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Introduction to Lua Loop

Lua loop is statements that allow the user to execute a specific statement or a group of statements a multiple times. All the programming languages provide control structures that allow complicated execution paths. So, a Lua loop has various loop statements such as while loop, for loop, repeats…until loop, nested loops, infinite loop, which have their own looping requirements and the way they are used. Here, we will be learning few more ways of writing or executing loops in Lua programs. Users can execute a block of code specific number of times in sequential order i.e. first statement in a function is executed first, the second statement follows, and so on.

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A General form of loop statement in most of the programming languages looks as below,

Loop statements, if returns true will execute the conditional code again, and if false will come out of the loop statement or break the statement or pass infinitely based on the condition.

Types of Loops in Lua Programming

for loop: It is a control statement that executes a sequence of statements multiple times.

Syntax:

for init, min/max value, increment/ decrement do statement(s) end

Flow diagram of for loop in Lua

In for loop, the init step is executed in the first place, and also only once. This initializing step allows the user to declare and initialize loop control variables.

In the second step, we have the min/max value till which the loop continues to execute. Internally, a condition check is created between the initial and minimum/ maximum value.

And then the body of the loop gets executed, then the flow of the loop jumps back to the increment/ decrement statement, which updates loop control variables.

The body of the loop is executed again. If the condition returns true, the loop gets executed and the process repeats.

After the condition returns false, the for loop gets terminated.

Examples

Let us discuss examples of Lua Loop.

Example #1: for loop statement in Lua for student = 2,20,2 do print('Even numbers from 2-20:', student); end

Output:

So the condition, for loop has init value as 2, minimum/ maximum value as 20, and increment/ decrement value as 2 i.e. every time when loop runs, init value will increase by 2. If the init value wants to be decreased, a negative number is to be provided as a decrement value.

Example #2: for loop statement in Lua for student = 21,1,-2 do print('Odd numbers from 20-1:', student); end

Output:

Here, we are printing the odd numbers, in decreasing order, hence a negative integer is given in for loop condition.

while loop: This while loop statement repeatedly executes the target statement as long as the given condition is true

Syntax:

while(condition) do Statement(s) end

Here, statement(s) can be a single statement or multiple statements.

While loop is executed only when the condition is true.

The condition may take any expression, true if non zero value

If the condition is false, program control passes to the next immediate line following the loop.

Example #3: while loop in Lua num1 = 25 do print("value of num1:", num1) num1 = num1-1 end

Output:

Here, while loop will run until the condition is satisfied i.e. num1 should be greater than 15.

repeat…until loop: unlike for and while loops, repeat…until loop will check the condition at the bottom of the loop in Lua programming.

It is similar to while loop except do; as a do-while loop is executed at least once.

Syntax: repeat

statement(s) until(condition)

Flowchart for repeat…until loop:

Here, we can see that the condition statement appears at the end of the loop, so loop statements execute once before the condition gets tested.

If the condition fails, flow of statements jumps back to do…and loop statements get executed again.

This process gets repeated until the condition is true.

Example #4: repeat…until loop in Lua programming global_id = 12 repeat print("value of global id:", global_id) global_id = global_id + 3

Output:

Here, the global_id is taken as the first value and then the condition gets executed until it is true.

nested loops: Nested loops make use of more than one loop nested inside the other.

Syntax: Considering a for loop being nested.

for init, min/max value, increment/decrement do for init, min/max value, increment/decrement do statement(s) end statement(s) end

Considering nested while loop

While(condition) do while(condition) do statement(s) end statement(s) end

Considering nested repeat…until loop

Repeat Statement(s) Repeat Statement(s) Until(condition) Until(condition) Example #5: nested loops in Lua j = 5 for i = 1,5 do for j = 2,5,4 do print("Value of i*j is",i*j) end end

Output:

So here we have worked on Nested for loop.

Conclusion

With this, we shall conclude the topic ‘Lua Loop’. We have seen what Lua loop is and the various types of loops present in Lua programming. We have gone through each type of loop with the flow structure, syntax for each loop and also implemented few examples above. Hybrid loop or also we can call it a nested loop will be much useful in daily programming. We also have an Infinite loop which will have no end to the output produced.

