Trending December 2023 # The Sonnet M.2 4×4 Pcie Card Adds Insanely # Suggested January 2024 # Top 14 Popular

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If you’re looking for the fastest SSD available for the Mac Pro, then this may be the solution for you. When paired with the right SSDs, the Sonnet M.2 4×4 PCIe Card produces speeds of the bonkers variety.

During benchmark tests with the Blackmagic Disk Speed Test utility, I was getting write speeds in that easily surpassed 6,000 MB/s, and read speeds that eclipsed 7000 MB/s.

For comparison’s sake, Apple’s fastest 8 TB SSD produces speeds “only” up to 3400 MB/s, so this setup is capable of running circles around the Mac Pro’s fastest built-in SSD for less money. Watch our hands-on video review for the details.

Sonnet reached out to me last week to see if I’d be interested in taking its M.2 4×4 PCIe Card for a test drive in my Mac Pro, and I happily obliged. The x16 card, which features four slots for four single-sided M.2 blades, allocates four PCIe lanes per card.

Setting up the unit is just a matter of unscrewing the outer cover, removing the heat sink, and depositing four drives. Sonnet pre-filled four Samsung EVO 970 M.2 SSDs for me to test, which offer sequential read and write performance levels of up to 3,500 MB/s and 2,500 MB/s, respectively.

Keep in mind that Sonnet says that only SSDs with memory components on the top side of the module are compatible with this card. For that reason, double-sided memory component M.2 SSD media is not recommended. See Sonnet’s tech specs for additional details.

Video: Sonnet 4M2 SSD review

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Having one of these drives produces results that are impressive enough, but I was excited at the prospect of having four of them in a RAID 0 configuration with firehose x16 PCIe access.

Sonnet provided three 1 TB SSDs along with one 2 TB SSD. One day I look forward to having four 2 TB Samsung 970 EVO Plus SSDs [Note, you may need to perform a firmware upgrade via Windows before these drives work on macOS. Opt for the Pro versions for guaranteed out of the box compatibility] for more storage, but the results of a 4 TB RAID 0 setup are still extremely impressive.

A full on 8 TB setup with the Sonnet M.2 4×4 PCIe Card would set you back somewhere around $2,000, which is $600 less than Apple’s 8 TB Mac Pro build-to-order config.

Thermal material is featured on both sides to manage heat

After installing the Sonnet card in an x16 PCIe port in my Mac Pro, I used macOS’s built-in software RAID Assistant to set up the four drives in a RAID 0 configuration for peak performance.

Running tests with Blackmagic Disk Speed Test tool, I was impressed by the results:

This is not a joke, and I’ve seen this setup benchmark even better. This is the reason why I’ve been so excited about the Mac Pro. Having this much fast storage on tap is downright amazing, especially since it’s way faster than Apple’s own SSD for less money.

As I highlighted in my hands-on look at the Top Mac Pro Features, PCIe expansion is one of the most exciting things about the new Mac Pro. That, coupled with GPU upgrades, CPU upgrades, and RAM upgrades, make the Mac Pro one of the most growth-ready Macs in ages.

But benchmarks are one thing. How does this drive perform when testing out file transfers via Finder? As you might expect, the performance is quick. For example, I was able to transfer a 51.6 GB folder containing three videos from my Mac’s built in SSD to the Sonnet M.2 4×4 PCIe SSD in just 16 seconds. I was able to transfer the same folder back to my Mac in a hair under 40 seconds.

As you can probably imagine, such a setup works great with large video files. High bitrate compressed video and RAW video workflows would surely benefit from such high transfer rates.

With all of that being said, this is not a replacement for Apple’s built-in SSD, which is encrypted by the Apple T2 Security chip, and not user-replaceable. I recommend going with at least 1 TB of build-to-order storage, since you can’t technically boot from an Apple RAID drive in macOS, and you can’t technically install Boot Camp on an external drive either without jumping through a bunch of hoops.

Yet, having this much insanely fast PCIe storage on tap supplements the Apple SSD well. It’s perfect for storing large media, Final Cut Pro X libraries, and anything else that benefits from extremely fast PCIe storage.

