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In computing, a server is a computer that constantly runs. Serving whatever content and functionality it has been configured to perform. A classic example of this is a web server, which helps web pages that can vary depending on the user’s request. Servers can host any application that works on the server-client model. Online video games are another excellent example. A physical server runs the game server application for users to connect to.

Note: Both the physical hardware used as servers and the software that runs on them for users to connect are referred to as servers.

One of the issues that servers, as well as most other enterprise-grade computer hardware, have to deal with is high levels of specialization. Enterprise networking hardware, such as routers, switches, servers, etc., is all relatively space limited. These machines are designed to fit into server racks. Typically taking up one to four “U” of the height of a 48U 7-foot-tall server rack.

Note: A “U” is a standard unit of height for computer hardware designed to fit in server racks.

Not only do servers have limited space, but they also have limited cooling capacity and power limits. These restrictions mean that server hardware is designed to be as efficient as possible through specialization. Unfortunately, this means there is limited space for other hardware, such as hard drives. Hard drives are necessary to hold the operating system and run the server. Still, they’re also required to keep the vast store of data that the server may need to serve and the data it collects.

Enter the Disk Server

Servers have some built-in and sometimes expandable storage. But this isn’t enough space for modern server needs. Additionally, many servers are not a single server but multiple servers acting behind a load balancer that helps to ensure that no one server gets overloaded. If you stored the actual data that the application runs on each server, you’d have a massive data duplication issue.

Another type of specialized hardware is used to get around all of these issues, the disk server. The disk server is designed to fit in a standard server rack and hold as many hard drives as possible. A disk server will also be kitted out with enterprise-grade connectivity so that data can be provided to the actual server as quickly as possible. In most cases, a RAID array will be used to provide some level of resilience to drive failure. And potentially a performance improvement, depending on the array’s configuration.

The disk server is a single point for storage drives to be located. Of course, with substantial data sets, even a single disk server won’t be able to provide enough storage space. So, multiple disk servers may be needed. A disk server should be directly accessed by actual physical servers in a properly configured network. The end user should not be able to connect directly to the disk server.


In a home environment, the NAS server is essentially the same as a disk server. A NAS server provides network connectivity for a (smaller) number of hard drives allowing other computers on the same network to access that data. There are some differences, though. Most NASs can also run some low-end server functionality directly as they need to be less specialized than their data center cousins.

Note: NAS stands for Network Attached Storage.


A disk server is a specialized computer device that holds as many hard drives as possible. It then provides access to the storage of these hard drives to configured devices, typically exclusively servers. In the home environment, the closest thing to a disk server is a NAS which offers most of the same functionality and some extra because of the reduced need for specialization. Both disk servers and NASs are designed to provide a high density of storage space to other devices on the network.

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What Is A Follow Train?

A follow train (also known as a follow chain or a follow for follow group) is a group of people who follow each other on a social media platform (e.g Instagram, Twitter, TikTok).

Participating in a follow train is a popular method used by many to grow their social media followers (especially Instagram).

Follow trains help you to grow your social media followers quickly and easily.

The follow train is originated from Instagram back in its early days, and it’s still very popular in the present for one reason—it works.

How does a follow train work?

A follow train works by sharing your social media handle, following others that interest you, and sending them a direct message telling them where you found them from (e.g. Reddit).

Let’s get into each one of the steps in detail.

Firstly, you’ll have to share your social media handle ‘link here’ in a follow train (e.g. chúng tôi in order for people to find and follow you.

In addition to sharing your social media handle, certain groups require you to write up a short description of yourself or the content that you post.

This is to allow people to know your niche, so they’ll only follow you if they are interested in your content.

Secondly, you can follow others that interest you.

A common fault in follow trains is that people don’t like to follow first. This can be due to ego, distrust, laziness, etc.

So if you do happen to follow others first, you can grow your followers at a faster rate then if you were to just share your social media handle.

Follow trains work because people follow each other, so someone needs to follow first in order for it to work.

The last step (and the most important one) is to direct message the person telling them where you found them from (e.g. Reddit).

