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Poor quality is not an inevitable attribute of software. It results from known causes. It can be predicted and controlled, but only if its causes are understood and addressed.

With more critical business processes being implemented in software, quality problems are a primary business risk. I’ll discuss five primary causes of poor software quality and how to mitigate their damaging effects using methods other than brute testing.

Perhaps the greatest contributor to poor software quality is the unfortunate fact that most developers are not experts in the business domain served by their applications, be it telecommunications, banking, energy, supply chain, retail, or others.

Over time they will learn more about the domain, but much of this learning will come through correcting defects caused by their mistaken understanding of the functional requirements. The best way to mitigate this cause is to provide access to domain experts from the business, proactively train developers in the business domain, and conduct peer reviews with those possessing more domain experience.

Most developers are proficient in several computer languages and technologies. However, modern multi-tier business applications are a complex tangle of many computer languages and different software platforms.

These tiers include user interface, business logic, and data management, and they may interact through middleware with enterprise resource systems and legacy applications written in archaic languages. Few developers know all of these languages and technologies, and their incorrect assumptions about how other technologies work is a prime source of the non-functional defects that cause damaging outages, data corruption, and security breaches during operation.

The best way to mitigate this cause is to cross-train developers in different application technologies, conduct peer reviews with developers working in other application tiers, and perform static and dynamic analyses of the code.

When developers are forced to sacrifice sound software development practices to ridiculous schedules the results are rarely good.

The few successful outcomes are based on heroics that are rarely repeated on future death marches. When working at breakneck pace, stressed developers make more mistakes and have less time to find them. The only way to mitigate these death march travesties is through enforcing strong project management practices. Controlling commitments through planning, tracking progress to identify problems, and controlling endless requirements changes are critical practices for providing a professional environment for software development.

Two-thirds or more of most software development activity involves changing or enhancing existing code. Studies have shown that half of the time spent modifying existing software is expended trying to figure out what is going on in the code.

Most large multi-tier applications are built and maintained by distributed teams, some or all of whom may be outsourced from other companies. Consequently, the acquiring organization often has little visibility into or control over the quality of the software they are receiving.

For various reasons, CMMI levels have not always guaranteed high quality software deliveries. To mitigate the risks of quality problems in externally supplied software, acquiring managers should implement quality targets in their contracts and a strong quality assurance gate for delivered software.

The first two causes distinguish between functional and non-functional quality problems, a critical distinction since non-functional defects are not detected as readily during test and their effects are frequently more devastating during operations.

The third and fourth causes have been perennial, although the fourth problem is exacerbated by the increase in technologies integrated into modern applications.

The final problem is not entirely new, but has grown in effect with growth in outsourcing and packaged software. Just missing this list but deserving of attention are breakdowns in coordination among distributed software teams, a cause that would make the top five in some environments.

In well run software organizations testing is not a defect detection activity. Rather, testing should merely verify that the software performs correctly under a wide range of operational conditions. By understanding and addressing the top five causes of defects, quality can be designed in from the start, substantially reducing both the 40% of project effort typically spent on rework and the risks to which software exposes business.

Dr. Bill Curtis is the SVP & Chief Scientist at CAST Software.

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Top Five Security Threats For 2006

In anticipation of the new year ahead, I’d like to look at those things

most likely to test our security patience. Let’s talk about the Top Five

things we can anticipate becoming bigger issues or more insiduous threats

in the months to come.

To know the future, you must understand the past and this has never been

more the case in IT than it is today. The future will carry many things

that have foundations in the threats and exploits of the past year or

two. Without a clear understanding of those things, the threats and

vulnerabilities of the new year will seem overwhelming.

Here are my Top Five things to look for in the new year — and why you’ve

already seen forshadowings of them and should be prepared to deal with


Targeted Phishing Scams — It will seem like they are more

narrowly focussed but when you take a look at all the attempts, you’ll

see that’s not true. It isn’t that they are more targeted, it’s that your

filtering systems already have taken out the ones most likely to be spam

and left those that are possibly related to you or your interests. Fuzzy

logic is a nifty thing.