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Do You Need A Heatsink For M.2? How To Install It

M.2 SSDs enable high-performance storage in a small form factor. Compared to SATA III hard drives that are limited to a 600 MB/s transfer rate, M.2 supports the NVMe standard, enabling them to achieve transfer rates of up to 16 GB/s when operating in PCIe 4.0 mode. They are also much smaller in size.

You might be wondering if the increased performance comes at a cost of thermal management and whether you need a heatsink to manage this thermal overhead. In this article, we are going to address this exact issue, and also guide you on how to install a heatsink for your M.2 SSD, should you decide that you need one.

Earlier SSDs were compatible with SATA III protocol, which limited their data transfer rates to 600 MB/s, which the mechanical drives could also theoretically achieve. However, SSD technology gradually evolved to adopt the NVMe standard, which could utilize PCI Express lanes for data transfer. This gave the NVMe SSDs a huge leg up over SATA III SSDs.

M.2 is a form factor that SSDs utilize to connect to PCIe bus via NVMe technology. The shape of an M.2 is rectangular, generally looking like a stick of gum, and has an edge connector at one end. The edge connector has 75 positions with up to 67 pins. 

An M.2 SSD is 22 mm wide and comes in 30, 42, 60, 80, and 100 mm length varieties. You can usually identify the dimensions of the M.2 drive by its nomenclature. For e.g., a 2280 M.2 SSD is 22 mm wide and 80 mm long.

Most manufacturers specify the normal operating temperature for their M.2 SSD on the manual or published specification for their device. For example, a Samsung SSD 960 Pro has a specified operating temperature of 0 – 70 degrees celsius. Intel SSDs also have a specified operating temperature of 0 – 70 degrees.

You can check your M.2 SSD’s current temperature by using a Windows PowerShell command:

This command displays all installed disks and their current temperature.

Given the manufacturer’s specified normal operating temperatures that we discussed in the section above, it is safe to assume that an SSD can operate normally up to a temperature of 70 degrees. A home or gaming PC with SSDs installed rarely reaches this upper-temperature limit while operating normally.

In our own test, we measured a normal operating temperature of 34 degrees. We then put our drive under stress test by launching multiple runs of CrystalDiskMark 8. Our SSD temperature never went above 39 degrees. We had an ambient room temperature of 24 degrees during these tests.

The two most important components of an SSD are the NAND flash, which is the storage component, and the controller chip which interfaces the NAND flash with input/output signals. 

It is widely accepted that the NAND flash modules that make up the storage components of the SSD work better when warmer. This is because higher temperatures make the flow of electrons in the NAND flash easier. 

On the other hand, overheating controller chips in the SSD could lead to performance issues.

Keeping this in mind, most manufacturers pre-install aluminum stickers in their SSDs which also act as a thermal dissipation unit.  For most users, this should be enough for heat management in their M.2 SSD.

However, there are certain scenarios in which it is possible for the temperature of your M.2 SSDs to rise above the recommended maximum. A few such likely scenarios are:

Workflows that demand high SSD utilization for extended periods of time, such as video editing.

If the airflow inside your casing is not optimal.

Mini-PCs with high-performance CPU and GPU crammed inside the casing can raise ambient temperature significantly.

If you find that your M.2 SSD drive is not performing as expected, then you should monitor your SSDs’ temperature. If you find that the temperature regularly rises to levels beyond normal operating temperature, you could install a heatsink for the drive to manage excess heat.

Warning! Before you begin, please be aware that many M.2 SSDs come with an aluminum sticker pre-installed by the manufacturer that also doubles as a heat sink. If so, you will need to remove this sticker which may void the warranty provided by the manufacturer.

Thereafter, shut down your computer and unplug it. Lay it flat on its side on a suitable substrate such as a table and open its side panel, exposing the motherboard. Make sure to use an anti-static wrist band before handling the components in your motherboard.

We recommend that you refer to the installation manual that came with the heatsink for a proper understanding of various components and the handling process.