This step is crucial because if you don’t send them a direct message, they won’t know that you’re doing follow for follow.

If you follow these three steps, you’re guaranteed to receive a follow back almost all of the time.

Types of follow trains

There are various types of follow trains (not only Instagram).

Here is a compiled list of follow trains you can check out to grow your followers.

All of them are completely free to join and are great places where you can connect with people in your niche.

Instagram follow train

Follow trains are widely used by Instagram users who want to quickly grow their followers.

One of the most popular follow trains for Instagram is the r/Instagram community on Reddit.

The community has a “Follow Friday” thread where you can share your Instagram handle with others every Friday.

The goal of the thread is to find new people to follow on Instagram and expand your follower-base in the process.

There are lots of people in varying niches on the “Follow Friday” thread—from photography to personal accounts so you’ll definitely find someone in your niche.

Hundreds of Redditors use the thread on a weekly basis to grow their Instagram followers. You’ll be surprised by the number of followers you’ll get when you first start using it.

I’ve personally used the “Follow Friday” thread for about 2 years now, met a lot of interesting people, and had meaningful conversations.

You can potentially gain hundreds of followers from the thread if you use it consistently.

A cool tip about the thread is that it resets every Friday at around 9 am EST.

So, it’s best to share your Instagram handle at that time for maximum visibility.

Twitter follow train

A popular user who hosts Follow trains on a consistent basis is @toolzbabe on Twitter.

LinkedIn Follow Train

(Insert indiehackers linkedin screenshot here)

LinkedIn is another platform where follow trains can be used to expand your network.

However, LinkedIn follow trains are not common as there aren’t as many LinkedIn users as compared to other social media platforms like Instagram or Twitter.

That being said, the most popular follow train for LinkedIn is started by a post on Indiehackers.

Indiehackers has various follow for follow posts like, “Hacking Twitter”, “Hacking Instagram”, and so on.

These posts are basically follow trains for various social media platforms.

In order to expand your connections on LinkedIn, you can use the “Hacking LinkedIn” post on Indiehackers.

Simply request to connect with the users that shared their LinkedIn handle and tell them that you’re from Indiehackers.

These “Hacking x” posts are only created once in a while, so you’ll have to be sure to look out for them.

They are incredibly useful if you want to expand your network quickly.

Follow train rules

• You should always follow others back from a follow train especially if the person that followed you sent you a direct message.

• Try to write-up a short description about yourself or the content that you post so that people can easily identify your niche.

Advantages of a follow train

Follow trains have existed since the early days of social media (particularly Instagram) and people are still using them to grow their accounts to this day.

Are you wondering why they’re still such a popular growth strategy?

Quick way to grow your followers

Firstly, a follow train is a quick way you can grow your social media followers.

If you were to join a follow for follow group on Instagram now, all you need to do is to share your Instagram handle and people will start following you.

In addition, you can follow others that shared their handle. They’ll follow you back if you send them a direct message telling them where you came from (e.g. Reddit).

Follow trains are specifically catered for people who want to grow their followers by following others. This is also known as follow for follow.

As follow trains are made up of people looking to expand their follower-base through the means of following each other, everyone is like-minded.

Thus, the majority of people will follow you back and not unfollow.

You can find new people to follow

Follow trains enable you to find new and interesting people/content to follow.

As people usually share a short description of themselves or the content that they post, you can easily identify people in your niche to follow.

Consequently, your engagement rate will increase as both parties are in the same niche, and enjoy each other’s content.

The thing about Instagram’s search is that you need to know the username of a person before you can find and follow them.

If you were to search for a keyword on Instagram, the top search results will be dominated with accounts with a large number of followers.

Follow trains give you the ability to find new people and content which cannot be achieved from an Instagram search.

After all, Instagram’s search is incredibly restrictive, so you can utilize a follow train to broaden it.

Attract the right audience

It’s important to attract the right audience on Instagram as you don’t want people that are uninterested in your content to follow you.

If they do, it’ll negatively affect your engagement rate.

Naturally, you’ll be more inclined to like someone’s posts that are in the same niche as you.

