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Towards the middle of January, the Defense Information Systems Agency – a subdivision of the United States Department of Defense – released a new cloud computing security requirements guide, which we first heard talk of back in November. The primary purpose of this SRG is to make the process of acquiring commercial cloud services more efficient for DoD agencies (without undermining security, of course). Not surprisingly, this means that the SRG effectively renders obsolete the DoD’s original Cloud Security Model, under which only a few select vendors received authorization.
“In plain language, the new guide explains that components “remain responsible for determining what data and missions are hosted” by cloud service providers,” writes Frank Konkel of Nextgov. “Each use of cloud services will also require an enterprise IT business case analysis, with each analysis required to consider DISA-provided cloud services such as DISA’s milCloud offering.”Cloud Storage and Backup Benefits
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It’s a significant step forward for the organization, and one that cloud providers should pay close attention to. If you’ve the time, I’d recommend reading over the document (you can find it here). In the meantime, I’m going to offer up a few of the key takeaways hosts should draw from all of this.
You Are Responsible For Keeping Client Data Safe
At the end of the day, it’s your responsibility as a host to keep whatever information your clients store and manage in your cloud secure. That’s one of the first things laid out in the SRG – and it’s a principle that every host should understand. While you cannot control whether or not your clients bring in unsafe vendors or engage in unsafe security practices (you don’t have the same level of power as the DISA), your core platform nevertheless needs to be properly hardened.
Requirements Should Always Be Discussed – Security And Otherwise
As anyone who follows the organization well knows, the Department of Defense has something of a rocky relationship with the cloud. Back in 2013, the DISA axed a $450 million cloud computing contract due to a lack of follow-through and demand from the DoD. The deal would originally have required ten cloud providers to develop database hosting, web hosting, storage, and virtual servers.
It would have been a great deal for the chosen providers – but unfortunately, it never came to be.
“Initial indications are the demand will not require a contract with the ceiling estimated in this draft solicitation,” explained contracting officer Scott M. Stewart. “We are currently revising our acquisition strategy for satisfying requirements for hosting public non-sensitive data in commercial cloud environments. This strategy may result in a solicitation for a new contract at a significantly lowered ceiling or the leveraging of contracts previously awarded which contain the appropriate scope for meeting this demand.”
It goes without saying that someone should have seen this coming – government spending on IaaS offerings has, historically, been quite low. Somewhere along the line, communication must have broken down – someone didn’t accurately convey the DoD’s requirements (or the organization simply misunderstood them). As a hosting provider, this isn’t a mistake you can afford to make – resource and security requirements need to be hashed out with the client beforehand.
There Are Different “Levels” Of Security
One of the most noteworthy features of the draft document is that it takes care to distinguish between several different security levels where the cloud is concerned, based both on the scale of a particular system and the sensitivity of the data it manages. It’s worth mentioning that the DoD did already have a categorization system in place – the primary changes in the new SRG are differentiation in terms of scale. The new classification system will, for example, distinguish between national security systems and non-national ones.
So…what does all this mean for you as a host?
Easy – you need to understand what sort of clients your cloud serves. Chances are pretty good you’ve a fairly diverse client base; it also follows that each of your clients has their own unique set of security requirements. Be certain that you account for those requirements.
Security Is Nothing Without The Capacity To Follow Through
A bevy of cloud security measures looks great on paper – but as we touched on above, they’re more or less useless if one’s organization doesn’t have the capacity to enforce them. As a cloud provider, you cannot afford to be “all talk.” Security measures need to be strictly enforced to ensure that client data is kept safe and secure.
Historically, government organizations such as the Department of Defense haven’t had the best relationship with cloud security. An examination of their struggles – and the methods by which they overcome them – is a valuable case study for any cloud provider. Learn from their mistakes, and take stock of their successes, and your business will be better for it.
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Healthcare has earned an unfortunate reputation as the most frequently breached sector, at an even higher rate than financial services. Part of the reason is the lucrative nature of its data — the average healthcare data breach costs $380 per record, compared to a global mean cost of $141, according to research from the Ponemon Institute. Security problems don’t just affect patient care; they can also bring lawsuits if patient data is exposed.
Healthcare IT managers in the U.S. are also seeing vulnerabilities affect patient care as they fight a shortage of security talent, an abundance of legacy equipment with known issues, and widespread problems with haphazard networking.