Once you’ve completed the above steps, please follow the procedure below to correctly install the heatsink in your M.2 SSD.

You have now successfully installed a heatsink for M.2 SSD.

Find The Number Of Subarrays With M Odd Numbers Using C++

If you have ever used C ++, you must know what subarrays are and how useful they are. As we know that, in C++, we can solve multiple mathematical problems easily. So in this article, we will explain the complete information on how we can find M odd numbers with the help of these subarrays in C++.

In this problem, we need to find many subarrays formed with the given array and integer m where each subarray contains exactly m odd numbers. So here is the simple example of this approach −

Input : array = { 6,3,5,8,9 }, m = 2 Output : 5 Explanation : Subarrays with exactly 2 odd numbers are { 3,5 }, { 6,3,5 }, { 3,5,8 }, { 5,8,9 }, { 6,3,5,8 }, { 3,5,8,9 } Input : array = { 1,6,3,2,5,4 }, m = 2 Output : 6 Explanation : Subarrays with exactly 2 odd numbers are { 1,6,3 }, { 3,2,5 }, { 1,6,3,2 }, { 6,3,2,5 }, { 3,2,5,4 }, { 6,3,2,5,4 } First Approach

In this approach, all possible subarrays are generated from a given array, and each subarray is checked for exactly m odd number. It is a simple generate and find approach, and time complexity of this approach is O(n2).

Example using namespace std; int main (){     int a[] = { 1, 6, 3, 2, 5, 4 };     int n = 6, m = 2, count = 0;                                   for (int i = 0; i < n; i++){         int odd = 0;         for (int j = i; j < n; j++) {// inner loop to find subarray with m number             if (a[j] % 2)                 odd++;             if (odd == m)                 count++;         }     }     cout << "Number of subarrays with n numbers are: " << count;     return 0; } Output Number of subarrays with n numbers are: 6 Explanation of the Above Code

In this code, we are using nested loops to find subarrays with m odd numbers, and the outer loop is used to increment “i”, which will be used to process each element in an array.

The inner loop is used to find subarray and process elements until the odd counter reaches m, increasing the result counter count for each subarray found, and finally printing the result stored in the count variable.

Second Approach

Another approach is to create an array for storing the number of prefixes with “i” odd numbers, process every element, and increase the number of odd numbers for every odd number found.

When the count of odd numbers exceeds or becomes equal to m, add the number at (odd – m ) position in the prefix array.

When odd becomes greater than or equal to m, we calculate the number of subarrays formed till the index and “odd – m “numbers are added to the count variable. The result is stored in the count variable after every element is processed.

Example using namespace std; int main (){     int array[ ] = { 1, 6, 3, 2, 5, 4 };     int n = 6, m = 2, count = 0, odd = 0, i;     int prefix_array[n + 1] = { 0 };         for (i = 0; i < n; i++){         prefix_array[odd] = prefix_array[odd] + 1;    // implementing value at odd index in prefix_array[ ]                 if (array[i] % 2 == 0)             odd++;                             count += prefix_array[odd - m];     }     cout << "Number of subarrays with n numbers are: " << count;     return 0; } Output Number of subarrays with n numbers are: 6 Explanation of the Above Code

Initializing array and variables with starting values −

int array[ 6 ] = { 1, 6, 3, 2, 5, 4 }; int n = 6, m = 2, count = 0, odd = 0, i; int prefix_array[n + 1] = { 0 };

In this, we are initializing variable n with the size of the array, m with a number of odd numbers to find, count with 0 to keep count of possible subarrays, odd with 0, and prefix_array of size n + 1 with 0.

Understanding the Loop for (i = 0; i < n; i++){    prefix_array[odd] = prefix_array[odd] + 1;    if (array[i] % 2 == 0)       odd++;          count += prefix_array[odd - m]; }

In this loop, we are implementing values at the odd index in prefix_array[ ], then incrementing odd variables if an odd number is found. We find the number of subarrays can be formed till the index when an odd variable becomes equal to or greater than m.

