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Introduction to AWT in Java

Java AWT is also known as Abstract Window Toolkit is an API that is used to develop either GUI or window-based applications in Java. Java AWT components are platform-dependent which implies that they are displayed according to the view of the operating system. It is also heavyweight implying that its components are using the resources of the Operating System. java. awt package provides classes for AWT api. For example, TextField, CheckBox, Choice, Label, TextArea, Radio Button, List, etc.

AWT hierarchy

Following is AWT hierarchy:

Container

The Container is one of the components in AWT that contains other components like buttons, text fields, labels, etc. The classes that extend the Container class are known as containers such as Frame, Dialog, and Panel as shown in the hierarchy.

Types of containers

As demonstrated above, container refers to the location where components can be added like text field, button, checkbox, etc. There are in total, four types of containers available in AW, that is, Window, Frame, Dialog, and Panel. As shown in the hierarchy above, Frame and Dialog are subclasses of the Window class.

1. Window: The window is a container that does not have borders and menu bars. In order to create a window, you can use frame, dialog or another window.

2. Panel: The Panel is the container/class that doesn’t contain the title bar and menu bars. It has other components like buttons, text fields, etc.

3. Dialog: The Dialog is the container or class having a border and title. We cannot create an instance of the Dialog class without an associated instance of the respective Frame class.

4. Trim: The Frame is the container or class containing the title bar and might also have menu bars. It can also have other components like text field, button, etc.

Why AWT is platform dependent?

Java Abstract Window Toolkit calls native platform I.e., Operating system’s subroutine in order to create components like text box, checkbox, button, etc. For example, an AWT GUI containing a button would be having varied look- and -feel in various platforms like Windows, Mac OS, and Unix, etc. since these platforms have different look and feel for their respective native buttons and then AWT would directly call their native subroutine that is going to create the button. In simple words, an application build on AWT would look more like a windows application when being run on Windows, however, that same application would look like a Mac application when being run on Mac Operating System.

Basic Methods of Component Class

public void add(Component c): This method would insert a component on this component.

public void setSize(int width, int height): This method would set the size (width and height ) of the particular component.

public void setVisible(boolean status): This method would change the visibility of the component, which is by default false.

public void setLayout(LayoutManager m): This method would define the layout manager for the particular component.

Java AWT Example

We can create a GUI using Frame in two ways:

Either by extending Frame class or by creating the instance of Frame class

Let’s show this by both examples, first extending Frame Class :

import java.awt.*;/* Extend the Frame class here, *thus our class "Example" would behave *like a Frame */public class Example extends Frame {Example() {Button b=new Button("Button!!"); b.setBounds(50,50,50,50); add(b); setSize(500,300); setTitle("This is First AWT example"); setLayout(new FlowLayout()); /*By default frame is not visible so *we are setting the visibility to true *to make it visible. */ setVisible(true); } public static void main(String args[]){ Example fr=new Example(); } }

Example:

import java.awt.*; public class Example { Example() { Frame f=new Frame(); Label l = new Label("User: "); f.add(l); TextField t = new TextField(); f.add(t); f.setSize(500, 300); f.setLayout(new FlowLayout()); f.setVisible(true); } public static void main(String args[]) {Example ex = new Example(); } } Layouts in AWT

There are 2 layouts in AWT which are as follows :

Flow layout is the default layout, which implies when you don’t set any layout in your code then the particular layout would be set to Flow by default. Flow layout would put components like text fields, buttons, labels, etc in a row form and if horizontal space is not long enough to hold all components then it would add them in the next row and cycle goes on. Few points about Flow Layout

All the rows in Flow layout are aligned center by default. But, if required we can set the alignment from left or right.

The horizontal and vertical gap between all components is 5 pixels by default.

By default, the orientation of the components is left to right, which implies that the components would be added from left to right as required, but we can change it from right to left when needed.

Border layout wherein we can add components like text fields, buttons, labels, etc to specific five These regions are known as PAGE_START, LINE_START, CENTER, LINE_END, PAGE_END.

Method for border layout is:

public BorderLayout(int hgap,int vgap)

Parameters are :

hgap: The horizontal gap.

vgap: The vertical gap.

We can also achieve the same by using setHgap(int hgap) method for the horizontal gap between components and setVgap(int vgap) method for the vertical gap.