There’s no cure-all to solving these problems, but healthcare IT best practices — assisted by automation such as a good mobile device management (MDM) toolkit, and devices with chip-level security such as the Samsung Galaxy Tab S4 — can put you in a more secure spot. Follow these three main steps to strengthen your mobile security in the hospital.1. Build a Culture of Security
Rather than just focusing on minimum HIPAA requirements, IT managers should try to zoom out and build a big-picture security strategy — one that addresses the needs of all employees from the C-level executives to floor staff. This means pushing information security education down to individual staff members and up to the executive team, so that they understand the issues and the plans to address them. This culture extends outside of the organization to partners and suppliers, so look for vendors that are naturally aligned with your security goals.
Within this framework, mobile device security starts with appropriate policies based on a risk analysis and appropriate mitigation. Policies should detail how mobile devices are managed, whether staff are allowed to bring and use their own devices, restrictions on how and where devices may be used and the security measures and configuration of each mobile device.
IT security plans must also contend with the recovery from other types of disasters. For example, if IT networks or systems are down, healthcare staff will still need to exchange vital information, and a plan for secure communications should be in place.
However, a mobile device policy is useless if it isn’t communicated, so healthcare staff at all levels should receive training on how it affects them and be required to sign off that they understand and agree with the policies.2. Establish Mobile-Specific Policies
Given the heavy use of tablets and smartphones, mobile devices need to be a special focus of hospital security policies. Device loss and theft are a start, but admins should also be aware of electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the medical environment, shoulder surfing of private health information by unauthorized viewers, unencrypted Wi-Fi networks, and sloppy authentication practices.How Mobile Solutions Improve Patient Experience
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Key initiatives to protect mobile devices typically include strong bidirectional authentication, both of the user and of the device, and a requirement for encryption of all Electronic Health Record (EHR) data, both on the device and in-transit over the network.
IT managers should layer additional security on top of the basic features of the mobile device operating system. Endpoint security software helps to reduce the attack surface, and Android-specific security tools such as Samsung Knox bring additional security — such as virtual private network (VPN) — as well as data loss protection and containerization features.
MDM tools are key systems for IT managers to corral devices and keep them up-to-date and compliant with policies for authentication, encryption and end-point security.3. Implement Strong Access Controls
Physical access controls are hard in a hospital environment, where 24/7 traffic includes a constantly rotating cast of patients, caregivers and support technicians. Devices should be protected from unapproved access, theft and unauthorized viewing.
This rotating cast doesn’t just apply to people. It also applies to devices, which may shift hands and roles every few hours. By drastically reducing locally stored data and providing access to cloud-based resources founded on user credentials, IT managers can more tightly implement strong access control policies.
At the top of all these access controls are defined rules for who can see EHR data. IT managers should grant access to EHR information based on “need to know” policies, built on top of role-based access controls. While this can be done by applying specific profiles to phones, data separation is also an easy way to segment certain types of data.
EHR access controls have implications for other parts of security policy, including logging, log maintenance, device remote wiping policies and sharing of user accounts.
Access to networking should be a primary concern as well, and MDM tools can help to enforce these policies on the hardware side. Physical Ethernet ports should all be protected using NAC technology to prevent unauthorized users or devices connecting to the hospital backbone.
Furthermore, wireless networks should be carefully segmented, with separate firewalled access defined for guests, medical and non-medical staff, and medical and non-medical IoT devices. End users must use WPA2-Enterprise wireless networks that authenticate both the user and the device and provide strong encryption.
Regardless of hospital IT infrastructure, administrators need to develop a multifaceted approach to mobile security to keep patient and employee data safe. By combining education, mobile-specific policies and access control, IT departments can create a solid foundation against any future cyberattacks.
New World ingame shop – What we know
What we know on the New World in game shop.
One of the norms of MMOs in this day and age is the guarantee that they will come with an in-game store. Amazon Games is no different, with the New World in-game shop offering players plenty of cosmetic items. Here is what we know if going to be featured in the in-game shop, and to answer to old drama regarding is New World pay to win?
New World ingame store
The New World ingame shop’s purpose is to be an optional way to support Amazon Games on New World. The core of the shop will sell transmog, which you can activate by going into an individual character slot and changing its appearance. We are not too sure exactly how much content they are going to put on the New World in-game store, but it seems that there might be quite a few options the more and more the game ages.
While getting store exclusive outfits, Amazon Games did post a blog detailing their store in some detail back in May. One of the things they mentioned is that some of the outfits are going to be store exclusive slight tweaks to outfits already in the game. That way there are a few varieties you can get by doing things in-game, which should detract from that sense of accomplishment.