The bad news is that your end users are going to be more susceptible to

these because the scams will look like the real thing. Now is the time to

start educating your users on methods to protect themselves.

Self-Contained Electronic Devices — PDA/pager/phone/email —

it’s all in one box! Be the first on your block to carry the all-in-one

solution to staying connected. Be the first on your block to download the

Blackberry- or Treo-targetted virus. Be the first on your block to bring

the company Intranet down with a piggy-backed payload designed for

desktops. I think we’ll be seeing the first cross over infections from

hand-held devices to desktops and corporate networks in the coming year.

Spam — That unwanted bulk email will become more insiduous in

getting around spam filters at both the border and application level. As

spam filtering becomes more sophisticated, we’ll see messages that are

us. Like phishing schemes, spam will feel more personally directed.

Voice over IP — VoIP will continue to be the industry’s darling

‘innovation’. The media focus, however, has most frequently failed to

address possible security concerns. In all the articles on the subject

One way to really simplify the matter is to ask two questions: When was

the last time you had an analog phone compromised and a keystroke logger

installed? Oh, yeah. Never. When was the last time any one of your

workstations was compromised with any form of rootkit? A lot more

frequently than you’d like to admit to probably.

So, let’s hook the phones up to the computer so any traffic sniffer will

not only have access to all your data, but all your strategic and

tactical discussions on how to build your company successfully. Warning

bells should be going off for even the most inexperienced IT manager at

this point.

To be practical about this, you are effectively setting your company up

for a single point of failure. And it’s one that is known to occur on a

consistent, if not regular, basis, and one that can cause considerable

damage before identified and remediated. By adding your phone lines to

this matrix, you increase the amount of damage possible prior to


I am not saying that you cannot implement VoIP securely. Setting up your

VoIP implementation should mean taking the necessary precautions to

secure the implementation appropriately. Securing the server that will be

handling your phone calls, setting traffic on a protected subnet and

other precautions specific to your environment are paramount. I’ve heard

how some are excited to be able to push phone calls over to wireless

access points for greater convenience. This indicates to me that they are

really missing the key point to security.

As with any technology, proper security implementation has to be included

from the outset. Attempts to add security as a secondary consideration

are going to cause difficulties in the implementation. If you come to a

point where VoIP is no longer a discussion but a directive, it’s time to

switch to arguing for appropriate security levels and valid descriptions

of the threats to corporate assets.

Factors Affecting Quality Of Life

A job that gives the employee time to enjoy life but prevents them from doing so because they are too worn out, hurt, stressed out, or otherwise unable to enjoy their salary is another factor that affects the quality of life. Nowadays, evaluating the quality of a job frequently entails considering both the pay and the standard of living.

Meaning of Quality of Life

A person’s quality of life is defined as how they feel about their current circumstances in life. It includes their concerns, expectations, and goals in addition to how they feel about their overall wellbeing. A person’s quality of life is influenced by a wide range of factors, including their wealth, income, and free time.

Life-Quality Elements

Traveling to work is a great illustration of this quality of life. Housing expenses can be decreased by relocating farther from well-known employment hubs and commuting to work. Commuters have less time to spend with their families or pursue their interests because of the extra time spent in traffic or on public transportation.

Another factor that affects quality of life is the work environment. Due to the physical demands of various jobs, such as heavy lifting or repetitive work that can eventually wear down the body and potentially result in long-term physical impairments, employees may be required to perform under conditions of extreme exertion.

In contrast, some jobs, like manning a toll booth or a remote security guard station, may severely limit the worker’s mobility due to the lack of available room to carry out their duties.

Factors Affecting Life Quality

Here are a few more things that might have an impact on your quality of life.

