Google Now Easter Eggs You Should Know # Suggested April 2024 # Top 5 Popular

You are reading the article Some Of The Google Now Easter Eggs You Should Know updated in March 2024 on the website We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested April 2024 Some Of The Google Now Easter Eggs You Should Know

1. What does the fox say?

Google is known for its great sense of humor, especially when it comes to adding easter eggs in its products. From its search engine to features like Google Now, you will see a lot of intentional jokes, or in other words, easter eggs hidden in them. Fortunately, there are some diggers who keep on digging through various products to find out such eggs, and they are kind enough to share them with us. Here’re some of the Google Now easter eggs you should probably know if you use Google Now.

When you ask the above question to Google Now, it will reply to you with the Fox’s sound. If you ask the same question again, you might get a different reply.

2. Make me a Sandwich

If you are too lazy to make a sandwich for yourself, you should ask Google Now to do it for you. Unfortunately, when asking so, it says to make it yourself.

3. Sudo make me a sandwich

If you include the term “Sudo” while asking Google Now to make a sandwich, it will say “OK” instead of no when you ask the question above. That shows the power of Sudo (superuser).

4. When am I?

You already know when you are, but what’s the harm in asking Google Now? Ask it for yourself and let us know what it replied.

5. Beam me up Scotty

Do you want to hear Google Now speaking in a Scottish accent? This might be the perfect question to ask.

6. Up, Up, Down, Down, Left, Right, Left, Right

If you are a gamer, you know how important it is to unlock cheat codes and various things in the game. Asking the above question to Google Now will let you unlock unlimited free Google searches. Trust me, it works!

7. How much wood could a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood?

Do you love tongue-twisters and want Google Now to recite them for you? Ask the above question.

8. What is the nature of the universe?

When you ask the above question, Google Now will tell you “The universe is a spheroid, 705 meters in diameter”.

9. What is your favourite colour?

Everyone has their own favourite colour. The best way to know what colour Google Now likes the most is to ask it.

10. What is the answer to life, the universe and everything?

Maybe you want to know the answer to everything on this earth? Ask Google Now, and it will tell you.

11. What is the airspeed velocity of an unladen swallow?

We promise you will get a humorious answer when you ask the above question.

12. Who is on first?

Ever wanted to know who is on first? Ask Google Now and it will reply to you asking what is on second.

13. Who are you?

Who have you been asking all of these questions to? To know who exactly he is, ask him who he is, and he will reply.

14. Do a barrel roll

This one is my favorite, and it has been around for a while now. When you say the above command to Google Now, it will do a barrel roll for you.

15. Askew

Similar to the above command, this one does a trick for you on your screen.

16. Tilt

It tilts the search results pages.


When you are bored or just want Google Now to do something funny for you, you can ask the above questions, and the replies that you get will definitely make you laugh.

Image Credit: brbk@Deviantart

Mahesh Makvana

Mahesh Makvana is a freelance tech writer who’s written thousands of posts about various tech topics on various sites. He specializes in writing about Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android tech posts. He’s been into the field for last eight years and hasn’t spent a single day without tinkering around his devices.

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Bottlenecking: Everything You Should Know

Bottlenecking is a natural result of an unbalanced PC build. When you build your own, or at least pick the parts, you might feel tempted to grab whatever you can afford. Or just the most expensive one out there – that’s usually not the best approach. Finding the right balance between parts, especially CPU and GPU, is the key to having a powerful PC that keeps up as games and software evolve.

That might mean waiting a little to be able to afford a slightly pricier part that fits better. Or actually selecting a cheaper alternative that works better in your setup. If you make the wrong choice, you end up with a bottleneck.

The quite descriptive term refers to when a certain element of your PC hardware – usually CPU or GPU – is unable to keep up with the performance of other parts. A computer can only perform as well as its weakest part. So pairing a powerful CPU with a weak GPU means it won’t be able to work at capacity as it’ll be limited by the GPU.

Why Is It a Problem?

When you put money into a PC, one part slowing down the rest of the system essentially means wasting the money you invested in the parts that are being slowed down. In some cases, it can also lead to increased wear and tear on the bottleneck part since it might cause it to overheat if it’s forced to run at capacity all the time. Depending on the part, a bottleneck can outright prevent you from playing certain games or running certain programs – or it might just make them sluggish and slow. Either way, it’s best to avoid them or fix them as soon as possible.

What Are Common Bottlenecks?