This is because you have the same interests as them. Follow trains give you the ability to attract the right audience if you specify your niche.

If you’re a business, this is especially important. Attracting the right people can lead to more conversions and sales.

Instead of blindly following people from a list, you should focus on attracting the right audience, and a follow Train will enable you to do that.

It’s time-consuming

If you’re utilizing a follow train, you need to be very consistent with it if you want to grow your social media followers quickly.

Joining a follow train is about sharing your social media handle with others. But that’s not enough if you’re looking to gain hundreds of followers.

In order to grow your followers by hundreds, you’ll have to constantly follow and direct message others first instead of waiting for them to do so.

This is incredibly time-consuming as you’ll have to dedicate at least an hour a day to follow and message various people.

In addition, social media apps like Instagram will impose an action block on your account if you follow or direct message others too quickly.

This will hinder your growth efforts.

In order to prevent to action block, you’ll have to be sure to follow and direct message in intervals of 5 to 10 minutes.

In addition to sharing your social media handle, following, and direct messaging others, you’ll have to watch out for the action block as well—which makes it time-consuming.

If you’re not consistent with it, you’re not going to get a lot of followers.

Your feed may be overcrowded

Secondly, by utilizing a follow train, your feed may be overcrowded with posts.

This is because the more people you follow, the more posts you’ll have on your feed.

This makes it harder for you to like every post on your feed and you might miss the posts from people you care about.

Thus, it’s important that you mute people who post too much.

Overposters are one of the worst types of people on Instagram as they clutter your feed unnecessarily.

To identify overposters, simply visit someone’s profile and check the time frame between each post.

If the time frame between their posts is short (a few hours), then they might be an overposter.

If that’s the case, you have to make sure to mute the person’s posts right after following them.

You can do so by refreshing your Instagram feed right after following them.

Once you do so, their posts will most likely appear at the top of your feed where you can tap on the “triple dots” icon to mute them.

Unorganized feed

If you’re not meticulous about who you follow, your feed might be filled with posts in varying niches.

This means that your feed will be very unorganized—from photography posts to memes to fitness.

To prevent an unorganized/messy feed, be sure to include a short description of yourself or the content that you post so that people can identify your niche and follow you only if they like your content.

In addition, you can explicitly mention that you’re only following back people in your niche.

This will make sure that your feed stays consistent (with posts within a niche).


Growing your social media can be challenging, but it’s not rocket science.

There are many ways to grow your social media followers, and follow trains are one of them.

The best part about follow trains is that you can stop using them once you’re satisfied with the number of your followers.

The only restriction to watch out for is the rate in which you’re following or direct messaging others.

Further Reading

Remote Desktop Gateway Server Is Temporarily Unavailable

While connecting to a Remote computer, if you get a Remote Desktop Gateway server is temporarily unavailable error, this article will help you fix the issue. Although this error gets resolved by removing the invalid binding, you may need other tips and tricks at times. If so, you can find all the possible solutions in this article so that this issue gets solved within moments.

The entire error message says something like this:

RemoteApp Disconnected: Your computer can’t connect to the remote computer because the Remote Desktop Gateway server is temporarily unavailable. Try reconnecting later or contact your network administrator for assistance.

This error could occur due to several reasons:

If more than one site is using port 443, there is a chance of getting this error. In that case, you need to remove all the invalid site bindings from the IIS Manager.

If there are some issues with the SSL certificate, you might get the same problem.

If the firewall is set up in the wrong way, your computer might display the same error message while connecting to a remote computer.

Remote Desktop Gateway server is temporarily unavailable

To fix the Remote Desktop Gateway server is temporarily unavailable in Windows 11/10 error, follow these steps:

Change Registry value

Remove invalid binding

Temporarily disable firewall

Verify SSL certificate

Verify DNS of Remote Desktop Gateway server

To learn more about these steps, continue reading.

1] Change Registry value

It is the very first thing you need to check when you are getting the above-mentioned error on your computer. Terminal Services Client is an important Key, which needs to be present in the Registry in order to use the Remote Desktop Protocol or RDP. Therefore, follow these steps to verify the Registry value:

Navigate to this path: HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoft

Name it as Terminal Services Client.

