Trending February 2024 # Using Games To Help Students Develop Executive Function Skills # Suggested March 2024 # Top 6 Popular

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“The professor lost his invisibility potion and needs our help getting it back. He said to message him.” I whipped out my phone, and my students’ eyes widened. “Hi professor. We are ready to solve the mystery,” I narrate-typed. My students were so surprised to see me texting in front of the class—to a fictional professor, no less—that they jumped out of their seats and raced over to verify what I was sending.

I was using a mystery activity called The Professor’s Missing Potion, in which automated chatbots move the mystery forward by offering new clues as previous clues are solved. When I got a response to my text, my students were beside themselves. In sixth grade, they were still not clear on the finer point of chatbots. “You are seriously messaging this guy, Ms. Culp? Who is it?”

“We need to solve the mystery, people—focus,” I insisted. My students proceeded to spend about two class periods completely absorbed in a task in which they needed to collaborate, think critically, and reflect in order to reach a common goal.

I’ve always been personally interested in games and puzzles, but I’ve also been the teacher who equated games with wasting class time. After a year of virtual instruction and a demoralizing transition back to in-person learning, though, I was ready to try something new.

In my hybrid role as a case manager for students with IEP plans and writing support teacher, I coach students in executive functioning skills. Executive functioning (EF) encompasses a set of mental skills that cut across disciplines, like prioritizing, organizing, task initiation, working memory, and goal-directed persistence. Trying to teach students how to apply these skills to schoolwork can be dull and unmotivating, but after seeing the natural engagement and genuine skill practice that my students derived from a game, I decided that all students should participate in such a worthwhile activity.

Using Games to Develop Students’ Executive Function Skills

I set up a full “Games Unit,” with this rationale: Games require us to employ the same EF skills we need to be successful in school.

We reviewed the skills rubric through which they would be assessed. The rubric was a hybrid of the International Baccalaureate “Approaches to Learning” and general EF skills. It focused on four major skill clusters: critical thinking (developing new strategies), communication and collaboration, sustained attention (including the ability to inhibit responses to distractions), and emotional control (again, including response inhibition). The rubric also incorporated reflection before self-assessing on metacognitive skills.

I selected six challenges for this unit. With each activity, I taught an introductory version of the game, the class made a first attempt, and we paused to debrief. With each round, I would add a new rule or complexity to the game, and then we would discuss what was going well so far. At the end, each student reflected more formally through the rubric’s self-assessment questions.

My favorite game: Team 3

EF focus skills: Goal-directed persistence, emotional control

Why this game is high-leverage: One student is blindfolded and must build a vertical structure out of blocks. Another student can see the design blueprint but is not allowed to speak. A third student acts as intermediary. All three need to come up with new strategies to accomplish the mission. Students must work through frustrations and develop new modes of communication.

My students’ favorite game: Snakesss

EF focus skills: Working memory, sustained attention

Why this game is high-leverage: Snakesss involves some players who are being honest and some who are being deceptive, like the games Mafia and Among Us. The game play feels easy to students, but ultimately they practice persuasion, a core academic skill: How can they convince people to agree with them without being too obvious?

At the end of this mini-unit, I asked my students to reflect upon what they had learned. Here are a few of their responses:

“Critical thinking was essential to this unit. I had to think about what was being asked of me and how I could complete these tasks. We had time to apply these skills and focus!”

“Playing games taught me to have more patience with someone.”

“I learned that collaboration is useful when we need to get new ideas.”

“Playing games taught me that I am a pretty good leader when it comes to trying to figure something out.”

Next year, I plan to integrate these skills weekly rather than in a self-contained unit; I don’t want to signal that EF skills are tangential to learning—they are, in fact, essential.

A Few Tips

Frontload the rationale for your students: These challenges are not free time—“The brain patterns you are developing are valuable in all of your academic endeavors,” you might say. This is fun, and this is serious.

Resist the urge to overexplain: The point is the students’ productive struggle with the game. Be transparent with kids. “I want to give you a hint, but it’s important for you to be able to come up with a new strategy on your own. Can you help each other?”

Relish the first debrief: You might say, “We’ve been struggling with this game, but we’re going to improve the more we play. So let’s stop here. What is going well so far? What is not going well? Who can think of a new strategy? Why do you find yourself disengaging?”

Small groups work best: My classes had five to seven students, which was the perfect size for most of these challenges, but a general education teacher would be wise to use this as a station, pull small groups, or get multiple copies of each game. Some classes may benefit from games designed for large groups, such as Salad Bowl or Mafia.