Conclusion

Therefore, we can conclude that AWT was designed in order to provide a common set of tools for GUI design that could work on a variety of platforms. These tools preserved the look and feel of each platform.

Recommended Articles

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What Happens If An Exception Is Not Handled In A Java Program?

An exception is an issue (run time error) occurred during the execution of a program. For understanding purpose let us look at it in a different manner.

Generally, when you compile a program, if it gets compiled without a .class file will be created, this is the executable file in Java, and every time you execute this .class file it is supposed to run successfully executing each line in the program without any issues. But, in some exceptional cases, while executing the program, JVM encounters some ambiguous scenarios where it doesn’t know what to do.

Here are some example scenarios −

If you have an array of size 10 if a line in your code tries to access the 11th element in this array.

If you are trying to divide a number with 0 which (results to infinity and JVM doesn’t understand how to valuate it).

Such cases are known as exceptions. Each possible exception is represented by a predefined class you can find all the classes of exception in chúng tôi package. You can also define your own exception.

Certain exceptions are prompted at compile time and are known as compile time exceptions or, checked exceptions.

When such exceptions occur you need to handle them using try-catch block or, throw them (postpone the handling) using the throws keyword.

if you don’t handle exceptions

When an exception occurred, if you don’t handle it, the program terminates abruptly and the code past the line that caused the exception will not get executed.

Example

Generally, an array is of fixed size and each element is accessed using the indices. For example, we have created an array with size 7. Then the valid expressions to access the elements of this array will be a[0] to a[6] (length-1).

Whenever, you used an –ve value or, the value greater than or equal to the size of the array, then the ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown.

For Example, if you execute the following code, it displays the elements in the array asks you to give the index to select an element. Since the size of the array is 7, the valid index will be 0 to 6.

Example import java.util.Arrays; import java.util.Scanner; public class AIOBSample {    public static void main(String args[]){       int[] myArray = {1254, 1458, 5687,1457, 4554, 5445, 7524};       System.out.println("Elements in the array are: ");       System.out.println(Arrays.toString(myArray));       Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);       System.out.println("Enter the index of the required element: ");       int element = sc.nextInt();       System.out.println("Element in the given index is :: "+myArray[element]);    } }

But if you observe the below output we have requested the element with the index 9 since it is an invalid index an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException raised and the execution terminated.

Run time exception Elements in the array are: [897, 56, 78, 90, 12, 123, 75] Enter the index of the required element: 7 Exception in thread "main" java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException: 7    at AIOBSample.main(AIOBSample.java:12) Solution

To resolve this, you need to handle the exception by wrapping the code responsible for it, in a try-catch block.

import java.util.Arrays; import java.util.Scanner; public class AIOBSample {    public static void main(String args[]){       int[] myArray = {1254, 1458, 5687,1457, 4554, 5445, 7524};       System.out.println("Elements in the array are: ");       System.out.println(Arrays.toString(myArray));       try {          Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);          System.out.println("Enter the index of the required element: ");          int element = sc.nextInt();          System.out.println("Element in the given index is :: "+myArray[element]);       }catch(ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {          System.out.println("Please enter the valid index (0 to 6)");       }    } } Output Elements in the array are: [1254, 1458, 5687, 1457, 4554, 5445, 7524] Enter the index of the required element: 7 Please enter the valid index (0 to 6)

What Are The Class Implementations Of List Interface In Java?

This article will help you understand what the key features of Java Programming language are.

Let us revise what is Interface in Java.

INTERFACE

Similar to an object, an Interface is a blueprint of a class. It consists of static constants and abstract methods. It is a mechanism to achieve abstraction and multiple inheritance in Java. It is declared using the interface keyword. It provides total abstraction, meaning all methods in an interface must be declared with empty body, and all fields must be public, static and final by default.

Syntax

LIST INTERFACE

The List interface in Java is a way of storing the ordered collection. It is considered as a child interface of Collection. Duplicate values can be stored in a List interface. It preserves the insertion order, allowing inserting of elements and element position accessing. This interface is found in the chúng tôi package.

Syntax CLASS IMPLEMENTATION OF LIST INTERFACE

Let us discuss about the classes which implements the list interface. They are as follows −

AbstractList

The AbstractList class is used to create an unmodifiable list. To create such a list, one needs to extend this AbstractList class and implement the get() and size() methods only.