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## How To Working Of Sleep() Function In Lua?

Introduction to Lua sleep

Whenever there is a need to pause the program that we are executing for a certain number of seconds without making use of busy or waiting, then we make use of a function called sleep() function in Lua, and this sleep() function is not a built-in function in Lua but there are several ways to implement this sleep() function depending on the operating system or platform on which the Lua program is running and any program intending to call sleep() function must implement the sleep() function in the program before calling it and sleep() function can be implemented on Windows, Linux, and Mac operating system.

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local clock = os.clock function sleep(n) local t0 = clock() while clock() - t0 <= n do end end sleep(number_of_seconds)

where os. clock returns the number of seconds for the CPU time for the program and

n is the parameter that takes the number of seconds we want our program to be paused.

How to Working of sleep() function in Lua?

Working of sleep() function in Lua is as follows:

Whenever there is a need to pause the program that we are executing for a certain number of seconds without making use of busy or waiting, then we make use of a function called sleep() function in Lua.

The sleep() function is not a built-in function in Lua.

There are several ways to implement the sleep() function depending on the operating system or platform on which the Lua program is running.

Any program intending to call sleep() function must implement the sleep() function in the program before calling it in the program.

The sleep() function can be implemented on Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems.

Examples

Below are some different examples:

Example #1

Lua program to demonstrate the working of sleep() function by implementing it on a Windows operating system and pausing the program for 30 seconds before it prints the second statement in the program:

Code:

--implementing the sleep() function on an windows operating system local clock = os.clock function sleep(n)-- seconds local t0 = clock() while clock() - t0 <= n do end end --printing the first statement and then calling sleep() function to pause the program for 30 seconds before it can print the second statement print("Welcome ton") print("nPlease wait for 30 secondsn") sleep(30) print("nEDUCBAn")

The output of the above program is as shown in the snapshot below:

In the above program, we are implementing the sleep() function on a Windows operating system. Then we are printing a statement and then calling sleep() function to pause the program for 30 seconds before it can print the second statement as the output on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

Example #2

Lua program to demonstrate sleep() function in which we create an array and iterate through the elements of the array and display each element of the array as the output on the screen after pausing the program for 20 seconds:

--implementing the sleep() function on an windows operating system local clock = os.clock function sleep(n)-- seconds local t0 = clock() while clock() - t0 <= n do end end --printing the elements in the list one after the other by pausing the program for 20 seconds after printing each element mylist = {"Welcome", "to", "EDUCBA"} for a = 1,3 do print("n") print(mylist[a]) print("nPlease wait for 20 secondsn") sleep(20) end

The output of the above program is as shown in the snapshot below:

In the above program, we are implementing the sleep() function on a Windows operating system. Then we are creating an array and then iterating through the array to display the elements of the array one after the other by pausing the program for 20 seconds after displaying each element as the output on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

Example #3

Lua program to demonstrate sleep() function in which we create an array and iterate through the elements of the array and display each element of the array as the output on the screen after pausing the program for 10 seconds:

Code:

--implementing the sleep() function on an windows operating system local clock = os.clock function sleep(n)-- seconds local t0 = clock() while clock() - t0 <= n do end end --printing the elements in the list one after the other by pausing the program for 20 seconds after printing each element mylist = {"Learning", "is", "fun"} for a = 1,3 do print("n") print(mylist[a]) print("nPlease wait for 10 secondsn") sleep(10) end

The output of the above program is as shown in the snapshot below:

In the above program, we are implementing the sleep() function on a Windows operating system. Then we are creating an array and then iterating through the array to display the elements of the array one after the other by pausing the program for 10 seconds after displaying each element as the output on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

Example #4

Lua program to demonstrate the working of sleep() function by implementing it on a Windows operating system and pausing the program for 30 seconds before it prints the second statement in the program:

Code:

--implementing the sleep() function on an windows operating system local clock = os.clock function sleep(n)-- seconds local t0 = clock() while clock() - t0 <= n do end end --printing the first statement and then calling sleep() function to pause the program for 30 seconds before it cana print the second statement print("Learning isn") print("nPlease wait for 30 secondsn") sleep(30) print("nfunn")

The output of the above program is as shown in the snapshot below:

In the above program, we are implementing the sleep() function on a Windows operating system. Then we are printing a statement and then calling sleep() function to pause the program for 30 seconds before it can print the second statement as the output on the screen. The output is shown in the snapshot above.