The most common two bottleneck points are CPU and GPU. Both are relatively pricey parts that can be particularly expensive to upgrade – and therefore, they are often replaced one at a time, preventing the improved part from reaching its potential. Technically, any part can be a bottleneck, at least in some tasks – here are some of the most common ones.


The CPU is the heart of the computer. It controls basically everything that happens and performs the vast majority of the computer’s processing. There are two factors in CPU performance, core count and processing power. Both can cause bottlenecks but in slightly different scenarios.

CPU Core Count

The CPU core count is the number of processing cores a CPU has, and each of these cores can run a separate process simultaneously. This has overall performance benefits, but some programs benefit more than others. Some programs have logic that can be neatly divided into multiple processes. Each process can then be run on a separate CPU core simultaneously. This can provide a performance boost of up to two times running on a single CPU core.

A lot of software, especially older software, can only run on one process on one core at a time. Even in this case, though, there can be some performance increase, as two or more of these programs can be run at once, depending on the number of cores.

CPU Processing Power

Processing power is typically measured with the clock rate through other factors like the IPC. A clock rate is simply how many processor cycles the CPU can complete per second. It is typically measured in GHz (pronounced gigahertz), with typical values between 2 and 5GHz, or between two and five billion cycles per second.

Raw processing power can sometimes be a bottleneck as single processes may not complete fast enough, leaving other parts waiting. This is especially the case when the CPU doesn’t get enough cooling. If this happens, it automatically slows itself down to reduce the heat it produces, thus preventing any damage to your hardware and slowing down any tasks it is running, increasing the chance of your CPU bottlenecking something else.


GPUs are generally limited by power or by heat. Like CPUs, cooling is important, so make sure that you’ve also got good airflow to keep your GPU cool so it can run fast.


If you think storage capacity will be a bottleneck issue, you’ll probably want to use HDDs. However, if you need to read or write data quicker, you’ll want an SSD. A combination of both can work well, so you can store infrequently needed data on a cheap HDD and files you’ll need more often on a fast SSD.

At least in gaming, a slow hard drive often causes things like slow loading times. It can also cause your computer to be slow at booting up. This doesn’t really affect your performance in-game as the hard drive isn’t used so much then and isn’t a bottleneck. Still, while reading a lot of data from a slow hard drive, it can be a bottleneck.


The display is rarely a bottleneck, but that’s not to say it can’t be. If you want to visualize a lot of data at once, you will be limited by the screen’s resolution. You can display more detailed images or graphs on higher resolution screens. It may even be helpful to get a second screen.

In gaming specifically, not just resolution but also the refresh rate of the screen can also be a bottleneck. Standard monitors display 60 frames per second. However, if you’ve got a powerful enough graphics card compared to the graphical requirements of the game you’re playing, you may be able to produce more frames than that, potentially substantially more. All of that data and processing power go to waste if your monitor can’t show that many frames per second. Then again, some people may be happy with 60 frames per second and want to get a higher resolution monitor instead.


The motherboard is basically the spine of your computer. Everything attaches to it and communicates through it. Budget motherboards cut features to reduce costs. These are obvious and easy enough to work around in some cases, such as a lack of integrated Wi-Fi. Unfortunately, you also often don’t get the latest feature sets. This can, for example, force your expensive PCIe5 SSD to operate at PCIe3 speeds. In that case, cutting potential SSD performance by three quarters. You need to make sure your motherboard is compatible with all your parts. However, you also don’t want to spend too much on a motherboard that has features you don’t want or need, as you may be able to better spend that money elsewhere.

With motherboards, the bottleneck isn’t a direct performance of the motherboard. But more if it can enable optimum performance of the rest of your components.

Power supply

Computers need power, and all of this comes through the PSU. It’s important to determine how much power your computer will draw when under load. Then ensure that your PSU can provide more than that, ideally by 20-30%. There are online calculators where you can enter your components and estimate the total power draw. This is followed by recommendations for PSU power capacities.

Realistically, most standard computers will be fine with a 650W PSU. Gaming computers often have high-performance GPUs under heavy load combined with a mid to high CPU and can need more like 850W. You can need even more if you’re running particularly high-end gear and overclocking it. Generally, however, you shouldn’t need a 1600W power supply. That will just be overkill, and the money can be better spent elsewhere.

Realistically, a PSU doesn’t affect performance unless it can’t provide enough power, in which case your computer will likely crash. Again, aim for 20-30% more than you need, and you should be fine.

How Can You Fix/Avoid It?