AbstractSequentialList

The AbstractSequentialList is used to implement the Collection interface and AbstractCollection class. It is similar to that of the AbstractList. It also creates an unmodifiable list.

ArrayList Example

Creation of List object using Array List Class

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Output [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10] 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 CopyOnWriteArrayList

This class implements the list interface. This class is an upgraded version of the ArrayList class where all modifications like add, set, remove, etc. are implemented by making a new copy of the list.

LinkedList

This class is implemented in the collection framework. It inherently implements the linked list data-structure. This class has characteristics of a linear data structure, where every element is a separate object with its individual data and address part. Each element is linked with the help of pointers and addresses. Insertion and deletion operations are easy to perform here, that’s why they are preferred over the arrays.

Example

Creation of List object using Linked List Class.

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Output [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10] 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 Stack

This class is implemented in the collection framework and extends the vector class. It implements the Stack data structure. This class works on the principle Last in First out (LIFO). Other than the basic push and pop operations, this class also provides the empty, search and peek functions.

Example

Creation of List object using Stack Class

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class

StackObj

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main

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Output [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10] 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 Vector

This class is implemented in the collection framework. It implements grow able array of objects, which can also be called as a dynamic array. This array can grow or shrink as required. Vectors belong in Legacy classes of Java, but currently they are fully compatible with collections.

Example

Creation of List object using Vector Class

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*

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class

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static

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main

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Output [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10] 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10

What Are The Key Features Of Java?

This article will help you understand what the key features of Java Programming language are.

The Key features of Java Programming Language are −

Java is Easy to Understand

Java’s base is similar to that of C and C++ languages and it includes many important features of these languages. It removes many drawbacks and complexities of C or C++. So if one has good understanding of either C or C++, then Java language will be very familiar and easily understandable.

Java is an object oriented programming language

Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is an approach to standardize the programs by creating partitioned memory area for both data and function. The approach was developed to increase programmer’s productivity and also to overcome the traditional approach of programming.

Java supports several OOP features like Objects, Class, Data Abstraction, Encapsulation, Data Hiding, Inheritance and Polymorphism.

Java programs are both compiled and interpreted

It is normal for a computer language to either be compiled or interpreted during execution. But Java language is an exception as its programs are both compiled and interpreted. The Java Compiler (JAVAC) compiles the java source code and converts it into the bytecode. The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) then executes this bytecode and converts it into machine-dependent form.

Java programs are platform independent

This is the most significant feature of Java, as being platform independent means one program compiled on one machine can get executed on any other machines without changing anything. This is achieved because of the BYTE code concept. As mentioned before, the JAVAC compiles the java source code and converts it into the bytecode. It doesn’t convert the source code into machine code like that of the C/C++ compiler. This bytecode is further converted into machine-dependent form by another software called JVM. This JVM can execute bytecode on any platform, regardless of the original machine bytecode.

Java is an Interactive language

Why Java is considered to be Interactive? Because Character User Interface (CUI) and Graphical User Interface (GUI) both are supported by Java. The interactive performance of graphical applications increases while using Java. Example of such a software where Java based designing is used is Android Studio.

Java is a multithreaded language

A thread is an independent path taken while a program is being executed. Multithreaded means handling multiple paths or tasks simultaneously of the same program. Due to share the same memory space. Thus performance of complicated applications is boosted.

High performance

Being a language which is both compiled and interpreted, Java is faster than many traditional interpreted programming languages. This is because the Java bytecode is very close to the native code. Although, Java is still a bit slower than other compiled languages like C++. To understand this, let’s look at what Interpreter and Compiler means.

The software, by which the conversion of the high level instructions is performed line by line to machine level language, is known as an Interpreter. If an error is found on any line, the execution stops till it is corrected. This process of correcting error is easier but the program takes longer time to execute successfully.

Whereas, if all the instructions are converted to machine level language at once and all the errors are listed together, then the software is known as Compiler. This process is much faster but sometimes it becomes difficult to correct all the errors together in a program.

Security

Java Programming language is more secured than C or C ++ language, as one can’t explicitly create pointers in Java as compared to C or C++. Thus one can’t gain access to a particular variable if it is not initialized properly. Java also supports access modifiers, which can check memory access and also prevent viruses from entering an applet.

Robust

Java is capable of handling runtime errors, has a strong memory management system. It helps in eliminating errors in code during compilation time and runtime. Java falls under garbage collected language category, as the JVM automatically de-allocates the memory blocks unlike that of C or C++.