Conclusion

In this article, we have learned the concept of sleep() function in Lua through definition, syntax, and working of sleep() function in Lua with corresponding programming examples and their outputs to demonstrate them.

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## List Of Golang Constants With Programming Examples

Introduction to Golang Constants

Constants in go are the variable that once assigned the value and initialize we cannot change it during the process of the running of the program life cycle. The main importance of using the constant in go language allows us to define a variable which will be fixed throughout the compilation of the program. There are broadly three types of constant in the go language they are string constants (containing string value), numeric constants (containing an integer and floating values), Boolean constant (containing true and false value). In general programming, the constants are defined at the top of the program and will be available for the whole flow of the code and its value will be the same for the cycle. In this topic, we are going to learn about Golang Constants.

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List of Constants in Golang 1. Integer Constant

Integer type constants are the constant which contains the integer value.

In any integer type constant, they contain an integer part.

We can use the == operator for comparing two integer type constants.

We can use the = operator for assignment of any integer type constant.

Example for an integer constant

In the below example we have taken two variables X and Y and these variables contain two integer numbers. Here we are performing two operations inside the example, one we are adding them printing the resultant output of them, second we are comparing these two variables and printing the output of comparison of these two integer values.

Please see the below example along with the screen of output

Code:

package main import "fmt" func main() { const X= 3 var Y = 6 var sum = X+Y fmt.Println(sum)//printing the sum of the two numbers fmt.Println(X == 3) fmt.Println(Y < X) }

Output:

2. Floating Type Constant

Floating type constants are the constant which contains the decimal value integer.

In any floating type constant they contain two parts one is the faction part value and another is the exponent part value.

We can use the == operator for comparing two floating type constants.

We can use the = operator for assignment of any floating type constant.

At the time of displaying the floating type constant we need to consider the decimal points.

Example of Floating Type constant

In the below example we have taken two variables X and Y and these variables contain two floating numbers. Here we are performing two operations inside the example, one we are adding them printing the resultant output of them, second we are comparing these two variables and printing the output of comparison of these two floating values.

Please see the below example along with the screen of output

Code:

package main import "fmt" func main() { const X= 3.4 var Y = 6.9 var sum = X+Y fmt.Println(sum) fmt.Println(X == 3.2)//It will print true or false fmt.Println(Y < X) }

3. String Constants

In Go language we can use two types of the constants one is with the single quote(‘’) and another with the double quote(“”).

We can perform all the operations on the string like string concatenation, to perform string concatenation in the language we can use + symbol. We can also use a format like +=.

Many times you will see the requirement of comparing the two strings in go language, so we can use the == operator for comparison of string.

We can simply use the = operator for operating on assignment.

Example for String Type constant

In the below example we have taken two variables X and Y and these variables contain two string values. Here we are performing two operations inside the example, one we concatenate them printing the resultant output of them, second, we are comparing these two variables and printing the output of comparison of these two strings values.

Please see the below example along with the screen of output

Code:

package main import "fmt" func main() { const X= "Ranjan" var Y = "Ajay" var greetings = X+ " " + Y greetings += "!" fmt.Println(greetings) fmt.Println(X == "Ranjan") fmt.Println(Y < X) }

Output:

4. Boolean constant

The boolean constants are very much similar to any string constants.

The main difference between string constants and boolean constants is they allow us to define two types true and false whereas in case of the string constant they are only string.

Boolean constants are used for managing some flag values like yes or no or true or false.

Example for Boolean Type constant

In the below example we are performing some operations on a boolean value, we are assigning and printing the boolean value in the go language.

