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What is chúng tôi & Should you Remove it? Uninstall the chúng tôi file to fix the problem

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Node.exe file provides a suitable environment to run chúng tôi applications on Windows PC. 

Cybercriminals often deceive users by naming malicious files after this executable. 

You can uninstall the related applications to resolve the problem.

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INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE

To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

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Node.exe is a downloadable binary executable file developed by Joynet, Inc which contains all the essential files required to run chúng tôi applications on Windows PC. This exe file is responsible for controlling the important features of an application, including file syncing and input-output tasks such as disk access. 

Node.exe file constantly runs in the background and provides an environment to create dynamic web apps and other server-side programs.

Why should I remove the chúng tôi file? 

Generally, chúng tôi is a safe executable file. However, many Windows users have a constant complaint that the process continuously runs in the background despite the related application not running at the moment. 

This results in high CPU usage for no reason, which causes performance issues and PC slowdown. The unwanted burden on the CPU results often prevents the other processes from running and sometimes even results in a system crash. 

Apart from this, there are also high chances that a trojan or virus may disguise as a genuine chúng tôi file causing a series of errors. Some of them are as follows: 

Node.exe program error

Node.exe is not a Win32 program

Can’t locate node.exe 

Node.exe can’t be found 

Node.exe encountered a problem and will close

Error starting program: node.exe 

Node.exe not working 

Node.exe: app path is faulting

How to check if chúng tôi is a virus? 

The legit chúng tôi file is located within the C:Program Files (x86) location and sometimes within some other sub-folder of C:. Some of its legitimate instances are as follows: 

C:Program Files (x86)AdobeAdobe Creative CloudCCLibrarylibs 

C:Program Files (x86)AdobeAdobe Creative CloudCCXProcesslibs

A straightforward way to check the authenticity of the executable file is to verify its digital signature. 

Expert tip:

How to fix errors by chúng tôi file? 

We will recommend you try these workarounds before moving on to the below solutions. 

Uninstall the recently installed programs to prevent interference. 

Search File Explorer (Ctrl + E) for chúng tôi instances that are not in the System32 folder and delete them. 

Ensure the operating system is up to date.

Run an antivirus scan preemptively to see if it detects any infection.

If you still experience issues, perform the following methods.

1. Temporarily end node.exe

If the chúng tôi file is consuming too much CPU causing the system to freeze, ending the background task will release the occupied resources and should solve the problem temporarily. 

2. Disable the startup service 

Since chúng tôi is used by several Adobe apps, such as Photoshop CC suite, you can disable other Adobe-related startup processes to prevent chúng tôi from automatically running in the background. 

3. Uninstall Node.js 

There are chances that the stubborn chúng tôi file may still be lurking behind after the chúng tôi program is uninstalled. In such a scenario, we would recommend a clean install of Windows which will eradicate the malicious files.  

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What Is Perception Bias?

Perception bias is the tendency to perceive ourselves and our environment in a subjective way. Although we like to think our judgment is impartial, we are, in fact, unconsciously influenced by our assumptions and expectations.

Example: Perception biasAfter a few weeks at your new job, you notice that some of your colleagues always go for after-work drinks on Fridays. It’s not an official team event, but each week the same person asks who’s joining and books a table. However, no one ever asks the older colleagues to join, assuming that they won’t be interested.

If left unchecked, perception bias can affect how we evaluate ourselves and others. As a result, we may form inaccurate impressions.This, in turn, can impact the quality of our decision-making.

What is perception bias?

Perception bias is a broad term used to describe different situations in which we perceive inaccuracies in our environment. It is a type of cognitive bias that occurs when we subconsciously form assumptions or draw conclusions based on our beliefs, expectations, or emotions.

Perception bias works like a filter, helping us make sense of all the information we are exposed to in our surroundings. As a result, our perception of reality is often distorted. For example, this can cause us to unfairly label people or make inferences about their abilities on the basis of superficial observations or stereotypes.

Why does perception bias occur?

Perception bias occurs because our perception is selective. Here, perception refers to the process of screening, selecting, organizing, and interpreting stimuli, such as words or objects, in order to give them meaning. Our brain chooses to hone in on one or very few stimuli out of the multitude of stimuli surrounding us. This is one way our brains differentiate between important and unimportant things.

Due to this, our perception of a given situation is not a photographic representation of reality. Rather, it is a unique representation, informed by objective information, our prior beliefs and expectations (called cognitive factors), and our hopes, desires, and emotions (called motivational factors). Motivational and cognitive factors are sometimes intertwined, but they can also function separately.

What are different types of perception bias?