Employment − The American Psychological Association’s worry in America survey asked adults about their top sources of worry, and work was among the top 10. Job stability was also among the top 10. According to research, losing a job can still have an impact on a person’s quality of life even after they find a new position. According to one study, people did not completely regain their pre-job loss levels of life satisfaction, even though they started to feel more content as they adjusted to their new jobs.

Free Time − When work takes up too much of your time, you have less time for family time and leisure pursuits, which are popular outlets for happiness, fulfillment, and relaxation. In addition to worry, exhaustion, obesity, depression, insomnia, and other health problems, overworking can also cause them. Your quality of living may be affected by these physical conditions.

Housing Quality − A lower standard of living is correlated with poor housing conditions. People’s emotional and physical health can suffer when they are frequently displaced, have to live in overcrowded housing, or end up on the streets. Leaks, inadequate ventilation, unstable infrastructure, and other forms of deterioration can endanger people’s health and safety and lower their standard of living. People who reside in safe homes in secure, affluent communities typically have access to amenities that can enhance their standard of living.

What Role Does Money Play in Quality of Life? How to Boost Life Quality?

Depending on where you start, there are different ways to improve your quality of life. As opposed to someone whose primary concern may be achieving a better work-life balance, someone who is dealing with financial insecurity or health issues will face different opportunities and challenges. Additionally, studies have shown a link between prudent financial management practices like prudent cash management, prudent saving, and prudent investing and higher levels of general life happiness.

Healthy relationships between spouses can be supported by sound financial judgment. A non-financial way to improve quality of life is to make sure you have enough downtime for rest and important social interactions. Exercise is also known to have numerous benefits for both physical and mental wellbeing.


The subjective measure of happiness known as “quality of life” is a crucial factor in many financial choices. Depending on personal preferences, different factors affect people’s quality of life differently, but they frequently include things like financial stability, work satisfaction, family life, health, and safety. Financial trade-offs frequently involve sacrificing quality of life in order to save money or increase income. In contrast, investing more money can improve the quality of life.

Frequently Asked Question

Q1. What do you mean human security?

Ans. By contending that human security should be the appropriate referent for security rather than national security, proponents of the human security paradigm question the conventional understanding of global vulnerabilities through military security.

Q2. What is the meaning of simple living?

Ans. The phrase “simple living” describes actions that encourage minimalism in daily life. Reducing one’s belongings, relying less on technology and services, and cutting back on spending are all examples of simple living.

Q3. What is Positive psychology?

Ans. The scientific study of what makes life most worthwhile, with an emphasis on both individual and social well-being, is known as positive psychology. It seeks to enhance quality of life by researching positive individual traits and positive institutions.”

Q4. What is flourishing?

Ans. Human flourishing, also known as “flourishing,” is the full goodness of humans throughout their developmental lives, which encompasses, among other things, healthy psychological and social functioning.

Lifestyle And The Quality Of Life

A healthy person has physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual balance within himself. Maintenance of the body to prevent illness and diseases. Physical balance is when a person can perform all the activities in his daily life without facing any difficulties. It includes strength, stamina, and flexibility of the body. The mental aspect is the most important part of a person’s overall health. It may affect the person’s thinking, behavior, and perspective positively or negatively. Most of the time, the physical aspect of health highly depends upon the mental one. Spiritual balance is when a person finds hope and meaning in his life. With time becomes humbler and seeks out peace within himself. Hence to maintain a perfect balance physically, spiritually, and mentally one must have a healthy lifestyle. The daily routine of a person is the biggest reason for his well-being. It contributes to having a better environment, longevity, and quality in their lives.

A Change for Good

Lifestyle means how people live their life. The quality of life depends upon factors like age, environment, genetics, and society. For a 60-year-old person walking is a good exercise concerning their age but for a 20-year-old person running and swimming will be more favorable for his age. The foundation of tomorrow’s health completely depends on today’s lifestyle, and it is both a short and long-term investment. Hobbies, sleeping habits, eating habits, and other choices contribute to their quality of life. To lead a joyful life, one must be able to include and exclude many good and bad habits. In the end, it comes to the choice of the people to improve their lifestyle, for which they have to sacrifice many things and change themselves for good.