Moreso, the New World in-game shop features other cosmetics like weapon skins, emotes, company crests (guild logos) and furniture for player housing. There does seem to be store exclusive guild crest icons, especially since there are three guild crest icons locked behind the New World pre order too.
Is New World pay to win?
There was a big debacle over New World being pay to win back in May. During an NDA test, New World seemed to imply that they nerfed rested XP, instead offering ways to get more XP if you got items from the New World ingame shop going live at the game’s launch. Of course, someone broke NDA, because it was very paid to win, causing YouTubers like KiraTV to pick up on it.
New World was once called out for being pay to win by many, with Kira highlighting the red flags of the in-game shop back in Alpha.
The aftermath of the video and the leak enraged fans worldwide. It meant that Amazon Games was forced to issues statements regarding the debacle. Since then, a tonne has changed and has no reference to pay for convenience New World in-game shop transactions. It will more than likely change at some point when the game is fairly aged. We can easily speculate that microtransactions like boosts getting implemented, or things like server changes, which has been a standard cash shop option for decades at this point.
Back in July, Amazon Games spoke to Eurogamer about the New World in-game store. They definitely heard the feedback, but may still eye up the quality of life improvement transactions in the future. You can make the judgement for yourself when it gets to that point.
When we know more about what is coming in the New World in-game store, we will update the article.
This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.Introduction
Historically, most organizations used conventional security products such as firewalls, VPNs, endpoint management solutions, and antivirus programs to protect sensitive information, prevent unauthorized access to critical applications and I.T. systems, and protect against malware and other vulnerabilities.
However, businesses are increasingly adopting mobile applications and cloud services, disrupting the once well-defined perimeter of the enterprise network. Cyber attackers are becoming more sophisticated and are increasingly able to evade traditional security measures. Many enterprises are now taking an in-depth approach to endpoint protection and implementing a wider range of security controls to protect against a wider range of threats.Endpoint Security An in-depth Approach to Endpoint Security
Originally designed by the U.S. National Security Agency, the defense-in-depth approach uses multiple layers of security to close gaps, reduce attack surfaces, and limit threats.
A complete endpoint security-in-depth strategy includes five key endpoint security and management measures:
Patching the operating system to mitigate common vulnerabilities and threats (CVEs). All major operating system manufacturers routinely release software updates to address known security issues. Enterprise I.T. and security organizations can reduce risks by implementing automated O.S. updating and other systems and procedures to ensure that all corporate computers, servers, and mobile devices are running the latest version of the operating system.
Application patching Organizations can improve their security by ensuring that all enterprise desktop, server, and mobile applications are up-to-date.
Permission management grants users and processes the minimum permissions they need to perform required tasks. Also known as the principle of least privilege (POLP), privilege management removes local administrator rights on servers and P.C.s. It limits access permissions to authorized users and applications to reduce risk.Why should the Endpoint be Secure?
Productive endpoint security is a must for modern businesses – locking every door in your corporate house is no longer a matter of choice. Data is the fuel of business, and protecting it is paramount to an organization’s success.
With the shift to mobility, security must now occur at all points within the network. Centralized security systems have proven ineffective in today’s dispersed landscape. Jose-Miguel Maldonado, Vice President of Business Ops & Security at Rubica, explains: “People are outside the corporate security fabric and today’s attacks are extremely sophisticated. Traditional solutions such as on-premise firewalls and antivirus are simply not enough anymore.”On-point Security
This enables based on securing all network endpoints from a solution hosted and managed on internal servers. The user bears all costs – this includes cooling, staff, space, and electricity. On-point software usually requires a large initial investment and can require lengthy installation. For these reasons, they may not be the best choice for organizations on a tight budget looking for a faster solution.Cloud-based Endpoint Security
This option includes securing all network endpoints from a solution hosted and managed on the vendor’s cloud. Often referred to as “endpoint protection,” this solution provides a cost-effective and agile option that can be deployed in minutes. Cloud solutions offer several benefits, starting with access to vendor databases and monitoring that provides a quick response to threats. In addition, for a reasonable monthly fee, users get automatic data backup, faster repairs even for remote devices, and remote system control.Types of Endpoint Security
Endpoint security uses specific procedures to block threats and secure your network.
Endpoint Encryption: Involves encoding and scrambling data, making it indecipherable without a key. Encryption is the last and perhaps most important layer of security as it protects data even if the wrong person has it.