Please see the below example along with the screen of output

Code:

package main import "fmt" const Py = 3.14 func main() { const boolConst = true type exampleBool bool var initialBool = boolConst var simpleBool exampleBool = boolConst fmt.Println(initialBool) fmt.Println(simpleBool) }

Output:

Conclusion

From this tutorial we learned about the basic concept of the constant in the go language and we learned about its various types. We learned with the help of the various examples of the various types of constants in the go language.

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A business leader’s primary responsibility is to inspire their team to invest in a project, keep them focused, and maximize each individual’s potential in serving the company’s objectives. There isn’t a magic recipe, which is why we have many leadership philosophies. The leadership style you choose will depend on your personality and how you want to manage your team.

Leaders will be more adept at identifying the leadership philosophies that best suit them as they gain experience managing teams and organizational procedures. In this tutorial, we will learn about the different types of business leadership.

Business Leadership is the practice of inspiring group members to work together toward a common objective. It is founded on concepts that may be one’s own or those of other influential figures.

Along with guiding the organization toward progress, successful leadership also involves effectively conveying these concepts to others and inspiring people to take on tasks and develop individually. A business leader inspires others and sets the tone for the company culture at the office. Business leaders may hold various titles or roles, but their principal duty is to provide a model of leadership that anybody may adopt.

Autocratic − Autocratic leaders make decisions unilaterally and expect their team members to follow orders without question. This style can be effective in emergencies when quick decision-making is necessary, but it can also be demotivating in the long term as team members may feel like they have no input or control. Autocratic leadership is generally not considered an effective leadership style in today’s business environment.

Democratic − Democratic leaders encourage participation and collaboration from their team members. This style can foster creativity and improve morale, as team members feel their opinions and ideas are valued. However, the decision-making process can be slower and less efficient than other styles, requiring more time and input from team members.

Laissez-Faire − Laissez-faire leaders give their team members a high level of autonomy and allow them to make their own decisions. This style can be effective in highly skilled or self-motivated teams, as team members may feel more empowered and motivated to take ownership of their work. However, it can also lead to a lack of direction and accountability, as the leader may not be actively involved in decision-making or providing support.

Transformational − Transformational leaders inspire and motivate their team members to achieve more than they thought possible. This style involves creating a vision and inspiring team members to work towards it. It requires strong trust and respect between the leader and their team, as team members must feel that the leader has their best interests at heart.

Transformational leadership can be effective in driving innovation and long-term success. Still, it requires a lot of time and effort from the leader to build and maintain relationships with team members.

Transactional − Transactional leaders focus on rewards and punishments to motivate their team members. This style involves setting clear goals and expectations and providing rewards or consequences based on whether those goals are met. This style can effectively achieve short-term goals, providing a clear sense of what is expected and how to achieve it.

However, it can also lead to a lack of intrinsic motivation and long-term commitment from team members, as they may be more motivated by rewards than by a sense of purpose or passion for their work.

Servant − Servant leaders prioritize the needs of their team members and focus on empowering and developing them. This style involves putting the team’s needs ahead of the leader’s ego or interests and is based on the idea that leaders exist to serve their team. Servant leadership can effectively create a positive and supportive work environment, but it requires a strong commitment to the development and well-being of team members.

Charismatic − Charismatic leaders have a strong presence and inspire others through their personalities and vision. This style creates excitement and enthusiasm for a shared goal and can motivate and inspire team members. However, it can also be risky, as charismatic leaders may focus more on their image and success than the team’s success.

Visionary − Visionary leaders have a clear and compelling vision for the future and can inspire and motivate others to work towards it. This style involves developing a long-term plan and communicating it effectively to team members. Visionary leadership can effectively drive innovation and long-term success, but it requires a strong ability to communicate and persuade others.

Coaching − Coaching leaders focus on developing the skills and abilities of their team members through feedback, guidance, and support. This style involves helping team members to set goals and objectives and providing ongoing support and feedback to help them achieve them. Coaching leadership can effectively develop a strong and capable team, but it requires a strong commitment to ongoing learning and development.

Strategic − Strategic leaders clearly understand the business environment and can develop and execute plans to achieve long-term success. This style involves analyzing market trends and opportunities and making informed decisions about the direction of the business. Strategic leadership requires a strong ability to think critically, make informed decisions, and effectively communicate and execute a plan.