Signs of a Bad Lifestyle

Many people do not take their lives and health seriously. They end up stuck in many situations that distract them from living a good quality of life. Situations like workload, stress, lack of clarity, and judging by others. The signs that display a bad quality of life: Lack of energy, lack of presence at the moment, sadness and depression, always craving for more, and being physically unfit.

Improving the Quality of Life

Small changes in the routine and including positive habits slowly help to make a greater change with time. The goals are small and achievable by the person setting them up; hence, a person must set up a short-term goal. Many such steps are creating a difference in lifestyle, which are getting a minimum of 7 hours of sleep, 60 -90 minutes of exercising and physical activities, change in eating habits, maintaining ideal body weight, avoiding smoking and consumption of alcohol, having an optimistic perception toward life and people, involving in family and friends, spiritual and self-improving practices and managing time wisely. Applying such practices may result in a gradual change in one’s lifestyle.

Failing in Lifestyle Change

Every process has a real and practical approach. Many people wish to change their way of living but cannot do so as they do not plan and have an impractical approach. The right way to begin the process is to know one capability. People expect results very fast, and they fail to control them. Sometimes it is found that people often make wrong decisions that lead to a lack of focus of the person. The desired attempt must be real, achievable, and time-bound. The person who appreciates the journey will go further than a person who appreciates the destination. Hence a person must enjoy every small goal he has achieved for the ultimate one. They often have high hopes for their trial. People seeking change must set it on time and keep track of every small success. Consistency plays a major role in achieving goals. If one wishes to go faster, he must go alone; if he wishes to go farther, he must have people along with him.


People must be able to identify their bad habits and change them for good. It is the way how they live their lives that decide the quality of it. Mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual health depends on everyday work. A man can achieve completeness if he makes small things right .hence having a good quality of life is necessary. People often do what they want instead of what they should. They must take complete responsibility for their lives. People must go towards the ultimate goal step by dividing it into many shorter ones. Instead of waiting for the saturation point for the betterment of their routine, one must always start it as soon as possible.

7 Causes Of Anxiety And Remedies

Heart Problems

The cases of heart patients have risen a lot, and it can cause anxiety in individuals. Once you feel a panic attack, you will feel breathless, and suddenly, you will start feeling anxious. As per research, it has been revealed that almost 5% of people suffer from generalized anxiety disorder, and most of them have a heart problem. People can suffer from this anxiety disorder due to heart attack, stroke, and other coronary problems. Experts mention that people having long-term heart problems can suffer from anxiety. Again persisting stress can cause heart problems.

Excess Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol and anxiety have a deep connection. It has been noticed that people who consume excess alcohol and drugs are more prone to suffer from an anxiety disorder. Many are unaware that heart problems or panic attacks are also developed due to the massive consumption of various drugs and alcohol.

Excess Caffeine

Caffeine consumption is also linked to anxiety. Caffeine is a stimulant, and excess consumption of caffeine can be the cause of anxiety. Experts say that caffeine can cause jittery or make you nervous and can make the situation worse. Besides, caffeine can also improve alertness and attention within individuals. Overconsumption of caffeine can increase cognitive function and people can deal with panic disorder. Hence it will enhance anxiety symptoms and will make people nervous.

Medications Use of Weight loss Supplements

Obesity is no doubt cause of many health issues, but consuming weight loss supplements is not always beneficial. Several weight loss supplements are available in the market, which can harm people. Some of these products can lead to insomnia and can increase anxiety. Again, these weight loss supplements contain ephedra, which can speed up heart rate, stress, and anxiety.

Thyroid Gland

Thyroid hormone produces thyroid hormone, which is essential to regulate the immune system of any person. This hormone is also necessary to enhance the energy level and maintain the metabolism. However, it has been noticed that if your thyroid gland produces too much hormone, it can improve the anxiety situation of any person. Again, sometimes the thyroid produces too little hormone, also known as Hypothyroidism. Hence if you are suffering from the problems like sudden weight loss, fatigue without much hard work, irritation, etc., you need to consult with physicians for the best result.