Name it as RDGClientTransport.

After that, you won’t see the error anymore.

2] Remove invalid binding

An invalid site binding could also be responsible for this error. Therefore, it is recommended to remove all the invalid binding from the IIS Manager. For that, you need to open the IIS Manager first. Then, go to the Default Web Site and select the Site Bindings.

3] Temporarily disable firewall

At times, an incorrect setting in the Windows Firewall could also cause the same error. This error mainly occurs when users install third-party firewall software. If you have done the same thing, you can temporarily disable the firewall software and check if it resolves the issue or not.

4] Verify SSL certificate

An SSL certificate is involved when you are using the Remote Desktop Protocol or RDP. No matter which SSL certificate you are using, it might be corrupted or might not be working correctly. That is why it is recommended to verify the SSL certificate before heading toward other solutions.

5] Verify DNS of Remote Desktop Gateway server

Like SSL, you must verify the DNS of the Remote Desktop Gateway server’s FDQN. This checkup includes all the DNS records, IP address, TCP port, etc. If all the settings are not set correctly, it is recommended to do that before re-trying.

Related: Your computer can’t connect to the remote computer

How do I enable Remote Desktop Gateway?

To enable the Remote Desktop Gateway, you must use the Server Manager on your computer. First, you need to use the Add Roles and Features option. Following that, you need to use the Select Installation Type and set the roles accordingly. Next, you need to choose the destination server and server pool.

How do I fix Remote Desktop Connection error?

There could be various issues with the Remote Desktop Connection on Windows computers. You need to take action based on the error you have got. However, it is pretty straightforward to fix the error code 0x3000046, Your credentials did not work, etc.

That’s all! Hope this guide helped.


What Is A Credential Stuffing Attack

Look around, and you will find abundant stories of Cybercrime flooding the internet World. Attackers are finding newer ways to steal private customer data from businesses and using them for their own financial benefits. The consequences are even worse for companies whose business itself is solely based on the internet. The Akamai’s State of the Internet report says that over 8.3 billion malicious login attempts were identified in May and June this year. These are nothing but Credential Stuffing Attacks. Let’s learn more about it.

What is Credential Stuffing

While creating a password for your online credit card or internet banking account, you are often asked to create a strong password consisting of a capital letter, special character, number, etc.  Do you come up with something complex as aXZvXjkdA(0LJCjiN? The answer could well be a “No”.

Usually, we try and come up with something that we can remember easily. For instance, [email protected], which, though satisfies all the preconditions of making a password like it contains a capital letter, a number, and a special character – still is not the password that is hard to break nowadays. It’s worse when you use your birthdates, favorite movie names, favorite Basketball player names, spouse name or even your toddler’s name in your passwords. If this was not enough, we tend to use the same passwords for multiple site logins.

Now if even one of the site that you log in is breached by attackers, your login credentials stand exposed and ready to be exploited.

Attackers can then take your credentials and supply them into an automated tool. This tool can then run those accounts against a target site to see what credentials will work. Think about what they can do if they can gain access to a retail site or worse, your banking site? They are stealing sensitive information or even worse, transfer money to other accounts they create. This whole activity of fraudulently gaining access to others account is called as Credential Stuffing.

With Credential stuffing attack an attacker can use automated scripts and bots to try each credential against a target web site. It uses breached credentials in order to fraudulently gain access to online accounts, and can be considered to be a subset of Brute Force Attacks.

Targets of Credential Stuffing

Apart from a normal Internet users, Credential Stuffing attacks are aimed at organizations in a variety of industries like banking, financial services, government, healthcare, education and more.

Consequences of Credential Stuffing attacks

Victims of Credential Stuffing attacks face financial as well as other tangible losses. Here are some of them:

Reputation loss

Almost all businesses store some amount of personally identifiable information on employees or customers, and these companies are legally obligated to protect this information. In case of an information breach, the company is bound to face reputation loss in the market.