By definition, it is worth noting that if any part is running at 100,% you have a bottleneck, as that part is then holding back other parts. This is generally bad but may not be avoidable, especially if you already have the best-performing version of the relevant part. For example, video games require a huge GPU processing power and comparatively little CPU processing power. A flagship GPU will run 100% in most computers with even mid-tier modern components. This is simply a limitation of what is currently possible with graphics hardware and the imbalance of processing requirements in games.


The Dangers Of Using Pirated Software And Why You Should Stop Right Now

The dangers of using pirated software are evident on the economy. $82 billion worth of software programs sell legitimately worldwide, while $63 billion worth of computer programs are pirated.

Copying other people’s work has almost become an acceptable thing, albeit the presence of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) should emphasize the consequence of this problem.

Have you ever wondered how much a cheap product can cost you? It’s penny wise and pound foolish, depending on how you look at it.

Some of the dangers of using pirated software are obvious while others aren’t. Let’s explore five of these dangers of using pirated software.

1. It leaves you vulnerable to attack

According to a study, thirty-four percent of pirated software downloaded from P2P were embedded with malware that infects a computer after download. About half of these were Trojans.

You expose yourself to malware when you install a pirated software. Ransomware, Trojans, viruses and other malicious software can corrupt your device and the data you have in it.

Malicious codes embedded in some pirated software programs can gain access to your data. Your device, and webcam, can be controlled this way. Pirated software makes you vulnerable to a denial of service attack.

The risks you’re exposed to include:

Access to financial and confidential information

Access to your trade secrets

Access to customers’ transactions and personal records

Identity theft

Data loss and destruction

These are just a few of what’s possible.

2. It might stop working when you need it the most

You might find out that the pirated software doesn’t work with your device. This is because the programs are cracked versions of the original ones. These software programs are likely to alter the accuracy of your results if they end up working.

Some companies check the registration of their software, so it’s possible to have the program run for a while and malfunction as time goes on.

3. It’ll lead to legal problems

Everything that has an original is likely to be counterfeited. It’s unfair when someone steals your idea, pretends it’s theirs and sells it. It’s only natural for companies to protect their assets.

It isn’t acceptable to purchase the fake software as they hardly follow due process. It is copyright infringement.

The LA County Sheriff’s department purchased a license that allowed them to install 3,700 copies of a software by DataWall. It installed 6,000 copies, claiming that only 3700 employees were using the software. The department was sued and had to pay a fine and sttorney fees of more than $750,000.

4. The product can’t be updated

100 percent of the pirated software samples studied by Microsoft Australia had Windows Update disabled and FireWall rules changed.

Updating your software as new patches or updates are released allows you to get a better experience from it. It’s impossible to enjoy this from the pirated version, so you’re stuck with it no matter the limitations. You might even get penalized if you try upgrading to an original package.

5. It puts hardworking people out of work

A report from IDC stated that for every one-percent of pirated software, approximately $40 billion is lost. This removes 150,000 jobs from the worldwide economy.

You put good people out of work and affect the economy negatively. Meanwhile, services like Netflix seem to be effectively saving the system.

Beyond the dangers of using pirated software

Let’s face it, some software is pretty expensive, and you may not need all the features it brings with its premium version. So what’s a techie to do?

You have options:

Use the free version of the software: If the software has a free version, go for it, especially if the free version covers your needs. Most vendors now give free software you can use for life. If you don’t ever need the premium version, you can stay with the freemium version.

Use a less expensive version of the software: If you don’t mind spending a little money, you can buy a version of that software with limited features that will fulfill your needs.

Go for an alternative software: Find an alternative software that solves your needs for free! A competitor app may want to pick up users by offering premium features from your original choice of software for free.

For example, you can use alternative PowerPoint presentation software instead of paying a huge sum for the whole Office suite (or resorting to piracy).

Another way to use an alternative app is to find less expensive versions of your original choice. If you don’t mind spending some money, this would be a great fit.

Check if you qualify for a free premium version: Microsoft gives free Microsoft Office to students and academic organizations who qualify. Some apps may be offering free trials for their premium option or may give you free access to their program under certain conditions.

Take the word “qualify” lightly. You may just need to use an online or mobile version of their software if you create an account with them, just like what Microsoft Office 365 does.

Buy the software: If you truly need the premium version of a software with all its features, and it’s the best in its class for your purposes, then buy it. It’s probably worth spending that money if the app or software has unique features you can’t find anywhere else.

To Wrap It Up

Remember you have options! You don’t need to expose yourself to these dangers of using pirated software. Use a free version of the program or a less expensive pricing plan. Go for an alternative. Or just buy the software if it has unique features.