Use a student-friendly rubric: I used I-statements with clear cutoffs between four levels of achievement to frame where students were at. This made it easy for them to self-assess and build metacognitive muscle.

Extensions: While self-contained games are great for a quick classroom activity, consider using a longer mystery challenge like The Professor’s Missing Potion or Exit: The Game, or look for a free online escape room game; you could even consider an escape room field trip. These activities truly challenge students to collaborate in small groups toward a goal. You can also reach out to local game stores for more educator resources.

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How To Develop A Virtual Keyboard Using Opencv

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon

Introduction

OpenCV is the most popular library for the task of computer vision, it is a cross-platform open-source library for machine learning, image processing, etc. using which real-time computer vision applications are developed.

CVzone is a computer vision package, where it uses OpenCV and Media s its core that makes us easy to run like hand tracking, face detection, facial landmark detection, pose estimation, etc., and also image processing and other computer vision-related applications. Check here for more information.

Implementation of Virtual Keyboard Using OpenCV

Let us create a virtual Keyboard.

First, let us install the required modules.

Import Libraries for Virtual Keyboard Using OpenCV

Now let’s import the required modules

import cv2 import cvzone from cvzone.HandTrackingModule import HandDetector from time import sleep import numpy as np from pynput.keyboard import Controller

Here we are importing the HandDetector module from cvzone.HandTrackingModule and then in order to make the virtual keyboard work we need to import Controller from pynput.keyboard.

cap = cv2.VideoCapture(0, cv2.CAP_DSHOW) cap.set(3, 1280) cap.set(4, 720)

Now let’s take real-time input from cv2.Videocapture

detector = HandDetector(detectionCon=0.8) keyboard_keys = [["Q", "W", "E", "R", "T", "Y", "U", "I", "O", "P"], ["A", "S", "D", "F", "G", "H", "J", "K", "L", ";"], ["Z", "X", "C", "V", "B", "N", "M", ",", ".", "/"]] final_text = ""

We initialize HandDetector with detection confidence of 0.8 and assign it to the detector. Then we create an array of lists according to the layout of our keyboard and define an empty string to store the typed keys.

Defining Draw Function keyboard = Controller() def draw(img, buttonList): for button in buttonList: x, y = button.pos w, h = button.size cvzone.cornerRect(img, (button.pos[0], button.pos[1], button.size[0],button.size[0]), 20 ,rt=0) cv2.rectangle(img, chúng tôi (int(x + w), int(y + h)), (255, 144, 30), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(img, button.text, (x + 20, y + 65), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) return img

Initialize the keyboard controller, and define a function with name draw() and it takes two arguments that is an image and the buttonList and return the image. Here Inside the draw() function, we are using cvzone’s cornerRect function to draw rectangle edges at the corner of each keys. It is in order to make our keyboard layout look better. It will look something like the below images.

You can also try changing different colours.

class Button(): def __init__(self, pos, text, size=[85, 85]): chúng tôi = pos chúng tôi = size chúng tôi = text

Then we define a class called Button() and we give position, text and size as the inputs so that we can arrange the keyboard keys in a well-defined order.

buttonList = [] # mybutton = Button([100, 100], "Q") for k in range(len(keyboard_keys)): for x, key in enumerate(keyboard_keys[k]): buttonList.append(Button([100 * x + 25, 100 * k + 50], key))

The above loop will loop through the keyboard keys and Button objects where we give position and text as inputs are appended in a list called button list. Later we can pass this list to draw function to draw on top of our real-time frame.

Main Program for Virtual Keyboard Using OpenCV

Here comes the important part.

while True: success, img = cap.read() img = detector.findHands(img) lmList, bboxInfo = detector.findPosition(img) img = draw(img, buttonList) # change the draw funtion to transparent_layout for transparent keys if lmList: for button in buttonList: x, y = button.pos w, h = button.size if x < lmList[8][0]<x+w and y < lmList[8][1] < y+h: cv2.rectangle(img, chúng tôi (x + w, y + h), (0, 255, 255), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(img, button.text, (x + 20, y + 65), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) l, _, _ = detector.findDistance(8,12, img, draw=False) print(l) if l < 25: keyboard.press(button.text) cv2.rectangle(img, chúng tôi (x + w, y + h), (0, 255, 0), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(img, button.text, (x + 20, y + 65), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) final_text += button.text sleep(0.20) cv2.rectangle(img, (25,350), (700, 450), (255, 255, 255), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(img, final_text, (60, 425), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) # cv2.rectangle(img, (100,100), (200,200), # (100, 255, 0), cv2.FILLED) # cv2.putText(img, 'Q', (120,180), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 5, # (0, 0, 0), 5) # img = mybutton.draw(img) cv2.imshow("output", img) cv2.waitKey(1)

Inside the while loop the main function takes place, first we read the real-time input frames and store it in a variable called img. Then we pass that image to the detector.findHands() in order to find the hand in the frame. Then in that image, we need to find the position and bounding box information of that detected hand.