Finally, we print a number of subarrays with m odd numbers stored in count variables and getting the output.


In this article, we understand the approach to find the number of subarrays with m odd numbers from two approaches −

Generating every subarray and checking for m odd numbers in it, and incrementing the count for each subarray found. The time complexity of this code is O(n2).

Efficient approach, which is going through each element of the array and creating a prefix array, and finding the result with the help of a prefix array. The time complexity of this code is O(n).

Hope you find this article helpful in understanding the problem and solution.

Ipad 2: The Skeptic’S Review

iPad 2: The Skeptic’s Review

A year ago I wrote a skeptic’s review of the first-generation iPad, a more personal report on the original model from my perspective as a tabletophile and a blogger. Since then we’ve seen the launch of a few Android slates – though not the deluge we were perhaps expecting – and of course, most recently, the arrival of the iPad 2. How does the second-generation iPad hold up, and has Apple answered my original complaints? Read on for my iPad 2 Skeptic’s Review.

For the full background story of my tablet love, you should probably read the original review. Since then I’ve used and reviewed multiple slates, running Windows, Android and other platforms, for varying lengths of time. The two I’ve lived with, however, have been the iPad 1 and Samsung’s 7-inch Galaxy Tab, perhaps the best-known Android slate of 2010.

In terms of use and expectations, so far content consumption rather than creation has been the main role both tablets have played. I’d like to be able to draft, edit and format a SlashGear post, complete with images and all the necessary links and tags, but so far that’s proved beyond either slate, at least to the extent I’d need. The WordPress app is okay, but it’s still not up to the standard of the regular web interface on a desktop browser. I’ve put together drafts in Evernote, and the instant-on and lengthy runtimes of the iPad are still mighty impressive – after the Galaxy Tab battery has expired, the iPad seems to just run and run, even if it’s left to sit unattended for a few days – but it’s not yet at a place where I can replace my notebook with a tablet.

So, what have I learnt in the past twelve months? Considering 2010 was being called the year of the tablet, it’s notable that the tablet experience still hasn’t been “finished.” True the iPad is a best-selling device in its segment (a small segment that it is) but we’re yet to see an entirely convincing use-case for it, distinct from smartphones and notebooks. Meanwhile, Samsung’s Galaxy Tab may have touched me in ways 7-inches never have before, but the compact Android slate err’d too far on the smartphone side and didn’t quite differentiate itself from handsets (aside from, frustratingly, having voice call functionality blocked on North American carriers) enough to seize the market.

As I’d expected, iOS 4.0 certainly helped address a few of the iPad pain points. The multitasking system, while not “true” multitasking in the sense that apps are still running in the background, makes hopping around the various programs more straightforward. Nonetheless, it’s also interesting to note where my complaints of twelve months ago still hold true today. Notifications remain a glaring flaw in the iOS ecosystem; back then I called it “an ugly, half-hearted solution” and the fact that it’s still the same mess of attention-grabbing pop ups is dismal. Apple hasn’t been slow to push development in other areas of the platform – we’re up to iOS 4.3 now, after all – so their myopia over alerts is bizarre.

Just as I hoped one iOS update would fix things a year ago, now I’m left hoping that iOS 5.0 will further refine the iPad 2 experience. In addition to the talk of cloud-centric services such as media streaming and backup, there’s also the vague promise of much improved notifications. Still, with a preview expected at WWDC 2011 in early June, there’s no telling when, exactly, it will actually hit the iPad. iOS 4.0 was delayed for the tablet beyond the iPhone release, after all, and Apple’s software timetables are a mystery to all but the company itself.

So, to the iPad 2 experience today, and the questions people keep asking. Would, if I could find it in stock or stomach the delay in online orders, I buy an iPad 2? As a first-gen iPad owner I’m not so sure I would. Yes, it’s a thinner, lighter and more polished hardware design, but it’s still not so light as to rival, say, a Kindle for extended one-hand reading. Battery life matches the old model – a healthy 10+ hours – but I’m yet to find a place where the extra processor grunt adds up to a significantly more satisfying user experience. Browsing speed is boosted, but then the same is true on my original iPad since the iOS 4.3 update.