In order to avoid these dangers of using pirated software, always look out for reputable vendors when you buy software. Verify the authenticity of a website before you buy software from them. Price doesn’t have to always be the first factor in your decision. You might find out that your “cost effective” choice was more expensive.

Nicholas Godwin

Nicholas Godwin is a technology researcher who helps businesses tell profitable brand stories that their audiences love. He’s worked on projects for Fortune 500 companies, global tech corporations and top consulting firms, from Bloomberg Beta, Accenture, PwC, and Deloitte to HP, Shell, and AT&T. You may follow his work on Twitter or simply say hello. His website is Tech Write Researcher.

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Google Clips: All You Need To Know

Google introduced several new products alongside the launch of the Pixel 2 and Pixel 2 XL smartphones last year. One of the new products that the company announced is the Google Clips. Every year, during the Google I/O conference, the company announces something new and interesting.

Most of these new products are based on a new idea and are different from the rest. Google Clips is a new idea that people may or may not like. Remember the Google Glass? This is not exactly similar though as you don’t wear it on your head, and given the AI’s rise, this new Google product is AI-powered, too.

What is Google Clips?

Alright, so let’s get right to it. Google Clips is a small portable camera that will automatically take photos to capture moments as and when they happen. It can even take short video clips of your close ones, friends or even your dog. You attach the Clip on to your body and activate it, but a better way to sue it would be to place it somewhere where it has the view of the area where your kids play, or whatever it is that you want to it to capture.

Everything happens with the help of the machine-learning AI system on-board. You don’t have to take photos, instead, you can just place it a convenient place, or even wear it if you don’t find that creepy, and whenever Clips finds interesting moments, it will automatically start to capture photos and videos of you, your family, and even pets within that area of view.

You can import the recordings as either stills, videos, or GIFs. It comes in a tough package as well, allowing the users to use it outdoors. It has an IPX4 water resistance certificate as well, that should protect it from water splash, but not when it is submerged in water. It’s only a bit of protection from water, so take care. You can connect the Clips’ to your Android or iOS smartphone via Bluetooth or WiFi. Also, Pixel users get free storage for their Google Clips photos and videos!

Google Clips is priced at $249!

Google Clips compatibility

Google Clips, sadly is not compatible with many, let alone all, Android phones and tablets yet. In fact, only a few devices are a go for Google Clips, and that includes the obvious ones in Google Pixel and Pixel 2, Samsung Galaxy S7 and S8, while on the iOS side, the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus.

Google Pixel

Google Pixel 2

Samsung Galaxy S7

Samsung Galaxy S8

iPhone 8

iPhone 8 Plus

Google Clips Specs

The Clips features a single 12-megapixel camera with a f/2.4 aperture, a 1.55µm pixel size, and a 130-degree field of view. The camera also has auto-focus, a nighttime mode, and can record videos at 15 FPS.

It doesn’t record sound though, as there is no microphone. It comes with 16GB of internal storage and a battery that can last up to 3 hours on the continuous shooting mode.

Reasons to buy it

The second good enough reason is the software of course. Using the camera is simple, as you just need to twist the lens. Then you can either place it on a spot, or wear it on your, and forget it’s even there. Most people will not forget though, as the camera isn’t very cheap. So, whenever some activity appears in the drawing room, where you have put up Google Clips, the device will automatically capture it — we all know it’s not always possible to pick out our smartphone because those moments cannot be anticipated, created, or repeated.

If you’re a parent or someone who loves to travel, then this is a good option for you. Instead of mounting on a GoPro and taking pictures yourself, the Google Clips will do it for you without your interference. Parents can take endless photos of their kids, which they love doing, without missing the action themselves. Usually, when you point the camera at kids, they tend to stop what they’re doing and pose, but that won’t happen with Clips’!

Adventure goers can also use clips to capture moments on the go, without having to stop and take photos. However, the first case scenario is better suited for Clips, as it will associate with faces much more easily than new places.

So there you go, there are some really good reasons to buy the Google Clips camera, especially if you’re a parent! And over time, the A.I will get better and Google may allow it to recognize unfamiliar faces as well and it could act as a security camera. The potential with A.I is huge and that’s what makes this camera very interesting.

How Google Clips works

The software will look at things around you and your life. It will then familiarise itself with the faces, people, things that you always see. It will remember your actions, the things you like to do, and much more. The face recognition software runs on the camera itself, which makes things faster.

As and when it thinks a memory is worthy of being saved, the Clips’ camera will take a burst of shots at 15FPS. You can then use the entire set of photos as a GIF, or you can select your favorite still photo from the bunch.