Here we can find the distance between the top point of our index finger and middle finger, if the distance between the two is less than a certain threshold, then we can type the letter on which we are indicating. Once we get the position then we loop through the entire position list. From that list, we find button position and button size and then we plot it on the frame according to a well-defined manner.

Image 1: Hand Landmark Model  

After that, we need to find the distance between the top point of our index finger and middle finger. In the above image, you can see the top points which we require are point 8 and point 12. Hence we need to pass 8, 12 inside a distance finding function in order to get the distance between them. In the above code you can see detector.findDistance() and there we passed 8, 12, and image in order to find the distance and we set the draw flag to false so that we do not need any line between the two points.

If the distance between the points is very less we will use press() function to press the keys. In the above code keyboard.press() and we are passing button.text in order to display that pressed key. And finally, we draw a small white rectangular box just below our keyboard layout in order to display the pressed key.

Once you execute the whole code it looks something like this.

After you bring the index finger and middle finger close to each other on top of a particular letter, you can type that letter.

If you need the keyboard layout to be more customized, we can make the keyboard layout transparent. We just need to add a transparent layout function and replace the draw() function with transparent_layout() function.

Let us define the transparent_layout() function. Below is the function, it takes the same input as that of the draw() function. Here we assign a numpy’s zero_like() function to a variable called imgNew and perform the desired operation on that, like having the corner rectangle, creating the rectangle box for each key, and putting the text inside the box. After that, we copy that image to a new variable and create a mask of imgNew and we use OpenCV’s addWeighted() function to place the mask on top of the actual image. Hence this makes the keyboard layout to be transparent.

Customizing the Keyboard def transparent_layout(img, buttonList): imgNew = np.zeros_like(img, np.uint8) for button in buttonList: x, y = button.pos cvzone.cornerRect(imgNew, (button.pos[0], button.pos[1], button.size[0],button.size[0]), 20 ,rt=0) cv2.rectangle(imgNew, chúng tôi (x + button.size[0], y + button.size[1]), (255, 144, 30), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(imgNew, button.text, (x + 20, y + 65), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4)

out[mask] = cv2.addWeighted(img, alpaha, imgNew, 1-alpaha, 0)[mask] return out

Once you replace the draw() function inside while loop with transparent_layout() function it will look like this. (below image)