There is no one-size-fits-all approach to choosing a leadership style. The best leadership style for you will depend on a variety of factors, including your personality, your values, the needs of your team, and the demands of the situation. Here are some things to consider when choosing a leadership style −

Consider the Needs of your Team − What does your team need to be successful? Do they need clear direction and structure, or do they work best with more autonomy? Do they respond well to a more democratic leadership style or prefer a more autocratic approach?

Think about the Demands of the Situation − Different situations may call for different leadership styles. For example, in a crisis, a more autocratic style may be necessary to make quick decisions and take control of the situation. In a more stable environment, a more participative style may be more effective.

Be Flexible − The best leaders can adapt their style to fit the needs of their team and the demands of the situation. Don’t be afraid to try different styles and see what works best for you and your team.

Conclusion

Leadership is as flexible as the context in which it develops. It is something that can be enhanced, changed, and supported. However, it’s crucial to establish a leadership style that benefits you, your team, and your company’s objectives. The above leadership styles are some of the most common ones, and you can identify by practice to choose which suits you and your company the best.

## An Overview Of Iot Sensor Types And Challenges

In the design of most IoT gadgets, sensors play a central role. Internet of Things product development revolves around sensors. Environmental changes can be detected and responded to with the use of sensors. They gather information for smart devices to use and adjust. For sensing purposes, sensors can be attached to various objects and machinery. IT personnel need to be familiar with the different kinds of IoT sensors, the data gathering process, and the risks associated with hardware failures and security to effectively manage and support IoT implementations. for example, a sensor picks up on this change and translates it into an electronic signal. Instrument producing a useful result in response to a certain input parameter. The signal is transformed into a form that can be read and utilised by either human beings or machines. Environmental inputs from motion and pressure changes are among the sources of information that they get.

IoT sensors types and their overview

All sensors are placed at the network’s front end to collect information through IoT networks. Sensing input on one’s own, as with an active sensor. The function of a sensor dictates its design, and a passive sensor is dependent on another source for its data. (Ex- temperature, gas, strain, colour, and smoke detectors).

Sensors, for instance, can operate in digital or analogue modes. A digital sensor gives a binary response. Direct communication between a digital sensor and a microprocessor in an IoT device. It has additional circuits for bit conversion in addition to the analogue sensor. Data collected by an analogue sensor will need to be converted to a digital format, adding an extra step if the application requires an analogue sensor.

Non-contact analogue methods are utilised by distance or range sensors. When broken down even further, sensors can be categorised by their tasks. Transmitted energy waves, such as radio waves, sound waves, and lasers, are used for sensing at greater distances. Some sensors can monitor changes in pressure in sealed settings like those found in automobiles, aircraft, factories, and labs. They are most commonly employed as proximity sensors. Still, they can also be used for range sensing, which involves determining how far away or close a component is to the sensing site.

Reporting data and obtaining data process

It is up to IoT developers to determine how sensors collect and transmit data. A sensor’s output is proportional to the value of a given input.

Sometimes the information gathered by sensors is in a binary form. Drift refers to how much a sensor’s readout varies from a set value after being held constant for a long time. Sometimes, information takes the form of text. Although any acceptable mechanical or electrical switch could be used, micro-switches are typically employed due to mechanical switches’ relatively high force requirements. Some sensors, on the other hand, gather analogue data that must be transformed into a digital format before a network and its associated applications can process it.

When an input parameter is a vector, the sensor’s output is proportional to the input’s strength and direction and orientation. When data is ready for analysis and outputs like alarms, the network sends it to the cloud or an on-premises processing engine.

Challenges that IoT sensors face

One of the major IoT security concerns is a lack of encryption, even though encryption is an excellent way to prevent hackers from accessing data. To ensure the smooth functioning of end-to-end IoT systems, businesses need to restructure their staff. Sensors are a part of this. Most companies have IT departments responsible for setting up and maintaining IoT devices. As a result, assaults in which hackers readily subvert security algorithms have increased.