You get an accompanying app that you install on your smartphone, from where you can edit and select which pictures need to be uploaded to the cloud. The best part is that all the photos captured by the Clips’ camera are stored offline within the device. It’s not uploaded to Google servers, or anywhere else that its own storage, which is pretty secure. And makes it less creepy.

The Google Clips camera also has a shutter button though, tapping on which takes a shot clip. A light indicates when it is taking pictures, but it’s very subtle. Google actually says that it is best to just leave the camera somewhere. The clip case provided with the camera acts as a stand or a clip.

Is it worth the $249 price?

This is the big question, isn’t it? Should you spend $250 on a camera that’s not better than a standard GoPro, and doesn’t let you do much. But then it’s all about not doing much, and still save moments that are automatically identified and captured by the AI. So, it really depends on you.

If you’re someone who likes to live in the moment and not behind the lens, and at the same time don’t care much about image quality, then this is for you. Yes, the price is on the higher side, and the specs aren’t that great either, but that doesn’t matter — it is not your price-for-specs thing, it’s rather a price-for-moments thing. But you do get a different experience with Google Clips, unlike any other camera.

For others, the Clips’ is just a waste of money, so don’t bother purchasing it if you’re all about professional looking photos and videos. There are many cheaper cameras that can clip on to your shirt or jeans and record videos.

When does Google Clips release?

Google has already released Clips’ and it is available for purchase through the Google Store. However, as of now, the Clips is out of stock and we have no idea when it will return. Previously, when it was briefly available, the delivery dates ranged up to March 2023.

So, yes, if you’re interested in purchasing the Google Clips’ camera, then you will have to wait a little longer. All you can do right now is join the waitlist there!

So, what do you think about Google Clips? At what price Google Clips would have made a nice purchase for you?

All Fundamentals Of Python Functions That You Should Know – A Quick Brush Up!

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon


In this article, you’ll learn about Python functions and their applications while we writing the python programs in an optimized manner. You will learn starting from what they’re, their syntax, and also see the examples to use them in Programs.

Note: If you are more interested in learning concepts in an Audio-Visual format, So to learn the basic concepts you may see this video.


The topics which we will be covered in this article are as follows:

What are Python Functions?

How many types of Functions are there?

How to create a function in Python?

How to call a function in Python?

What is the role of the return statement in Python Functions?

What are Arguments in Function?

Discuss some examples to understand more about Python Functions.

What are the Advantages of Functions in Python?

                                                 Image Source: Link


What are Python Functions?

In this section, we first learn the basics of Python Functions, and then in the next section, we will apply these concepts to some problems and write the codes.

Let’s first discuss what exactly is a Python Function:

In Python, a function is a group of related statements that performs a specific task.

With the help of Functions, we can break our program into smaller and modular chunks. So, when our program grows larger and larger, functions help us to make it more organized and manageable.

Furthermore, with the help of function, we can avoid repetition and makes our code reusable.

Mainly, there are two types of functions:

User-defined functions – These functions are defined by the user to perform a specific task.

Built-in functions – These functions are pre-defined functions in Python.

Creating a Function


def my_function(parameters):


return expression  

Let’s understand the syntax of functions definition:

To define the function, we use the def keyword, along with the function name.

The identifier rule must follow the function name.

A function accepts the parameter (argument), and it can be optional.

The function block is started with the help of colon (:), and block statements must be at the same indentation.

To return the value from the function, we use the return statement. A function can have only one return statement involved in it.

Function Calling

In Python, after the function is created, we can call it with the help of another function.

Important: A function must be defined before the function call; otherwise, the Python interpreter gives an error. To call the function, we use the function name followed by the parentheses.

Python Code:

The return statement

In a function, we use the return statement at the end of the function and it helps us to return the result of the function. This statement terminates the function execution and transfers the result where the function is called.

Note that we cannot use the return statement outside of the function.


return [expression_list]

It can contain the expression which gets evaluated and the value is returned to the caller function. If the return statement has no expression or does not exist itself in the function then it returns the None object.

Consider the following example:

Example 1: Creating Function with Return Statement # Defining function def sum(): a = 20 b = 40 c = a+b return c # calling sum() function in print statement print("The sum is given by:",sum())


The sum is given by: 60

In the above code, we have defined the function named sum, and it has a statement c = a+b, which computes the given values, and the result is returned by the return statement to the caller function.

Example 2: Creating function without return statement # Defining function def sum(): a = 20 b = 40 c = a+b # calling sum() function in print statement print(sum())



In the above code, we have defined the same function but this time we use it without the return statement and we have observed that the sum() function returned the None object to the caller function.