Possibly that’s all Apple needed to do to keep the iPad 2 ahead. After all, it led the market in 2010 and is set to shape the segment all over again in 2011. The safety of their choices leaves me cold, though. The ASUS Eee Pad Transformer may lack the fanatical luster, but it’s something different, and that appeals to me. Contrary? Perhaps so, but I find it easier to get excited over ASUS’ netbook/tablet hybrid and its clever battery-equipped keyboard than I do an HDMI dongle and magnetic screen protector.

Don’t get me wrong; as I said at the start, this is a very personal take on the iPad 2. Vincent’s review – which looks more holistically at the slate – is likely more applicable to most would-be users. For the everyman, the balance of controlled flexibility and predictable, straightforward functionality probably has far more appeal. I don’t doubt the sales figures will argue that too. Polished, civilized and just that little bit soulless; I can respect the iPad 2, but I find it hard to love.

Best Gpu For Death In The Water 2

Best GPU for Death in the Water 2

What will it take to run the sea exploartion game well?

Death in Water 2 is a game all about survival horror FPS set in the atmospheric sea. So what does it take to run and what is the best GPU for Death in the Water 2?

The game is based in the sea as you dodge your way through sea creatures controlled by Death. Which is a Kraken haunting you as you scavenge for weapons and treasure to survive. So there are some considerations as to what to run it.

In the first place, the system requirements recommended for Death in the Water 2 will outline the minimum and recommended requirements needed to play the game efficiently. If you’re looking to optimize the gaming experience and not suffer from delays, a powerful GPU is suggested.

Second, budget is another essential consideration when selecting a GPU for gaming. High-end GPUs can be pricey, so you may not need the most expensive model in order to enjoy your game fully.

Best GPU for Death in the Water 2

When it comes to the system requirements for the game, there isn’t too much power required to run it. With only one set of components registered, the minimum is a GTX 670 or GTX 1050, or HD 7870.

So any modern GPU with DX 11 support and 2GB of VRAM is sufficient. So even the likes of an RTX 3050 or RX 6600 are perfectly capable of doing so.

Nvidia GeForce RTX 3080: This GPU is currently one of the top choices, providing smooth gameplay at high settings. It boasts 10GB of GDDR6X memory and 8704 CUDA cores with real-time ray tracing and DLSS technology support.

EVGA GeForce RTX 3080 XC3 Ultra Gaming


Very good build quality

Attractive design

Displays excellent value

Tasteful RGB


A very long design

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MSI Gaming GeForce RTX 3070 Gaming X Trio


Stylish, gaming aesthetics

Strong materials and build design

High-end cooling solution


On the expensive side

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Nvidia GeForce RTX 3070: For those seeking a slightly cheaper option to the RTX 3080, this card still provides outstanding performance. It boasts 8GB of GDDR6 memory and 5888 CUDA cores, along with real-time ray tracing and DLSS technology support.

AMD Radeon RX 6800 XT: This powerful GPU from AMD can easily handle Death in the Water 2. It boasts 16GB of GDDR6 memory, 4608 stream processors, and supports ray tracing technology.

Nvidia GeForce RTX 3060 Ti: This mid-range GPU offers excellent performance at its price point, boasting 8GB of GDDR6 memory, 4864 CUDA cores, real-time ray tracing, and DLSS technology support.



Fantastic build quality

EVGA iCX3 Cooling

Adjustable ARGB LED


Design can be a little basic for some

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Axial-tech fan design has been enhanced

An all-aluminum shroud

GPU Tweak II provides intuitive performance tweaking, thermal controls, and system monitoring

Good value


Basic design

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Ultimately, the optimal GPU for Death in the Water 2 depends on your individual needs and budget. However, the models listed above are currently the top models available and should provide an excellent gaming experience with this game.