Forensic Analysis: Works in parallel with EDR by monitoring all endpoint activity and creating a digital trail of all incidents. All information and evidence related to the attack – what happened, who is responsible, and the resulting consequences – is collected and analyzed to prevent future incidents.
IoT Security: Many IoT devices lack adequate security after installation. Start by installing an EDR system to find vulnerabilities, manage and monitor. Be sure to remove legacy devices, install next-generation solutions, monitor access by all apps and devices, encrypt communications, and segment your network to isolate problems.
Email Gateways: Email is the most common way criminals spread spam; that’s why email software is not safe today. Safe emails continue through the system while potential threats go to quarantine.
Quarantine Protection: This is separating dangerous files to prevent damage to devices and networks. Rapid isolation of dangerous files is essential for endpoint security, and quarantine also allows valuable files to be cleaned, not thrown away.Demonstrating Sufficient Endpoint Security
If there’s one thing more important than securing your endpoints, it’s evidence. Reporting your organization’s ability to control risk and protect sensitive data offers many benefits, from avoiding regulatory fines to maintaining an attractive supplier reputation.
SOC 2 reports are unique to every organization, with fluid requirements and custom controls. Your organization can set its criteria but must ensure that controls are in place to meet the requirements and then effectively document the auditor’s success – not always an easy task. Other related content: SOC 2 compliance: What you need to know and do. Hyper proof’s SOC framework supports endpoint security with Hyper proof’s operational compliance software.Endpoint Security is Critical to your Business
In today’s mobile world, security is evolving rapidly – endpoints now form the new perimeter, and organizations need to secure their data across various networks. As organizations grow, so do their endpoint, and vulnerability security is a must for all businesses, regardless of size or status.
Smart organizations of all sizes will strengthen the new perimeter and protect every device as if it were the key to their entire house with robust endpoint solutions. They’ll avoid the financial and reputational blow of costly breaches—and their CISOs will sleep better at night knowing their endpoint network is secure.Benefits of Endpoint Privilege Management
Endpoint privilege management solutions help strengthen security and reduce risk by removing unnecessary local administrator privileges from endpoint devices and limiting malicious applications and other threats on the endpoint. An essential component of an endpoint security-in-depth strategy, an endpoint privilege management solution provides a critical layer of protection when an attack evades traditional perimeter and endpoint security controls.
Endpoint authorization management solutions enable enterprise I.T. operations, security, and compliance teams to:
Provide least privilege access for end devices and strengthen security.
Secure and rotate local administrator passwords to prevent credential theft.
Prevent end users from installing unapproved applications and limit exposure.
Run unknown apps in restricted mode and prevent corporate assets or confidential data access.
Protect against, block, and contain malware and endpoint attacks, prevent lateral movement and spread of malware, and reduce risk.
Automatically escalate permissions base, increase user productivity while reducing I.T. burden.Conclusion
Let’s see What we have Learned today; Cyber attackers are becoming more sophisticated and are increasingly able to evade traditional security measures. Many enterprises are now taking an in-depth approach to endpoint protection and implementing a wider range of security controls to protect against a wider range of threats.
Productive endpoint security is a must for modern businesses – locking every door in your corporate house is no longer a matter of choice. Data is the lifeblood of business, and protecting it is paramount to an organization’s success.
SOC 2 reports are unique to each organization, with fluid requirements and custom controls. Your organization can set its criteria but must ensure that controls are in place to meet the requirements and then effectively document the auditor’s success – not always an easy task. Other related content: SOC 2 compliance:
Endpoints now form the new perimeter, and organizations must protect their data across networks. As organizations grow, so do their vulnerabilities, and endpoint security is a must for all businesses, regardless of size or status. Jose-Miguel Maldonado emphasizes this point: “Whether you’re a small or large business today, you need to spend time and effort securing your business with a strong endpoint security solution.”
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Across the realms of consumers and businesses, artificial intelligence (AI) has been wielding great influence and reshaping society as it were. Hailed as a key component of the 4th Industrial Revolution (along with the Internet of Things (IoT), robotics, quantum computing, and other technologies), the rise of AI could well be considered as a seminal stage in the development of humanity.What is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence (AI), broadly speaking, is the ability of machines to replicate the abilities of human intelligence in tasks such that efficiency is boosted and errors go down. With concepts of basic engineering, mathematics, computer science, linguistics, and psychology, among others, AI bases itself on the fundamentals of reasoning, learning, and problem-solving. A career in artificial intelligence is certainly an attractive prospect.