Regulatory Fines

Leaked customer data or business information can often invite regulatory fines. Governments and regulatory bodies can levy stiff fines based on the severity of the breach. These financial burdens can add up and devastate businesses of all sizes.

Operational costs

Companies are bound to incur operational costs due to investigations, remediations, and customer management arising out of Credential Stuffing attacks. The cost can scale to millions, depending on the scope of the attack.

Customer loss

Customer loss is revenue loss, and most companies are likely to lose customers if they are unable to protect their sensitive business data.

How to prevent Credential Stuffing attacks

Taking some basic precautions is the best way to protect from Credential Stuffing attacks. Here is what all you can do:

Best practices for passwords – Adopt best practices when it comes to password management. Set strong and unfamiliar passwords and change them continuously. Also, do not use the same password for multiple logins.

Use VPN – With remote access becoming a way of doing business, use of VPN is necessary. A VPN software allows for a secure network connection even on unsecured networks so that employees can safely use their credentials to access the company network from wherever they are.

Two-factor authentication – Logins that follow a two-factor authentication offer great protection because the second access code is not stored in a database and hence cannot be trapped. In Two-factor authentication, a password is sent to phone or email and is valid only for 60 sec. This essentially downgrades credential-stuffing attacks to distributed denial of service threats, and hence they cannot penetrate that network’s defenses.

Firewalls – Firewalls identify malicious traffic and block the source IP address, shutting down the attack from the source.

Stay safe!

Heard of Password Spray Attacks by the way?

Hdg Explains: What Is A Gpu?

The GPU or Graphical Processing Unit is a dedicated microchip that is designed to specifically do graphics-related tasks at a much faster rate than a CPU or Central Processing Unit. 

In general, GPUs handle the visual side of video games as well as video editing software, graphic design, 3D design and other similar tools. Recently, GPUs have also been put to use doing certain non-graphics tasks like cryptocurrency mining, which works well with their unique internal design.

Table of Contents

The Difference Between a GPU And CPU

Every computer, whether a laptop, tablet or gaming console, has a CPU. The CPU is the brain of the machine. When you run software on your device, it’s the CPU that follows the instructions and does all the necessary math. Of course, every microchip executes instructions, so what makes a CPU special? 

Most modern CPUs have four CPU cores, although this number is rapidly growing. The number of calculations a CPU can do at the same time is limited by the number of cores. But a CPU is very good at doing a small number of complex calculations of any type, very quickly, one after the other.

However, modern GPUs have a very different design philosophy. Instead of a small number of complex, full-function processing cores, they have hundreds or thousands of simple processor cores that are designed to execute instructions in parallel, specifically related to graphics. 

Are GPUs And Graphics Cards The Same Thing?

What is a GPU? The GPU refers specifically to the microprocessor itself, but of course a GPU can’t operate by itself. It needs other components to do its job. So let’s go over the different ways that GPUs are packaged.

Graphics Cards

A graphics card is a discrete device that plugs into a standard slot on your computer motherboard. It consists of the printed circuit board, the GPU, memory, display connectors, power connectors and other various components that the GPU needs.

Graphics cards also have dedicated cooling systems that help keep the GPU within a safe operating temperature. The main benefit of graphics cards is that they can be easily replaced with newer models without the need to replace the entire computer or motherboard.

Integrated GPUs

Integrated GPUs are built into the same housing as a CPU. So a computer equipped with one of these does not need a separate graphics card in order to work. Display connectors are provided by the motherboard and the GPU shares the same pool of memory as the CPU. Of course, the CPU and GPU also share the same cooling system and power supply. 

Tablets and smartphones also have integrated GPUs, but these are part of a “system on a chip” package. On computers, only the CPU and GPU share the same package In the case of SoCs, the RAM, storage, peripheral controllers and other components that make up the entire system are all on the same silicon package.

Dedicated GPUs

A dedicated GPU is distinct from a graphics card and integrated GPUs. It’s easiest to think of it as a graphics card that has been built into the computer. Laptops are the main devices that use dedicated GPUs.