The Weekly Authority: 🎧 Galaxy Buds 2 Pro Peek

Adam Molina / Android Authority

⚡ Welcome to The Weekly Authority, the Android Authority newsletter that breaks down the top Android and tech news from the week. The 202nd edition here, with a first look at the Galaxy Buds 2 Pro, Pixel 6 connectivity woes, the latest on Musk’s Twitter deal, and God of War: Ragnarok launch date.

🎮 I’ve been making the most of my new PS Plus subscription: So far I’ve finished Spider-Man: Miles Morales and am now working my way through Wytchwood, which is a strangely satisfying little game.

Popular news this week


OnePlus could take the POCO approach, make Nord an independent brand, which could mean a bigger offline presence and more ecosystem products.


Nothing’s announced an NFT giveaway but fans aren’t happy.

The world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator is the size of a city, measuring 17 miles long (27km).

It’s located at CERN near Geneva in Switzerland, buried 300 feet below ground.

Over 12,000 scientists are involved in research there.

What does the LHC do, and why?

In simple terms, without getting too physics-y, CERN says:

“The LHC boosts particles, such as protons, which form all the matter we know. Accelerated to a speed close to that of light, they collide with other protons. These collisions produce massive particles, such as the Higgs boson or the top quark.”

The LHC has had two previous runs, from 2009-2013 and 2023-2023.

During those initial runs, particles collided at around one to two trillion electronvolts.

This time around, upgrades mean increased compactness, so particle beams are denser with particles, plus energy range is spiked, which increases the probability of a collision, providing the potential for more particle interaction.

Scientists want to smash protons together at up to 13.6 trillion volts on this run (record-breaking levels), in the hopes of producing particles we’ve not yet observed.

This run is expected to last for four years, after which the LHC will again go offline for upgrades, with the next cycle beginning in 2029.

What have we discovered so far?

The LHC has led to the discovery of over 50 new subatomic particles.

Most famously, on the last run in 2012, scientists discovered the Higgs Boson particle, also known as the “God particle,” which gives all other particles their mass. At the time of its discovery, the name “God particle” led to some conspiracy theorists believing the LHC could rip a hole in the fabric of the universe, create alternative realities, or even end the world. And that’s still the belief of many people today.

On this run, we’ve already discovered three new exotic particles: a pentaquark and two tetraquarks.

These are ultralight particles that are so far thought to be what provides dark matter, a substance that makes up around 27% of our universe, but which has never been seen by scientists.

Astrophysicist Dr. Katie Mack calmed fears online that we could be heading for an Upside Down-style scenario: “Allow me to reassure you: even though the LHC is the most powerful particle collider on Earth, it is barely a game of marbles on the cosmic scale.”

But the conspiracy theorists persist, and here are just a few examples:

Stranger Things Season 4 Part 2: 😝

On July 5 at CERN “The large Hadron Collider will be colliding particles at the highest energy we have ever done before” chúng tôi

— Danielle Elwood (@Danielle_Elwood) June 28, 2023

Me waking up in 2065 in a different dimension because I drank on the 4th of July after y’all told me not to because of CERN. chúng tôi

— virginia finkle (@finKlEiNhoRN22) July 3, 2023

Some folks over on Reddit are also getting quite stressed that we’re going to see more Mandela Effect scenarios.

Tech Calendar

July 12: Nothing Phone 1 launch @ 4 PM BST (11 AM ET)

July 12-13: Amazon Prime Day

July 13: Samsung Galaxy XCover 6 Pro and Galaxy Tab Active 4 Pro launch

July 19: Stray lands on PS5, PS4, PC

July 28: Pixel 6a launch

August 10 (TBC): Samsung Unpacked? (new Galaxy foldables, Galaxy Watch 5 series?)

September 10 @ 9 PM CEST: Ubisoft Forward showcase

November 8: Skull and Bones release date on Xbox Series S/X, PlayStation 5, PC, Stadia, and Luna

November 9: God of War: Ragnarok launches on PlayStation 4 and 5

Tech Tweet of the Week

Something extra: Check out the scariest near-crash on Tesla Full Self-Driving Beta yet.

Have a sunny week!

Paula Beaton, Copy Editor.

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