Environmental Factors

Several environmental factors also play a vital role in enhancing anxiety. If any person suffers from any trauma, they can suffer from an anxiety disorder.

Symptoms to Check

The symptoms of anxiety disorder change from person to person. Doctors categorize these symptoms into three parts.

Physical symptoms include dry mouth, sweaty hands, nausea, excessive numbness, shortness of breath, etc.

Mental or psychological symptoms – This situation occurs when a person feels panic or uneasiness. Hallucinations and overthinking about previous traumatic experiences are common symptoms of anxiety.

Behavioral symptoms – Once a person suffers from anxiety, he will face problems like staying calm, sleep disorder, etc.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Any person’s panic, fear, or uneasiness can be due to stress and anxiety. Once any person feels anxiety disorder, they should take professional help. The healthcare providers will check your complete medical history and recommend some physical examinations.

The physicians will ask the patients various questions, and the treatment will depend on the symptoms of anxiety a person faces. Healthcare providers will also suggest necessary treatment depending on the symptoms that interfere the daily life.

Doctors recommend various treatment options depending on the situation of the patients. This treatment may include medication, behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, etc.

Self-treatment − Experts recommend some self-treatment options to treat anxiety disorder. This treatment includes stress management, relaxation techniques, physical exercise, etc.

Counseling − Psychological counseling is one of the most effective and reliable treatment options to heal a person from an anxiety disorder. This treatment also includes CBT or cognitive behavioral therapy to keep a person relieved from anxiety. CBT helps to change harmful thought patterns in a person.

Medications − Doctors will recommend medications depending on the severity of the anxiety situation of any person. These medications include antidepressants, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, etc.

Preventive Measures

Besides suggesting necessary treatment options, doctors will also offer some preventive measures to reduce the risk of anxiety disorder. One thing is to remember that every person experiences everyday tense situations in daily life, which are not considered psychological disorders.

However, some preventive measures can stop a person from getting too much anxiety. These preventative measures include lowering caffeine intake, maintaining a balanced diet, maintaining a regular sleep pattern, etc. Besides, staying active and exercising can also improve a person’s psychological health. Some think that cannabis r alcohol can help reduce anxiety, but it is wrong. Instead, these habits will make the situation worse.


Suffering from an anxiety disorder is not uncommon, and people can suffer from this problem due to several causes. Whenever any person suffers from this psychological problem, it is necessary to seek guidance from professionals. Doctors will suggest various treatment options like medications, therapy, counseling, etc, to heal every person.

Causes Course Of World War Ii


A global battle identified as World War II raged from 1939 until 1945. The large majority of the world’s nations engaged in warfare as supporters of the Allies and the Axis, two opposing military organisations. The Second Sino-Japanese War, Spanish Civil War, the Second Sino-Japanese War, the growth of fascism across Europe, and the escalating anxieties in Europe since World War I have all been contributory catalysts to World War II. On September 3, 1939, the United Kingdom and France announced war on Germany.

Old photo of cannon from the time of World War II

The Two Groups: Allies vs. Axis Powers

World War II was battled by two groups of nations. The Axis was the collective name for Japan, Italy, and Nazi Germany. Many other nations were participants of the Axis or collaborated with it. The nations battling them were known as the Allies. France and Great Britain have been the two main Allies initially, but France capitulated to Germany in 1940. They targeted American and British colonies in the Pacific. America officially proclaimed war against Japan. Then, the U.S. was at war with both Germany and Italy. At this time, Germany was being attacked by the US, UK, and USSR.

The leaders of the Allied army would be American President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin.

German tyrant Adolf Hitler, Italian leader Benito Mussolini, and Japanese show emperor Hirohito commanded the Axis camp.