Entire Code for Virtual Keyboard Using OpenCV

Below is the entire code

import cv2 import cvzone from cvzone.HandTrackingModule import HandDetector from time import sleep import numpy as np from pynput.keyboard import Controller cap = cv2.VideoCapture(0, cv2.CAP_DSHOW) cap.set(3, 1280) cap.set(4, 720) detector = HandDetector(detectionCon=0.8) keyboard_keys = [["Q", "W", "E", "R", "T", "Y", "U", "I", "O", "P"], ["A", "S", "D", "F", "G", "H", "J", "K", "L", ";"], ["Z", "X", "C", "V", "B", "N", "M", ",", ".", "/"]] final_text = "" keyboard = Controller() def draw(img, buttonList): for button in buttonList: x, y = button.pos w, h = button.size cvzone.cornerRect(img, (button.pos[0], button.pos[1], button.size[0],button.size[0]), 20 ,rt=0) cv2.rectangle(img, chúng tôi (int(x + w), int(y + h)), (255, 144, 30), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(img, button.text, (x + 20, y + 65), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) return img def transparent_layout(img, buttonList): imgNew = np.zeros_like(img, np.uint8) for button in buttonList: x, y = button.pos cvzone.cornerRect(imgNew, (button.pos[0], button.pos[1], button.size[0],button.size[0]), 20 ,rt=0) cv2.rectangle(imgNew, chúng tôi (x + button.size[0], y + button.size[1]), (255, 144, 30), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(imgNew, button.text, (x + 20, y + 65), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) out = img.copy() alpaha = 0.5 mask = imgNew.astype(bool) print(mask.shape) out[mask] = cv2.addWeighted(img, alpaha, imgNew, 1-alpaha, 0)[mask] return out class Button(): def __init__(self, pos, text, size=[85, 85]): chúng tôi = pos chúng tôi = size chúng tôi = text buttonList = [] # mybutton = Button([100, 100], "Q") for k in range(len(keyboard_keys)): for x, key in enumerate(keyboard_keys[k]): buttonList.append(Button([100 * x + 25, 100 * k + 50], key)) while True: success, img = cap.read() img = detector.findHands(img) lmList, bboxInfo = detector.findPosition(img) img = draw(img, buttonList) # change the draw funtion to transparent_layout for transparent keys if lmList: for button in buttonList: x, y = button.pos w, h = button.size if x < lmList[8][0]<x+w and y < lmList[8][1] < y+h: cv2.rectangle(img, chúng tôi (x + w, y + h), (0, 255, 255), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(img, button.text, (x + 20, y + 65), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) l, _, _ = detector.findDistance(8,12, img, draw=False) print(l) if l < 25: keyboard.press(button.text) cv2.rectangle(img, chúng tôi (x + w, y + h), (0, 255, 0), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(img, button.text, (x + 20, y + 65), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) final_text += button.text sleep(0.20) cv2.rectangle(img, (25,350), (700, 450), (255, 255, 255), cv2.FILLED) cv2.putText(img, final_text, (60, 425), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 4, (0, 0, 0), 4) # cv2.rectangle(img, (100,100), (200,200), # (100, 255, 0), cv2.FILLED) # cv2.putText(img, 'Q', (120,180), cv2.FONT_HERSHEY_PLAIN, 5, # (0, 0, 0), 5) # img = mybutton.draw(img) cv2.imshow("output", img) cv2.waitKey(1) Conclusion

This is the implementation of the virtual keyboard, if you want to take it to the next step you can also all the keypress sounds and then we can also make the keyboard layout move within the frames.

Hope you enjoyed it.

Reference

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Related

How To Develop Your Business With The Help Of A Social Network…

Social media promotion is an essential part of enterprise marketing. It is hard to find a trademark that is not represented on social arenas like Twitter or Facebook. However, the excellent choice for real brand development is Instagram- along with the chance to stimulate this process while you buy 50 likes, or followers. The tactic is individual for everyone, but there are some universal tips that can help beginners to launch and maintain a successful strategy on platforms like Instagram. This article exposes the most productive methods of promotion on this network.

Drive Your Existing Audience to Instagram

Back to emails – this is also a nice possibility to collect some information about the general level of interest in your Instagram and find out what your buyers would like to see there.

Also read:

Best Top 10 Paid Online Survey Website in the World

Motivate Your Viewers To Follow

Undoubtedly, a major portion of your public is dwelling on Instagram – it is one of the top-rated social platforms in the world. And no wonder so do your opponents. To motivate users to follow your profile among others, you must give your potential followers something exclusive and valuable. There are many strategies to lure the audience:

The original presentation of your product

Exclusive proposals

Secret sales and discounts

Examine Your Competitors

In case you notice that there is no competition for you on Instagram, then you probably have to shift the platform, because this one is fruitless.

Define Your Goals

It is unthinkable to construct a working strategy for Instagram if you don’t understand why you require it in the first place. There is too much content to post, and without a plan, you can lose your grip on the progress. Here are some common ideas that can assist you to define how you should act on the platform:

Get more sales

Attract new clients

Gain loyalty to the brand

Stream traffic to the website

Discover the preferences of your target group

Of course, you should not limit yourself to one goal – your strategy on social can complete multiple tasks. You only have to analyze which network is more suitable for each task that you settle.

Also read:

Best Video Editing Tips for Beginners in 2023

Choose Your Key Themes

Engage Your Audience

Luckily, Instagram has many tools to do that. The variety of features for content making and uploading is rich enough for most industries. Using all the features allows you to cultivate a dynamic line-up that shows your merchandise in the best lighting. You can relate with your subscribers and potential clientele through :

Stories

Comments under your feed posts

Live to stream

Reels

Don’t be afraid to articulate your brand at max, and intertwine your company with other spheres of life. Show your followers how your merchandise works in real obstacles, and expose as much customer experience as you can – this method attracts many more potential clients.

Also read:

Best Video Editing Tips for Beginners in 2023

Avoid Selling

Use Hashtags For Expansion

Hashtags assist people in reaching the content they prefer. You must examine top hashtags in your niche and implement them in your captions – so your posts are more likely to be discovered by the proper audience. It is recommended to use hashtags that have accumulated less than a million posts, so your content will not get lost in the stream of similar materials. Remember, that hashtags are critical for you, due to the fact that Instagram offers users the option to follow popular hashtags.