Related: – Is Artificial Intelligence Replacing Animators?Where can AI be applied?
AI can be categorized in multiple ways, of which the most common is as below:
Weak/Narrow AI: trained to do specific tasks or functions
Strong AI: capable of making its own decisions when presented with actionable data
AI has great potential in terms of applicability in a variety of sectors. Some examples are given below:
Autonomous driving: Tesla, Google and others have been working for a while on autonomous driving technology, where AI is a basic building block. Ongoing work could soon see wider instances of fully-autonomous driving technology across the world.
Predictive maintenance: proactively scheduling maintenance and hence minimizing costs
Smart cities: better safety, reduced crime, higher energy efficiency
The future uses of AI are even more exciting. Possible applications are many:
Personalized, dynamic pricing: online and offline stores map prices as per consumer behavior
Faster designing of products: aided by quicker sifting through large amounts of customer data through machine learning and deep learning
Related: – The Illusion of CreArtificial Intelligence
How good is the potential for an AI career?
As a technology, AI is still in its initial stages, and there is a lot more that the technology could do with further development. The market is expanding fast and a lot of opportunities keep coming up for a career in artificial intelligence. A survey by job site Indeed suggested that in the UK alone, the number of jobs available in AI has gone up by 485% during 2014-2024 i.e. demand outstrips supply by a factor of 2:1! Across the world, job postings in this field have more than doubled.
Automation and AI were feared as possible death knells for “traditional” jobs, but what has transpired is that AI has in effect created many more jobs than it has taken away i.e. the net effect has been one of new job opportunities coming up. Salaries in the AI domain are skyrocketing too – well-skilled AI professionals in the US can comfortably earn six figures and possibly even higher packages.
How does one begin a career in AI?
Related: – AI Technology skills highest in Demand in 2023
Some of the key skills for AI specialists include:
Bayesian networking (including neural nets)
Computer science (gain coding experience with popular programming languages)
Cognitive science theory
Algebra, calculus, logic and algorithms, probability, statistics
If you are already a software engineer, you could take a definitive step towards a career in AI with some specialized or focused AI courses, many of which are available freely on the internet as well as from recognized institutions and delivered both online as well as through classroom training. If you do not have the time or other resources for long-duration courses, you could choose an AI certification that you could do part- or full-time.
What are the possible career paths?
The possible career paths differ as per the experience level. These include:
Freshers: these would do well to get skilled in mathematics as well as courses in machine learning, programming skills like C++, general business knowledge, and hands-on training.
Programmers: these could start coding by moving to algorithms.
Data analysts and data scientists: these need to strengthen their programming skills by knowing how to prepare data, be proficient at visualizing and building models, and have good communication skills and business knowledge.
Bottlenecking is a natural result of an unbalanced PC build. When you build your own, or at least pick the parts, you might feel tempted to grab whatever you can afford. Or just the most expensive one out there – that’s usually not the best approach. Finding the right balance between parts, especially CPU and GPU, is the key to having a powerful PC that keeps up as games and software evolve.
That might mean waiting a little to be able to afford a slightly pricier part that fits better. Or actually selecting a cheaper alternative that works better in your setup. If you make the wrong choice, you end up with a bottleneck.
The quite descriptive term refers to when a certain element of your PC hardware – usually CPU or GPU – is unable to keep up with the performance of other parts. A computer can only perform as well as its weakest part. So pairing a powerful CPU with a weak GPU means it won’t be able to work at capacity as it’ll be limited by the GPU.Why Is It a Problem?
When you put money into a PC, one part slowing down the rest of the system essentially means wasting the money you invested in the parts that are being slowed down. In some cases, it can also lead to increased wear and tear on the bottleneck part since it might cause it to overheat if it’s forced to run at capacity all the time. Depending on the part, a bottleneck can outright prevent you from playing certain games or running certain programs – or it might just make them sluggish and slow. Either way, it’s best to avoid them or fix them as soon as possible.What Are Common Bottlenecks?
The most common two bottleneck points are CPU and GPU. Both are relatively pricey parts that can be particularly expensive to upgrade – and therefore, they are often replaced one at a time, preventing the improved part from reaching its potential. Technically, any part can be a bottleneck, at least in some tasks – here are some of the most common ones.CPU
The CPU is the heart of the computer. It controls basically everything that happens and performs the vast majority of the computer’s processing. There are two factors in CPU performance, core count and processing power. Both can cause bottlenecks but in slightly different scenarios.CPU Core Count
The CPU core count is the number of processing cores a CPU has, and each of these cores can run a separate process simultaneously. This has overall performance benefits, but some programs benefit more than others. Some programs have logic that can be neatly divided into multiple processes. Each process can then be run on a separate CPU core simultaneously. This can provide a performance boost of up to two times running on a single CPU core.