Arguments in function

The arguments are types of information that can be passed into the function. The arguments are specified in the parentheses. We can pass any number of arguments to the functions, but we have to separate all the arguments with the help of a comma.

Let’s see the given example, which contains a function that accepts a string as the argument.

Example 1 # Defining the function def func (name): print("Hi ",name) # Calling the function func("Chirag")


Hi Chirag Example 2

Python Function to find the sum of two variables:

# Defining the function for sum of two variables def sum (num1,num2): return num1+num2; # Taking values from the user as an input num1 = int(input("Enter the value of num1: ")) num2 = int(input("Enter the value of num2: ")) # Calculating and Printing the sum of num1 and num2 print("Sum = ",sum(num1,num2))


Enter the value of num1: 20 Enter the value of num2: 40 Sum = 60   Python Function Examples

In this section, we will look at some of the examples of Python Functions to gain a clear and better understanding of the Functions in Python.

1. Write a Python program to find the maximum from the given three numbers.

Program to implement the given functionality:

def max_of_two( x, y ):            return x        return y  def max_of_three( x, y, z ):        return max_of_two( x, max_of_two( y, z ) )

Sample Example to test the Program:

print(max_of_three(3, 6, -5)) # Output: 6

Explanation of the Program: 

In this example first, we will make a user-defined function named max_of_two to find the maximum of two numbers and then utilizes that function to find the maximum from the three numbers given by using the function max_of_three. For finding the maximum from three numbers, we pick two numbers from those three and apply the max_of_two function to those two, and again apply the max_of_two  function to the third number and result of the maximum of the other two.

2. Write a Python program to calculate the sum of all the numbers present in a list. def sum(numbers):       total = 0       for element in numbers:             total += element       return total

Sample Example to test the Program:

print(sum((8, 2, 3, 0, 7))) # Output: 20

Explanation of the Program:

In this example, we define a function named sum() that takes a list of numbers as input and we initialized a variable total to zero. Then, with the help of a for loop, we traverse the complete list and then update the value of the total variable to its previous value plus the value traversed at that time. We do the updation of the total variable until we reach the last of the list and then finally we return the value of the total variable.

3. Write a Python program to calculate the multiplication of all the numbers present in a list. def multiply(numbers):   total = 1  for element in numbers:    total *= element  return total

Sample Example to test the Program:

print(multiply((8, 2, 3, -1, 7))) # Output: -336

Explanation of the Program:

4. Write a Python program that takes a string as an input and calculates the number of upper case and lower case letters present in the string. def string_test(string):      d={"UPPER_CASE":0, "LOWER_CASE":0}      for character in string:           if character.isupper():                d["UPPER_CASE"]+=1           elif character.islower():                d["LOWER_CASE"]+=1           else:                 pass print ("Original String: ", string)      print ("No. of Upper case characters: ", d["UPPER_CASE"])      print ("No. of Lower case Characters: ", d["LOWER_CASE"])

Sample Example to test the Program:

string_test('The quick Brown Fox') # Output: Original String: The quick Brow Fox No. of Upper case characters : 3 No. of Lower case Characters: 13

Explanation of the Program:

In this example, we initialized a dictionary having two keys named UPPER_CASE and LOWER_CASE with values 0. Then, with the help of a for loop, we traverse the string and check whether each character is either lower case or upper case and whatever that character is we increment the value of that variable by one, and we do the same process until we reached upto the end of the string.

5. Write a Python program that takes a number(non-negative integer) as an argument and calculates its factorial. def factorial(number):     if number == 0:          return 1      else:          return number * factorial(number-1)

Sample Example to test the Program:

number = int(input("Input a number to compute the factorial : "))  print(factorial(number)) # Output: Input a number to compute the factorial : 5 120

Explanation of the Program:

To implement this functionality, we use the concept of recursion with the base condition. Here we make a function named factorial that takes a number as an input and then recursively calls the same function up to we reach the base condition included in that function.

To understand the recursive definition of the program, let’s understand the below image:

                                                      Image Source: Link

The running of the above recursive program is done in the following manner:

                                            Image Source: Link

  Advantages of Functions in Python

With the help of functions, we can avoid rewriting the same logic or code again and again in a program.

In a single Program, we can call Python functions anywhere and also call multiple times.

We can track a large Python program easily when it is divided into multiple functions.

The main achievement of Python functions is its Reusability.

However, In a Python program, Function calling is always overhead.