The key goals of the Allies were to bring a stop to the clash and release the territories that were enslaved by the Axis powers.

The reason for World War II

The Nazi German attack on Poland on September 1, 1939, and the following war declarations on Germany by France and Britain were the immediately triggering events.

The socioeconomic and geopolitical structure of the globe has profoundly and completely altered by the time World War I ended in late 1918. Most European economies and infrastructures were severely damaged.

The two core parts of the French national strategy were reparation payments to Germany in the form of cash and coal. To reimburse for its shortage of resources, the French administration leased capital from the United States and issued an enormous amount of currency.

In 1933–1934, upon gaining total authority, Hitler, and their Nazis transformed Germany into a monarchy with a strongly unfavourable approach toward the Treaty of Versailles and Jews.

The course of World War II Phoney War

During the “phoney war,’ a few indications of hostilities were present, and citizens of the western European nations escaped to safety.

Treaty of Ribbentrop

On the occasion that Poland was seized by Germany, France, and Great Britain would offer military aid. Hitler planned to overrun Poland. After secret talks in August 1939, the German-Soviet Non-aggression pact was established in Moscow in 1939. Additionally, in September, Russia invaded Poland after Germany, and then Poland had been divided into two conquerors.

Fall of France

Germany attacked France, Holland, and Belgium once the war with the Scandinavian nations finally ended. Hitler focused on Britain after defeating France and started making plans for an attack.

At Pearl Harbor

The US Navy station in Hawaii, Pearl Harbor, was abruptly assaulted on December 7, 1941, by the Japanese, who had grown weary of American trade restrictions. Then Germany launched a war on the US. Also, Japan occupied the Philippines, Hong Kong, and Burma.

German Fortunes Changing Around

Germany lost all control of Kharkiv and Kiev once more. Allied bombers started conducting massive daytime air strikes against German towns. Then Mussolini was arrested and killed by Italian partisans, and Hitler committed suicide on December 30.

Nuclear Bombing

one bomb was fired on the Japanese town of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Another one was thrown on Nagasaki after three days. Such attempts were unrecoverable, and on August 14 the Japanese gave up. The conclusion of World War II occurred with Japan’s capitulation.

Consequences of World War II

Lots of people were killed and homeless after the war. The market of European had been destroyed, and a significant proportion of the manufacturing capacity was also destroyed. The Soviet Union also tolerated it significantly. George Marshall, State Secretary for the United States, developed the “European Recovery Program,” referred to as the Marshall Plan, in 1947. Following this, the United States authority committed US$13 billion towards the restoration of the Western European nations.

After the war, imperialism and colonialism were over. Italy and Germany’s dictatorships were ended. East Germany and West Germany became two parts of Germany. The United States, France, and Great Britain governed West Germany. India’s desire for self-authority was assisted by the Second World War, as it resulted in the decline of British power and the rise of America and Russia as major global powers.


The World War II battle, which spanned 1939-45, was battled in Europe, northern Africa, and Asia. One of history’s most devastating wars in which the Allies, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States contested against the Axis Powers—Italy, Germany, and Japan. At last, not only warriors but also common people would have died in huge numbers. There were deliberate, industrial butchers during World War II. After the German attack on Poland in 1939, the UK formally proclaimed war on Germany. The aggressive strike caused the US and the Soviet Union to enter into a major fight. It would be a war in Europe for more than six years.


Q1. What influenced the Second World War?

Ans. World War II had quite several significant roots. Among them are the repercussions of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, the Financial Depression, the disintegration of diplomacy, the emergence of militaristic activity in Germany and Japan, and the dissolution of the League of Nations.

Q2. How did the Second World War impact regular life?

Ans. Many people were pushed to leave their homes or surrender their property by collecting no payment to shift to new locations. Even in rich Western Europe, times of famine grew increasingly regular.

Q3. Which nation lost the most people during World War 2?

Ans. The Soviet Union experienced the largest number of deaths of any country, with figures often varying from 22 to 27 million.

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