Also read:

Best Top 10 Paid Online Survey Website in the World

Post Consistently

Check Up on Your Progress

To launch and maintain a great campaign on social media which will support your company you should analyze your progress all the time. Regular c secure to secure that you will counter the dynamic changes promptly and adjust your tactic so it will become more productive. A clear understanding of your growth will help you to automate certain processes, eliminate unnecessary elements and improve the ones that are showing potential.

Conclusion

C

Catherine R. Caswell

Catherine has a great deal of experience in marketing and business development. Her previous experience includes working with huge social media platforms, where she analysed their marketing algorithms, establishing new methods of reaching out to clients, building target audience, increasing stats, as well as launching new social media startups.

How To Develop A Communication Plan?

Introduction to Communication Plan

We as humans are driven by communication which is a source of our life and activities. We are the ventures of the organizations and their prolific creations, strategies, or ideologies that they want to present to their audiences or within their own corporate or non-corporate circles. This intensity to project drives these organizations towards adopting communication plans that would speak voluminously about them and their thematic proposals and schemes.

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Effective resume making, job hunting, campus recruitment training & others

So what is a communication plan, and why is it so imperative? 

The following components constitute a communication plan:

Aims and objectives

Process and action plan

List of stakeholders or a team involved in the projects

Finding out people to whom the communication plan should be addressed?

How are you going to evaluate your projected profits?

As pertinent as a communication plan, the way to develop it is equally important, which is implanted by the needs of the corporate entities.

How to Develop a Communication Plan?

Here are certain tips for developing an impactful communication plan!

1. Study the communication trend and audit your research

Find out the communication trend in your organization. Some organizations are hiring firms to determine what’s going on, but this expenditure might burden your company’s budget. So you can save by studying how the others in the organization communicate, how they interact and accomplish their day-to-day operational activities, and whether they are getting concrete results.

To get the answers, you need to fix an appointment, brainstorm with your staff members and manager, and find the results or any drawbacks or issues that might hamper their communication process.

2. 

Select the person who would be taking the lead

 Before starting the actual process (How to Develop a Communication Plan?), finding a spokesperson who would initiate the communication process and formulate the plan is imperative. He should meet the following criteria:

He should always be ready to cooperate, coordinate with the other team members and Staff, and set communication goals and plans.

He should be capable of allocating the time and Staff to meet the communication needs.

Have the capability to decide the requisite communication system and its effectiveness and impact it might have.

He should engage the evaluator and others in generating and revising the different communicative strategies and plans.

Have the ability to generate many creative ideas for the successful implementation of the communication plan,

3. 

Develop communication and trust among your peers and community

You should maintain strong communication and trust and manage the expectations of the concerned people, especially the partners, in your efforts. This creates a secure environment and reduces all the chances of any risk or rumors. Furthermore, the correct and timely information can help communities engage in active participation in the programs, get feedback, have meaningful engagement, and understand the benefits they can get from the program.

Define the Objectives and Goals

After all the information from the company, establish the objectives and goals of the plan and what you want to achieve. Your objectives conjure the objectives of the company, which includes

Your services towards the company,

How well can you create an impact

How can you centralize your communication network

Build teamwork

Improve the product delivery

How does your communication plan impact the stakeholders, media, and government?

 The goals are the resources required, whether human or mechanical, the process adopted for the project, the kind of products or services the company intends to produce or promote, and the improvements needed in the current processes or functioning.

1.

Find out the potential audiences /readers of your communication plan

 It would help if you found out the potential audience your associations might be contacting or trying to influence you. These audiences are your consumers, members, concerned associations, educators, industrialists, media, etc. This would include your study and research on the people who might directly impact the ongoing projects or the activities and find out the groups who are part of the organization or an outsider but are related to the project. This would enable you to prioritize your targeted audience and make a better decision.

2.

Activities that you need to put in before or after communication implementation

3. Design your key points 

 Find and design the important points or messages that you want to deliver. Then, it would help you to filter the unnecessary facts or information and deliver what is best, accurate, and effective. This would also help you understand the people’s needs and expectations and the questions they can ask. And help you to understand how the program and project can affect the community or state.