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End Notes

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Beginner’s Guide To Stable Diffusion Models And The Ones You Should Know

Models, sometimes called checkpoint files, are pre-trained Stable Diffusion weights intended for generating general or a particular genre of images.

What images a model can generate depends on the data used to train them. A model won’t be able to generate a cat’s image if there’s never a cat in the training data. Likewise, if you only train a model with cat images, it will only generate cats.

We will go introduce what models are, some common ones (v1.4, v1.5, F222, Anything V3, Open Journey v4), and how to install, use and merge them.

Fine-tuned models

What is fine-tuning?

Fine-tuning is a common technique in machine learning. It takes a model that is trained on a wide dataset and trains a bit more on a narrow dataset.

A fine-tuned model will be biased toward generating images similar to your dataset while maintaining the versatility of the original model.

Why do people make them?

Stable diffusion is great but is not good at everything. For example, it can and will generate anime-style images with the keyword “anime” in the prompt. But it could be difficult to generate images of a sub-genre of anime. Instead of tinkering with the prompt, you can fine-tune the model with images of that sub-genre.

How are they made?

Two main fine-tuning methods are (1) Additional training and (2) Dreambooth. They both start with a base model like Stable Diffusion v1.4 or v1.5.

Additional training is achieved by training a base model with an additional dataset you are interested in. For example, you can train Stable Diffusion v1.5 with an additional dataset of vintage cars to bias the aesthetic of cars towards the sub-genre.

Dreambooth, initially developed by Google, is a technique to inject custom subjects into text-to-image models. It works with as few as 3-5 custom images. You can take a few pictures of yourself and use Dreambooth to put yourself into the model. A model trained with Dreambooth requires a special keyword to condition the model.

There’s another less popular fine-tuning technique called textual inversion (sometimes called embedding). The goal is similar to Dreambooth: Inject a custom subject into the model with only a few examples. A new keyword is created specifically for the new object. Only the text embedding network is fine-tuned while keeping the rest of the model unchanged. In layman’s terms, it’s like using existing words to describe a new concept.


There are two groups of models: v1 and v2. I will cover the v1 models in this section and the v2 models in the next section.

There are thousands of fine-tuned Stable Diffusion models. The number is increasing every day. Below is a list of models that can be used for general purposes.

Stable diffusion v1.4

v1.4 image

Model Page

Download link

Released in August 2023 by Stability AI, v1.4 model is considered to be the first publicly available Stable Diffusion model.

You can treat v1.4 as a general-purpose model. Most of the time, it is enough to use it as is unless you are really picky about certain styles.

Stable diffusion v1.5

v1.5 image.

Model Page

Download link

v1.5 is released in Oct 2023 by Runway ML, a partner of Stability AI. The model is based on v1.2 with further training.

The model page does not mention what the improvement is. It produces slightly different results compared to v1.4 but it is unclear if they are better.

Like v1.4, you can treat v1.5 as a general-purpose model.

In my experience, v1.5 is a fine choice as the initial model and can be used interchangeably with v1.4.



Download link

F222 is trained originally for generating nudes, but people found it helpful in generating beautiful female portraits with correct body part relations. Interestingly, contrary to what you might think, it’s quite good at generating aesthetically pleasing clothing.

F222 is good for portraits. It has a high tendency to generate nudes. Include wardrobe terms like “dress” and “jeans” in the prompt.

Find more realistic photo-style models in this post.

Anything V3

Anything v3 model.

Model Page

Download Link

Anything V3 is a special-purpose model trained to produce high-quality anime-style images. You can use danbooru tags (like 1girl, white hair) in the text prompt.

It’s useful for casting celebrities to amine style, which can then be blended seamlessly with illustrative elements.

One drawback (at least to me) is that it produces females with disproportional body shapes. I like to tone it down with F222.

Open Journey

Open Journey model.

Model Page

Download link

Open Journey is a model fine-tuned with images generated by Mid Journey v4. It has a different aesthetic and is a good general-purpose model.

Triggering keyword: mdjrny-v4 style

Model comparison

Here’s a comparison of these models with the same prompt and seed. All but Anything v3 generate realistic images but with different aesthetics.

Images generated with the same seed and steps.

Best models

There are thousands of Stable Diffusion models available. Many of them are special-purpose models designed to generate a particular style. Where should you start?

Here are some of the best models I keep going back to:


Dreamshaper model

Dreamshaper model is fine-tuned for a portrait illustration style that sits between photorealistic and computer graphics. It’s easy to use and you will like it if you like this style.