Five problems that IT Departments have to Overcome

Low battery life − Sensors are susceptible to failed battery operation. Designers also need to find a solution to the design time challenge and release the embedded device at the optimal time. Even though it helps extend the life of batteries, this doesn’t make battery replacement unnecessary.

Failing sensors − These drives mimic the processing power and storage space of a conventional computer. When Internet of Things (IoT) sensors deployed on-premises experience problems, they can be quickly swapped out by IT departments. However, the widespread deployment of sensors in the field increases complexity. Sensors that have stopped working can be fixed in one of two ways: by replacing them or by properly accessing them. In this case, the processing or value of the data saved is more important.

Security − There are new security concerns associated with the Internet of Things and the gadgets and sensors it includes. The lack of properly skilled personnel working on IoT application development poses a significant threat due to the aforementioned development issues. For instance, the majority of companies market their products with the same factory-default settings and passwords. Especially at the network’s periphery or in IoT deployments, this can open a serious security hole. Systems must be built with security in mind, using cryptographic algorithms and other safeguards to prevent unauthorised access. Incoming sensors and IoT devices require reprogramming by IT to meet corporate security and governance requirements. Without this, malicious people can easily enter.

Noise pollution − When attempting to link hardware, software, and cloud infrastructure, connectivity is always top of mind. Some sensors have erratic performance in various settings. Problems with the packing and integration of lightweight, low-power-consumption small-sized chips are limiting the battery life of portable electronics. Car safety features like forward collision warning and automated emergency braking can be rendered useless if ice and snow accumulate on their sensors during the winter months.

Uneven data and connection standards − Data collection, storage, and processing within an environment all require careful planning by development teams to maintain security and privacy. There is a great deal of variety in the kind of information collected by sensors and the types of communication standards used by sensors. IoT applications need to be built with cross-platform compatibility in mind as new technologies emerge in the future. Since IT teams already have gateways and networks in place, integrating sensors into those might be difficult.

Conclusion

## Polyglot Programming And The Benefits Of Mastering Several Languages

“In Russian, on the other hand, there are two words for blue: one is dark blue and the other is for the color of clear sky. It has been experimentally proven that these language features translate into the practical ability to recognize colors. Language influences how we perceive the world. The same applies to programming languages.” Michał is not only a fan of neurolinguistics, but also a professional polyglot programmer—he knows Java, Groovy, Kotlin, Scala, JavaScript, some Ruby, Python, and Go, as well as curiosities such as Ceylon and Jolie. Where did the idea for such a range of competencies come from? In the world of professional programmers, there is a controversial statement that almost every seasoned developer has come across: “a good programmer should learn at least one new language a year.” This opinion is over 20 years old and was formulated in the book Pragmatic Programmer, a classic that invariably inspires successive generations of IT specialists. The idea of learning a new language each year was controversial as early as 1999 when it was articulated, but today the situation is becoming even more confusing. Multiple languages can be used in several ways. Functional and object-oriented programming, even in the same language, can be a more unfamiliar experience than simply learning a new language from the same family. What’s more, even within the monolingual ecosystem, there are frameworks that differ so far in their philosophy that switching between them is like switching languages—just compare React, Angular, and Svelte.js. Despite the controversy, every experienced programmer can code in more than two languages, and some of the code in several or even a dozen languages. For some of them, it’s a side effect of functioning in the world of dynamically developing information technology; for others, it’s a conscious choice. The best engineers I’ve worked with often repeat the same mantra: “I’m not a Java/Python/JavaScript programmer, just a programmer. Languages are my tools.” Have polyglot programmers had the opportunity to use so many languages in their professional life? Mostly yes, although the greatest enthusiasts also learn experimental and historical languages, with no prospects for commercial use. We are talking about languages such as OCaml, LISP, Haskell, and Fortran. It’s worth adding that the above does not include esoteric languages, i.e. those belonging to the “just for fun” category: Whitespace, LOLCODE, or Shakespeare.

Why do some people decide to become polyglot programmers?