 When deciding on the message, understand and evaluate the situation in which the communication process is implied and the audience’s mood, the language in which the message has to be conveyed, the type of message to convey, and the overall design. The message should be drafted while keeping the type of audience in mind. Also important if the audience is young, old, or children and then frame the message accordingly. As said by James Thurber, “Precision of communication is more important than ever, in our era of hair trigger balances, when a false or misunderstood word may create as much disaster as a sudden thoughtless act.”

4. 

Evaluate the Sensitivity of the audience 

Find out the people’s moods and determine how the people should react to the situation mood and Sensitivity of the situation. No message should have any word or statement that disrespects the people’s language, culture, religion, or faith. Find out the audience’s general mood, and retain a correct balance for communication; retaining a positive tone will help reach more people rather than spreading negativity that may ignite fear or anger.

5.

Language

Know the language your audience speaks and whether the language you use is formal or informal, simple or sophisticated. If you are reaching out to the people, you must write and use the people’s language. Else for dignitaries or the corporate world, sophisticated language is required. The situation might come in deciding whether to choose an informal or a formal language. Sometimes too formal language might make the listeners feel you are not speaking to them. The language should be straightforward and clear, showing what you want to say and feel.

6. Find the mode of communication

Think of the best media mode for communication: electronic, print, or verbal. These mediums could include pamphlets, flyers, covers, websites, cards, and Television. Discuss the ideas with the managerial team and other Staff and develop the idea that would get you success. The medium needed for communication also depends on the audience being targeted during the communication process.

 It would help if you ensured that the mode of communication you choose gets your message across to the concerned departments or people on time; for instance, some may require a PowerPoint presentation, while the press may need an interview with a head of the project team. Correct decision made on the choice of media entails your success in communication patterns and the framework you choose. It would help if you ensured the evaluation team members were comfortable with the different communication types. (How to Develop a Communication Plan?)

Given the various types, members of your evaluation team must be comfortable with the type of communication you are using or implying.

 The type of Tools or medium in the communication includes:

Meeting Summaries

Status reports

News Letters

Surveys

Internet/Intranet Web page

Small group meetings etc

7.

Find the factors that can affect the communication method

8.

Set up the matrix 

 The best idea is to have a matrix with the communication plan related to the specific project, like reviewing the meetings and setting the status message. Explain the project’s theme, the key points of discussion, how the project will be delivered, the targeted audiences, and the responsibilities they share. This can help in setting expectations and setting boundaries for communication.

 This process would lead to the conversion of the matrix into an informative piece, a graphic that could be shared and utilized by anybody whosoever is working on the project.

9. 

Set up a schedule

 Once you have found your goals and objective, organize all the data in a calendar format and mention briefs about the projects that would be covered or the tasks that need to be accomplished as per the priority, and separate each task logically per the week or month.

10. 

Analyze the result

 Create a method for generating a result; the evaluation process should be your monthly report, presentation or staff meeting, department report, or briefings of a staff executive. Your analysis or evaluation depends on the number of times you need to present the results. The situation might arise when you present the results before the concerned team, even before your evaluation process is over. You should also determine when constituents might want to review your result process.

11. Resources needed

Determining the estimated budget and anticipated results from the expenditure is imperative. Then, calculate the cost and how you will gain from the investment.

12.  Find out about the anticipated hurdles or emergencies

 As stated above, the communication process involves many paradigms and routes where hurdles or emergencies can erupt. The worst case can happen when a press release or a flyer is printed, an email and communication address is misprinted or erased, or a critical word is misspelled; a reporter might get the wrong information. A disaster might happen when an organization for you for which you are devoting your skills deny giving you credit. These issues must be anticipated before the plan and alternative solutions are found to overcome and rectify these issues.

Conclusion 

In the article How to Develop a Communication Plan? The communication plan is a mouthpiece of the organization’s dreams which needs to be strategically drawn with eyes on minute details. It is best to prepare a plan three or four days before the schedule and evaluate it thoroughly. A well-documented plan will smooth the whole process and bring order to diversified activities that you might be performing.

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Separation Of Judiciary From Executive

In today’s society, the rule of law is critical. People have given up their rights and entered into a contract with the government in exchange for protection from the government. Judicial review is the procedure through which the court declares invalid any statute that violates the constitution.

Branches of Government

In India, there are three branches of government: the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. The judiciary maintains an eye on both the organs mentioned above and ensures that the laws being produced and implemented do not violate the Indian Constitution. The Legislature performs the duty of establishing laws, the Executive executes or implements the laws, and the Judiciary keeps a check on both of the aforementioned organs. Separation of powers is a component of our constitution that allows various organs to function within their defined boundaries. The separation of powers is discussed in Article 50 of the Indian Constitution.