Model page

Download link

Deliberate v2

Deliberate v2 is another must-have model (so many!) that renders realistic illustrations. The results can be surprisingly good. Whenever you have a good prompt, switch to this model and see what you get!

Download link

Realistic Vision v2

Realistic Vision v2 is for generating anything realistic. Learn more about generating realistic people.

Model Download link


Model Page

ChilloutMix is a special model for generating photo-quality Asian females. It is like the Asian counterpart of F222. Use with Korean embedding ulzzang-6500-v1 to generate girls like k-pop.

Like F222, it generates nudes sometimes. Suppress with wardrobe terms like “dress” and “jeans” in the prompt, and “nude” in the negative prompt.

Protogen v2.2 (Anime)

Protogen v2.2 is classy. It generates illustration and anime-style images with good taste.

Protogen v2.2 model page

Download link


GhostMix is trained with Ghost in the Shell style, a classic anime in the 90s. You will find it useful for generating cyborgs and robots.

Download link


Download link

Waifu Diffusion is a Japanese anime style.

Inkpunk Diffusion

Inkpunk diffusion

Download link

Inkpunk Diffusion is a Dreambooth-trained model with a very distinct illustration style.

Use keyword: nvinkpunk

Finding more models

You can find more models in Huggingface.

Civitai is another great resource to search for models.

v2 models

Sample 2.1 image.

Stability AI released a new series of models version 2. So far 2.0 and 2.1 models are released. The main change in v2 models are

In addition to 512×512 pixels, a higher resolution version 768×768 pixels is available.

You can no longer generate explicit content because pornographic materials were removed from training.

You may assume that everyone has moved on to using the v2 models. However, the Stable Diffusion community found that the images looked worse in the 2.0 model. People also have difficulty in using power keywords like celebrity names and artist names.

The 2.1 model has partially addressed these issues. The images look better out of the box. It’s easier to generate artistic style.

As of now, most people have not completely moved on to the 2.1 model. Many use them occasionally but spend most of the time with v1 models.

If you decided to try out v2 models, be sure to check out these tips to avoid some common frustrations.

SDXL model

SDXL model is an upgrade to the celebrated v1.5 model and the forgotten v2 models. Early testing results are very promising. The latest publicly available version is SDXL 0.9. Unlike the Beta version, you can download and run SDXL 0.9 locally.

The benefits of using the SDXL model are

Higher native resolution – 1024 px compared to 512 px for v1.5

Higher image quality (compared to the v1.5 base model)

Capable of generating legible text

Easy to generate darker images

How to install and use a model

These instructions are only applicable to v1 models. See the instructions for v2.0 and v2.1.

To install a model in AUTOMATIC1111 GUI, download and place the checkpoint (.ckpt) file in the following folder


Press reload button next to the checkpoint drop box

You should see the checkpoint file you just put in available for selection. Select the new checkpoint file to use the model.

Alternatively, you can press the “iPod” button under Generate.

The model panel will appear. Select the Checkpoints tab and choose a model.

If you are new to AUTOMATIC1111 GUI, some models are preloaded in the Colab notebook included in the Quick Start Guide.

See the SDXL article for using the SDXL model.

Merging two models

Settings for merging two models.

To merge two models using AUTOMATIC1111 GUI, go to the Checkpoint Merger tab and select the two models you want to merge in Primary model (A) and Secondary model (B).

Adjust the multiplier (M) to adjust the relative weight of the two models. Setting it to 0.5 would merge the two models with equal importance.

After pressing Run, the new merged model will be available for use.

Example of a merged model

Here are sample images from merging F222 and Anything V3 with equal weight (0.5):

Compare F222, Anything V3 and Merged (50% each)

The merged model sits between the realistic F222 and the anime Anything V3 styles. It is a very good model for generating illustration art with human figures.

Other model types

Four main types of files can be called “models”. Let’s clarify them, so you know what people are talking about.

Checkpoint models: These are the real Stable Diffusion models. They contain all you need to generate an image. No additional files are required. They are large, typically 2 – 7 GB. They are the subject of this article.

Textual inversions: Also called embeddings. They are small files defining new keywords to generate new objects or styles. They are small, typically 10 – 100 KB. You must use them with a checkpoint model.

LoRA models: They are small patch files to checkpoint models for modifying styles. They are typically 10-200 MB. You must use them with a checkpoint model.

Hypernetworks: They are additional network modules added to checkpoint models. They are typically 5 – 300 MB. You must use them with a checkpoint model.


In this article, I have introduced what Stable Diffusion models are, how they are made, a few common ones, and how to merge them. Using models can make your life easier when you have a specific style in mind.

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