So, what motivates these developers to learn new languages? The first answer is far from surprising. “I remember Ruby’s fall,” Marek Bryling, a programmer with over 20 years of experience, tells me. “People who have been in software for a long time have to learn many languages ​​over the years. That’s the reality.” The younger generation is also familiar with the “memento Ruby” argument. “The decision to learn a new language is about career planning and risk diversification. Just look at Ruby,” Michał says. Most often, however, the people I spoke to learn new languages ad hoc: by encountering new technological or market challenges. “The labor market used to be different than it is today. It was often easier to find a job in something completely new,” Kamil Kierzkowski, a senior full-stack developer at STX Next, recalls. “Let me quote a classic,” Michał clears his throat as he quotes Edsger Dijkstra, a pioneer of computer science. “It is practically impossible to teach good programming to students that have had a prior exposure to BASIC: as potential programmers they are mentally mutilated beyond hope of regeneration.” As you can see, the battles of the supporters of individual technologies go back to the pre-internet era. It turns out that in the world of polarised opinions, being a polyglot can be very helpful. “I know enough languages ​​to know what suits me,” Marcin Kurczewski, an expert in over 10 programming languages, tells me. “Knowing many schools of programming gives me perspective.” “It’s obvious for Python programmers to use Prettier, Black, and other codes autoformat tools,” Marcin points out. “When I recently started contributing to an open-source C/C++ project, I was surprised to discover that the project’s technical leader rejected similar tools that are now becoming popular in the C/C++ world. He used arguments that Python zealots used 10 years ago.”

What are the benefits of becoming a polyglot programmer?

For example, working with C++ helps. “Thanks to C++, I understood how my computer and everything I run on it works,” Marcin continues. “Knowledge of concepts such as stack, heap, registers, memory management is useful in working with a computer, no matter what language you use.” Marek supports this opinion and gives a specific example from his own area of interest: “Python has an interesting feature: weak references that don’t increment the garbage collector’s reference count. This is a very useful mechanism, but most people don’t understand how it works because they don’t know memory management from other languages.” “Problem-solving approaches in different paradigms differ significantly,” he notes. “Python is a nice example of a language where you can write in an object-oriented and functional manner, and it’s useful to know the different paradigms from other languages ​​so that you can use them in Python.” “Thanks to the fact that I know how something is done in one language, I can better implement it in Python,” Marek adds. “That’s how chúng tôi was created, being mapped from the node. This flow of inspiration is possible when we know several languages ​​and this knowledge goes beyond the syntax itself. It’s like traveling—the more countries you visit, the more your mind opens up,” he concludes.

What is the future of polyglot programming?

In our conversations, we also delve into the topic of the future. What new languages ​​and frameworks will be created and popularised on the market? Who will create them? Is it possible that polyglots will also play their part in this avantgarde programming? “Definitely, and especially those who like history,” Marek says. “After all, in recent years, we have gone back to the 1960s and we are processing what was invented then: event architecture, microservices, functional programming,” he says. “The cloud? It’s an extension of mainframes. Even dockers result from processing our previous concepts, such as JAIL or LXC containers. What finally grew out of it was Docker.” So, what’s ahead? What other languages ​​will gain popularity? Will there be more or fewer of them? Opinions are divided. “I can see a certain consolidation trend in relation to a few languages ​​like JavaScript and Python, but in my lifetime, we won’t get to any programming ‘lingua franca’,” Marek says. “I am concerned, though, that in some time 90% of programmers will only be able to do high-level programming. The same is already happening with DevOps—few can still work on bare-metal because everyone migrated to the cloud.” “We’re not threatened by monolingualism,” Maciej concludes. “PureScript and V are exciting new players. There will be more and more new languages, but at the same time, it will be harder and harder for them to breakthrough. Today, a rich ecosystem and the support of community developers are of key importance for any language. You can see it in Scala,” he sighs. “I love this language, but the community is very hermetic and pushes out those who haven’t been dealing with functional programming before. This affects the popularity of the language more and more.” The issues of community and ecosystem are also raised by Marcin, who is sceptical about Crystal, another contender in the crowded arena of programming languages. “Crystal is a compiled Ruby, and it’s an interesting idea, but even the nicest, cleanest programming language is nothing without a solid ecosystem, which is missing there.”   Author

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