Article 50 of the Constitution

However, Article 50 of the Indian Constitution, as incorporated in the form of Directly Principles in Part IV, states that the state shall take measures to separate the judiciary from the executive in state-run services. The Indian Constitution’s Article 50 suggests that it is intended to keep the judiciary and executive branches apart from one another. However, a thorough examination of Article 50 of the Indian Constitution’s legislative history would show that its primary goal was always to take action to separate the executive from the lower courts.

Separation of Power

Separation of powers refers to the division of the government’s legislative, executive, and judicial duties. It reduces the likelihood of arbitrary government excesses by requiring the approval of all three branches for the creation, execution, and administration of legislation. The constitutional principle prohibits any branch of government from concentrating excessive power.

Constitutional Provision of Separation of Power

The Constitution’s basic structure includes the concept of separation of powers, though it is not expressly mentioned. The legislature cannot approve legislation that violates this concept. The functions of the three organs are expressly specified in the Constitution.

Article 50 − According to this article, the state is required to keep the judiciary and executive branches distinct. However, because this is covered by the Directive Principles of State Policy, it is not binding.

Article 123 − The President, as the country’s executive leader, has the authority to exercise legislative powers (promulgate ordinances) under specified situations.

Articles 121 and 211 provide that legislators may not debate the behaviour of a Supreme Court or High Court judge. They can only do so if the president is impeached.

Article 361 − The President and Governors are immune from legal action.

Elements of Separation of Power

Legislature − The legislature is the body responsible for enacting laws, and it has the power to do so for a political entity like a nation. Legislation adopted by the legislature is referred to as “primary legislation.” The legislature serves as the foundation for the other two organs’ operations.

Executive − The executive branch of government comprises Prime Ministers/Chief Ministers and Presidents/Governors. The executive is totally dependent on the powers granted to it by the legislature, and its acts may or may not be subject to judicial scrutiny.

Judiciary − The judiciary is the democracy’s watchdog, as it protects the constitution. The judiciary is made up of the Supreme Court, High Courts, District Courts, and various subordinate courts.

Relationship between the Executive and the Judiciary

The Constitution has many provisions that establish the independence of the judiciary. The reason for this is that it is widely accepted that the court has to be independent in order for a democracy to continue to function effectively. The judiciary is seen as the constitution’s protector. Such a government is prone to becoming repressive if the administration also exercises judicial authority.

However, the executive is also responsible for some judicial responsibilities. They are as follows:

The executive is in charge of appointing judges.

The President and the Governors have the authority to pardon, reprieve, and so on. These are straightforward judicial tasks.

Under the administrative adjudication system, the executive agencies have the authority to hear and determine issues concerning certain domains of administrative activity.

The judiciary also has certain executive powers. It has the authority to evaluate presidential acts and declare them unconstitutional if they are determined to be so.

Conclusion

A strong democratic system requires an independent judiciary. Only an impartial and independent judiciary can serve as a bulwark for the preservation of citizens’ rights and deliver even-handed justice without fear or favor. The judiciary may be required to invalidate executive, administrative, and legislative actions of the federal and state governments since it is the guardian of the Constitution. Judicial independence is critical for the rule of law to flourish. The Constitution typically guarantees the independence of the judiciary, although other appropriate laws, agreements, and customs may also guarantee it. However, the Constitution or the basic rules governing the judiciary are merely the beginning point in the process of ensuring judicial independence.

Finally, the independence of the judiciary is dependent on the creation and support of a conducive environment by all state institutions, including the judiciary and public opinion. The judiciary’s independence must also be continually defended against unforeseen occurrences and changing social, political, and economic situations; it is too delicate to be left unattended. Article 50 of the Indian Constitution is the Directive Principles of State Policy and cannot codify any idea of judicial separation from the executive.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What separates judiciary from execution?

Ans. Article 50 of the Indian Constitution separates the executive from the judiciary. Although unjustifiable, the constitution establishes a set of State Policy Directive Principles that are “essential for the government of the country,” and it is the state’s obligation to make provisions for them when laws are passed.

Q2. What is the separation of powers in the Constitution?

Ans. It is a doctrine in which the three organs of the government, the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary have separate functions and powers, and one organ does not interfere with the functioning of the others.

Q3. Who introduced the separation of powers?

Ans. The idea was developed in a methodical and scientific way by the French political philosopher Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, in the 18th century, even though it had been in use since antiquity.

Q4. Why Indian Constitution is divided into executive and judiciary?