Just as with a graphics card, the GPU has its own memory and cooling, but unlike a graphics card you can’t change or upgrade your dedicated GPU. There are a small number of laptops that use interchangeable GPU modules, but this is a rare exception.

External Graphics Cards

A recent development, external graphics cards, make use of high-speed ports on modern computers. Thunderbolt 3 over USB C is the solution of choice. External cards can either be an integrated solution, or simply an enclosure which you can use with any graphics card that will fit.

This is a good solution for laptop users who want a more powerful GPU solution when at a desk. You can read more about external GPUs in our article about them.

Understanding GPU Specifications

If you want to know how to choose between different graphics cards, have a look at our graphics card buyer’s guide for a detailed explanation of GPU specifications. If you just want a quick rundown, here are the key numbers that matter when it comes to GPUs:

The number of processors

The amount of memory

The total memory bandwidth

Special features, such as hardware ray tracing

Unfortunately, knowing these numbers or details won’t tell you much about how a given GPU or graphics card will perform. In the end what matters most is performance with the applications you want to run, which you can easily find in published benchmarks online.

General GPU Computing Tasks

The last important thing to know about modern GPUs is that they can be used for certain non-graphics tasks. Since GPUs are essentially made up of a massive number of simple processors, any job that needs lots of calculations done in parallel may benefit from running on a GPU.

For example, the Nvidia brand of cards work with CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) instructions. You can write software using CUDA so that it makes use of the GPU’s unique design to accelerate certain types of calculations.

I Can See Clearly Now

Fix: “The Disk Structure Is Corrupted And Unreadable” Error

Fix: “The Disk Structure is Corrupted and Unreadable” Error Encompassing solutions to restore normalcy on your drive




If you are getting the disk structure is corrupted and unreadable error, it might be because of a bad disk sector.

You can fix this issue quickly by uninstalling and reinstalling the disk driver.

Another effective solution to this problem is to run the CHKDSK command.



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

The disk structure is corrupted and unreadable error occurs when a hard disk has a corrupted partition. Windows can’t access the corrupted partition and open its files when that happens.

While the error is more common in external disk drives, it can also occur with internal HDDs. Irrespective of the affected disk, the solutions in this guide should help you fix the issue easily.

How do I fix the Disk structure is corrupted and unreadable HDD error in Windows 1. Unplug and re-plug the external HDD or USB drive

If you’re getting this error with removable storage, such as a USB drive, unplug the storage device. Then, close all software on your taskbar and plug the external storage back in.

Or, reboot Windows before you plug the external HDD back in. Then, try opening the same files you did before when you got the Disk structure is corrupted and unreadable error.

2. Run a Check Disk (CHKDSK) Scan

Windows has a Check Disk utility that scans hard disks and fixes any errors it might find. It checks the disk’s file system integrity, such as in the Master File Table.

This is undoubtedly the best Windows tool to fix the disk structure is corrupted and unreadable error.

3. Reinstall external hard drives

Sometimes, the disk structure is corrupted, and unreadable error can be caused by faulty drivers. The solution to this is to uninstall and reinstall the corrupt driver.

4. Fix the HDD with M3 RAW

There are numerous third-party programs you can use to fix the disk structure is corrupted and unreadable errors. M3 RAW checks and repairs file systems.

Expert tip:

5. Fix the HDD With MiniTool Partition Wizard

MiniTool Partition Wizard is a highly rated freeware disk partition manager that boasts a 20 million-strong user base and supports most storage devices.

This can also fix disk structure errors for drive partitions. Get MiniTool Partition Wizard and fix your disk drive by following the steps above.

6. Format the external disk drive

This fixes external drives that don’t include Windows, such as flash USB sticks. Formatting a drive erases all its contents and establishes a new file system to replace the corrupted one.

This is a good fix for the disk structure is corrupted and unreadable error if the files on the storage drive aren’t essential. But if you need to keep some of the drive’s content, save the files with a data recovery utility program such as EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard.

Those are some of the best ways to fix corrupted disk structures with Windows tools and third-party software.

If you need more third-party disk management utilities that can also fix drive errors, check our detailed guide on the topic.

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