Java also supports exception handling which identifies runtime errors and eliminates them. The JVM terminates the program immediately as soon as it encounters any runtime error. This prevents causing any harm to the underlying system.

Dynamic and Extensible

Dynamic and extensible means one can add classes and add new methods to classes with the help of Object Oriented Programming. This is available in JAVA. It makes easier for programmers to expand their own classes and ever modify them. Java is highly dynamic in nature as it can adapt to its evolving environment.

Distributed

Java is considered to be distributed as it encourages users to create distributed applications. A distributed application consists of at least one local or remote clients who communicates using at least one server on several machines linked through a network. With the help of such an application, one can conduct business operations from anywhere in the world. A programmer sitting on one machine can access a program which is running on another machine from any geographical location.

What Is Prettier In React?

One of the many amazing things about React is that it’s more visually appealing than traditional web development frameworks like AngularJS. This might be because React favors a “simple” and “elastic” design over complex directives and components.

Other factors contributing to React’s visual appeal are the use of stateless components and declarative rendering. This means that instead of specifying how each component should look, you simply specify what data it needs and React will take care of the rest.

In the end, it really depends on your personal taste − some people might prefer AngularJS’ more polished look, while others might find React’s simpler design more pleasing.

So why should you use prettier in React? Prettier can help you avoid common errors in your codebase. By automatically formatting your code, prettier can help identify issues early on − before they become difficult to track down and fix.

What is Prettier?

Prettier is an opinionated code formatter that helps you maintain consistent code formatting across different editors and programming languages. It is a utility that formats code automatically to make it more readable.

It supports a wide number of coding scripts and languages, namely JavaScript, TypeScript, JSX, Vue, Angular, CSS & SCSS, JSON, HTML, GraphQL, Markdown, Flow, etc.

It can also be used as a stand−alone tool or as a plugin for various code editors. Prettier supports a wide range of programming languages and file formats, making it a versatile tool for code formatting.

It has two main goals −

To remove the need for manual code formatting,

To provide support for older browsers and legacy environments that do not support the latest JavaScript features.

Using a tool like prettier really makes it simpler to write code since you can format it immediately thereafter.

Having a shared style guide is widely acknowledged to be beneficial for a project and team, but getting there is a very difficult and frustrating process. When it comes to certain styles of creating code, people become quite emotional, and nobody enjoys spending time writing and hearing criticism.

The primary motivation for using Prettier is to put an end to the constant discussions regarding various coding chúng tôi primary motivation for using Prettier is to put an end to the constant discussions regarding various coding styles.

Benefits of Prettier Code Formatter

Prettier makes your code more readable. When you use prettier, all of your lines will be wrapped with either curly or straight brackets (as needed), and they will be indented by default. This makes it easier to follow the flow of the code and understand how each line works together.

There are a number of reasons why you might want to use prettier −

It can help you avoid common errors, such as forgetting to add a semicolon to the end of a code and improves the quality of your work. Ultimately, using prettier is a great way to improve the quality and readability of your codebase.

Prettier helps you maintain a consistent code style across your project. It can also be configured to automatically format your code as you type, which can save you a lot of time in the long run.

Enforcing a consistent style across your codebase is very important. Prettier can be used to format code in a wide variety of programming languages and is popular among developers who want to ensure that their code adheres to a consistent style.

Overall, using prettier can help to create a common easy-to-read and accessible coding environment for the entire team and any external entity to work with.

How does Prettier Works?

Prettier works by taking your source files and transforming them into minified versions that are smaller in size. This process makes the code easier to read and understand − especially when it’s deployed to a web server or run on a development environment.

Pretty also includes features like linting (checking for errors) and unit testing (enforcing quality standards). If you want an automated way to improve the quality of your codebase, prettier is definitely worth considering.

When you use prettier, all of your lines will be wrapped with relevant brackets, and they will be indented by default. This makes it easier to follow the flow of the code and understand how each line works together.

Prettier is considered as the most supporting code formatter, which imposes a regular style by re-printing and parsing your code with its rules considering the maximum line width. By default, prettier will wrap code when it reaches the end of the line. It can also print in multiple output styles, including:

Expanded − Each property is on its own line.

Compact − All properties are on the same line.