A lot of software, especially older software, can only run on one process on one core at a time. Even in this case, though, there can be some performance increase, as two or more of these programs can be run at once, depending on the number of cores.CPU Processing Power
Processing power is typically measured with the clock rate through other factors like the IPC. A clock rate is simply how many processor cycles the CPU can complete per second. It is typically measured in GHz (pronounced gigahertz), with typical values between 2 and 5GHz, or between two and five billion cycles per second.
Raw processing power can sometimes be a bottleneck as single processes may not complete fast enough, leaving other parts waiting. This is especially the case when the CPU doesn’t get enough cooling. If this happens, it automatically slows itself down to reduce the heat it produces, thus preventing any damage to your hardware and slowing down any tasks it is running, increasing the chance of your CPU bottlenecking something else.GPU
GPUs are generally limited by power or by heat. Like CPUs, cooling is important, so make sure that you’ve also got good airflow to keep your GPU cool so it can run fast.RAM SSD/HDD
If you think storage capacity will be a bottleneck issue, you’ll probably want to use HDDs. However, if you need to read or write data quicker, you’ll want an SSD. A combination of both can work well, so you can store infrequently needed data on a cheap HDD and files you’ll need more often on a fast SSD.
At least in gaming, a slow hard drive often causes things like slow loading times. It can also cause your computer to be slow at booting up. This doesn’t really affect your performance in-game as the hard drive isn’t used so much then and isn’t a bottleneck. Still, while reading a lot of data from a slow hard drive, it can be a bottleneck.Display
The display is rarely a bottleneck, but that’s not to say it can’t be. If you want to visualize a lot of data at once, you will be limited by the screen’s resolution. You can display more detailed images or graphs on higher resolution screens. It may even be helpful to get a second screen.
In gaming specifically, not just resolution but also the refresh rate of the screen can also be a bottleneck. Standard monitors display 60 frames per second. However, if you’ve got a powerful enough graphics card compared to the graphical requirements of the game you’re playing, you may be able to produce more frames than that, potentially substantially more. All of that data and processing power go to waste if your monitor can’t show that many frames per second. Then again, some people may be happy with 60 frames per second and want to get a higher resolution monitor instead.Motherboard
The motherboard is basically the spine of your computer. Everything attaches to it and communicates through it. Budget motherboards cut features to reduce costs. These are obvious and easy enough to work around in some cases, such as a lack of integrated Wi-Fi. Unfortunately, you also often don’t get the latest feature sets. This can, for example, force your expensive PCIe5 SSD to operate at PCIe3 speeds. In that case, cutting potential SSD performance by three quarters. You need to make sure your motherboard is compatible with all your parts. However, you also don’t want to spend too much on a motherboard that has features you don’t want or need, as you may be able to better spend that money elsewhere.
With motherboards, the bottleneck isn’t a direct performance of the motherboard. But more if it can enable optimum performance of the rest of your components.Power supply
Computers need power, and all of this comes through the PSU. It’s important to determine how much power your computer will draw when under load. Then ensure that your PSU can provide more than that, ideally by 20-30%. There are online calculators where you can enter your components and estimate the total power draw. This is followed by recommendations for PSU power capacities.
Realistically, most standard computers will be fine with a 650W PSU. Gaming computers often have high-performance GPUs under heavy load combined with a mid to high CPU and can need more like 850W. You can need even more if you’re running particularly high-end gear and overclocking it. Generally, however, you shouldn’t need a 1600W power supply. That will just be overkill, and the money can be better spent elsewhere.
Realistically, a PSU doesn’t affect performance unless it can’t provide enough power, in which case your computer will likely crash. Again, aim for 20-30% more than you need, and you should be fine.How Can You Fix/Avoid It?
By definition, it is worth noting that if any part is running at 100,% you have a bottleneck, as that part is then holding back other parts. This is generally bad but may not be avoidable, especially if you already have the best-performing version of the relevant part. For example, video games require a huge GPU processing power and comparatively little CPU processing power. A flagship GPU will run 100% in most computers with even mid-tier modern components. This is simply a limitation of what is currently possible with graphics hardware and the imbalance of processing requirements in games.Conclusion
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