Ans. According to this rule, the state is separated into three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, each with its own autonomous power and duty, so that one department does not interfere with the operations of the other two.

What Ethical Hacking Skills Do Professionals Need?

Ethical hacking is a legal attempt to access a computer system without authorization. It can also access its application or data. Duplicating malevolent attackers’ approaches and behaviors is part of an ethical hack. This method assists in the discovery of security issues, which may then be rectified before a malicious attacker exploits them.

What is the definition of an ethical hacker?

Ethical hackers, sometimes known as “white hats,” are security professionals who do these assessments. Their proactive approach helps an organization’s security posture. The goal of ethical hacking is diametrically opposed to harmful hacking and necessitates prior approval from the company or owner of the IT asset.

What are the fundamental ethical hacking principles?

Hackers adhere to the following protocol concepts −

Maintain your legal status.

Obtain proper authorization before accessing and completing a security review.

Determine the scope of the investigation so that the ethical hacker’s work remains lawful and within the organization’s approved limitations.

Security flaws must be disclosed.

All vulnerabilities uncovered during the evaluation must be shared with the organization.

Make suggestions on how to solve these issues.

Maintain data confidentiality. Depending on the sensitivity of the content, ethical hackers may be obligated to sign a non-disclosure contract following the terms and conditions set by the examined business.

So, let’s look at the unique skills required to become an ethical hacker.

Computer Networking Knowledge

Networking abilities are essential for being an ethical hacker. The computer network is more than the connectivity of several devices, known as hosts, linked via multiple channels to send/receive data or media. Understanding networks such as DHCP, Suoernetting, Subnetting, and others can allow ethical hackers to investigate the many interconnected machines in a network, the possible security concerns that this may cause, and how to deal with such threats. Computer Network Tutorials can help you learn about computer networking.

Knowledge of Linux OS

The Linux operating system is an open-source project built on the Linux kernel. The GNU General Public License allows for the corporate or public distribution of the source code for this open-source and free operating system. Given that it is the most secure operating system currently in use, Linux should be researched by ethical hackers. Despite having viruses, Linux is less vulnerable to security threats than other operating systems. Linux is only partially secure, though. Antivirus software is hence not required.

Programming Skills

Programming skills are yet another essential trait for ethical hackers. So what does the term “programming” indeed imply in the context of computers? It is “the process of producing code that a computing device can understand and use to carry out various commands.” To become a better programmer, one must write a lot of code. One must select the ideal programming language for their programming before beginning to develop code. The programming languages used by ethical hackers are listed here.

Programming language Python

C

SQL

PHP

Programming language C++

Programming language for Java

Perl

Cryptography skills Database management knowledge and skills

The foundation for building and maintaining all databases is DBMS. Accessing a database where all the information is kept can pose a severe threat to the business, so it’s crucial to ensure this software is hacker-proof. To assist the company in creating a robust DBMS, an ethical hacker must have a solid understanding of this and various database engines and data schemas.

Problem-solving Analytical skills

Finding a practical solution and locating the root of an issue are made possible by problem-solving abilities. Ethical hackers must possess the technical skills mentioned above and be able to think critically and get solutions quickly. They must be eager to pick up new techniques and ensure that all security gaps are thoroughly investigated. This calls for a lot of testing and a creative desire to develop new ways to solve problems.

Knowledge of Reverse Engineering

Reverse engineering should also be a skill that an ethical hacker is familiar with. A product’s structure, features, and requirements can also be discovered by studying its code. Furthermore, information may be retrieved from the catalog of programs. Reverse engineering aims to make a system more straightforward to understand and record since maintaining an outdated system may take a lot of work.

Reverse engineering is also often used in software security to ensure that the framework has no significant security flaws or weaknesses. Additionally, it helps to stabilize a gadget. It, therefore, shields it against malware and hackers. Furthermore, some software developers employ the ethical hacking approach to check their systems for bugs.

Knowledge about Artificial-Intelligence and its usage.

Hackers use machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms to decode encrypted data and guess passwords. Furthermore, AI can do security diagnostics and filter out risky websites and connections, making it effective against phishing attacks. Therefore, ethical hackers need to be skilled at getting around security measures and using the right AI technologies for post-hack security fixes.

Conclusion

You now have extensive knowledge of the abilities and requirements of ethical hackers. Additionally, having this knowledge may help you land a position as an ethical hacker. The need for ethical hackers is rising, making this the ideal time to enroll in a trustworthy, honest hacking certification program and start a successful career.

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