Compressed − All properties are on the same line, with no whitespace.

Prettier can also format your code according to a specific set of rules. For example, you can tell prettier to format only code that is wrapped in parentheses.

In addition to formatting code, Prettier can also format Markdown files. By default, it will wrap Markdown code blocks when they reach the end of the line. You can also tell Prettier to format only code blocks that are wrapped in parentheses.

Troubleshooting tips for React

If you’re having trouble getting your React code to look pretty, there are a few things you can try −

Make sure you’re using a code editor that supports syntax highlighting for React. This process will make it easier to spot errors in your code.

Try using a different code style. Some people prefer to use a “camel case” style, while others prefer a “kebab case” style.

Ensure using the latest version of React.

As the project evolves, new features are added, and old ones are deprecated. Keeping up−to−date with the latest version will help you avoid any potential problems.

Conclusion

Because it ignores the original styling by re-printing with its own rules that take the maximum line length into consideration, wrapping code when appropriate, Prettier ensures an uniform code style across your whole codebase.

It’s pretty obvious as to why “Prettier style guide” is favored over others as it’s the only style guide that is automatic and comes with pretty amazing & unique features

Is It Possible To Catch Multiple Java Exceptions In Single Catch Block?

An exception is an issue (run time error) occurred during the execution of a program. When an exception occurred the program gets terminated abruptly and, the code past the line that generated the exception never gets executed.

Multiple exceptions in a code

Before Java 7 whenever we have a code that may generate more than one exception and if you need to handle the specifically you should use multiple catch blocks on a single try.

Example

The following Java program contains an array of numbers (which is displayed). from user it accepts two positions from this array and, divides the number in first position with the number in second position.

While entering values −

If you choose a position which is not in the displayed array an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown

If you choose 0 as denominator and ArithmeticException is thrown.

In this program we have handled all the possible exceptions using two different catch blocks.

import java.util.Arrays; import java.util.Scanner; public class MultipleCatchBlocks {    public static void main(String [] args) {       Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);       int[] arr = {10, 20, 30, 2, 0, 8};       System.out.println("Enter 3 integer values one by one: ");       System.out.println("Array: "+Arrays.toString(arr));       System.out.println("Choose numerator and denominator (not 0) from this array       (enter positions 0 to 5)");       int a = sc.nextInt();       int b = sc.nextInt();       try {          int result = (arr[a])/(arr[b]);          System.out.println("Result of "+arr[a]+"/"+arr[b]+": "+result);       }       catch(ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e) {          System.out.println("Warning: You have chosen a position which is not in the array");       }       catch(ArithmeticException e) {          System.out.println("Warning: You cannot divide a number with 0");       }    } } Output1 Enter 3 integer values one by one: Array: [10, 20, 30, 2, 0, 8] Choose numerator and denominator(not 0) from this array (enter positions 0 to 5) 2 8 Warning: You have chosen a position which is not in the array Output2 Enter 3 integer values one by one: Array: [10, 20, 30, 2, 0, 8] Choose numerator and denominator (not 0) from this array (enter positions 0 to 5) 1 4    System.out.println("Warning: Enter inputs as per instructions "); } Example

Following Java program demonstrates the usage of Multicatch. Here we are handling all the exceptions in a single catch block.

import java.util.Arrays; import java.util.Scanner; public class MultiCatch {    public static void main(String [] args) {       Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);       int[] arr = {10, 20, 30, 2, 0, 8};       System.out.println("Enter 3 integer values one by one: ");       System.out.println("Array: "+Arrays.toString(arr));       System.out.println("Choose numerator and denominator(not 0) from this array,       (enter positions 0 to 5)");       int a = sc.nextInt();       int b = sc.nextInt();       try {          int result = (arr[a])/(arr[b]);          System.out.println("Result of "+arr[a]+"/"+arr[b]+": "+result);       }          System.out.println("Warning: Enter inputs as per instructions ");       }    } } Output1 Enter 3 integer values one by one: Array: [10, 20, 30, 2, 0, 8] Choose numerator and denominator(not 0) from this array, (enter positions 0 to 5) 0 9 Warning: Enter inputs as per instructions Output2 Enter 3 integer values one by one: Array: [10, 20, 30, 2, 0, 8] Choose numerator and denominator(not 0) from this array, (enter positions 0 to 5) 2 4 Warning: Enter inputs as per instructions

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