There are many types of bias that can influence our perceptions, whether of objects, others, or ourselves. Although there is no exhaustive list, the following are some common types of perception bias:

Visual Perception. When we look at something, our brains use the information available (like visual cues or prior experience) to make sense of an object. This means that our visual processing of faces can be biased. For example, a person’s group membership may lead us to view their face as untrustworthy. Negative attitudes and beliefs like outgroup bias can have an effect on our visual perception.

Self-perception. People are often biased in their self-perceptions, failing to assess themselves accurately. For example, people may take personal responsibility for successes while denying personal responsibility for failures (self-serving bias), or they may underestimate their performance and abilities, casting themselves in a more negative light (self-effacement bias). When comparing the self to others, people often commit what is known as the false consensus effect, believing that our opinions or behaviors are generalizable to the general population.

Perception bias examples

Example: Perception bias in the workplaceYou are the lead for an important project at work, and your manager asks you to present your progress to the executive board. You spend hours preparing the presentation with your team. After the presentation, your manager congratulates you for your progress and the presentation. In reply, you say “I worked really hard on this,” happy to take all the credit. Since you are the project lead, you believe this praise is fair. However, this is not entirely accurate because you worked as a team. This is an example of a type of perception bias called self-enhancement.

Selective perception bias can help explain why individuals with opposing views tend to find the same media coverage to be biased against them.

Example: Selective perception bias and the “hostile media effect”In one study, researchers took a sample of pro-Israeli, pro-Arab, and neutral college students. They asked them to watch the same set of televised news segments covering the Arab-Israeli conflict, broadcast nationally in the United States over a ten-day period.

Researchers found that each side saw the news coverage as biased in favor of the other side.

Pro-Arab students thought the news segments were generally biased in favor of Israel.

Pro-Israeli students thought the segments were generally biased against Israel.

Neutral students gave opinions that fell between the two groups.

They also found that these disagreements were not simply differences of opinion; they were differences in perception. In particular, pro-Arab and pro-Israeli students also differed in their perceptions of the number of favorable and unfavorable references that had been made about Israel during the news program.

Pro-Arab students reported that 42 percent of the references to Israel had been favorable, and only 26 percent had been unfavorable.

Pro-Israeli students recalled 57 percent of the references to Israel as having been unfavorable and only 16 percent as having been favorable.

The researchers concluded that individuals with strong preexisting attitudes on an issue perceive media coverage as unfairly biased against their side and in favor of their opponents’ point of view. This happens because when people become committed to a particular cause or opinion, their perceptions often change in order to remain consistent with this commitment.

How to reduce perception bias

Although it is not possible to entirely eliminate perception bias, there are ways to reduce it. More specifically, when you make a decision or form an impression of someone, you can ask yourself the following questions:

Do I have a motive that makes me see things a certain way?

What are my expectations from this situation or decision?

Have I discussed my thoughts or opinions with people who don’t agree with me?

If you find yourself making absolute statements about others, using strong words like “always” or “all,” ask yourself how accurate this is, and whether you have evidence to back up your claim.

Other types of research bias Frequently asked questions about perception bias

What is an everyday life example of perception bias?

A real-life example of perception bias is the false consensus effect. Because we spend most of our time with friends, family, and colleagues who share the same opinions or values we do, we are often misled to believe that the majority of people think or act in ways similar to us. This explains, for instance, why some people take office supplies home: they may genuinely feel that this behavior is more common than it really is.

Why is perception bias a problem?

Perception bias is a problem because it prevents us from seeing situations or people objectively. Rather, our expectations, beliefs, or emotions interfere with how we interpret reality. This, in turn, can cause us to misjudge ourselves or others. For example, our prejudices can interfere with whether we perceive people’s faces as friendly or unfriendly.

What is selective perception?

Selective perception is the unconscious process by which people screen, select, and notice objects in their environment. During this process, information tends to be selectively perceived in ways that align with existing attitudes, beliefs, and goals.

Although this allows us to concentrate only on the information that is relevant for us at present, it can also lead to perception bias. For example, while driving, if you become hyper-focused on reaching your exit on a highway, your brain may filter visual stimuli so that you can only focus on things you need to notice in order to exit the highway. However, this can also cause you to miss other things happening around you on the road.

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What Is Critical Thinking?

Critical thinking is the ability to effectively analyze information and form a judgment.

To think critically, you must be aware of your own biases and assumptions when encountering information, and apply consistent standards when evaluating sources.

Critical thinking skills help you to:

Identify credible sources

Evaluate and respond to arguments

Assess alternative viewpoints

Test hypotheses against relevant criteria

Why is critical thinking important?

Critical thinking is important for making judgments about sources of information and forming your own arguments. It emphasizes a rational, objective, and self-aware approach that can help you to identify credible sources and strengthen your conclusions.

Critical thinking is important in all disciplines and throughout all stages of the research process. The types of evidence used in the sciences and in the humanities may differ, but critical thinking skills are relevant to both.

In academic writing, critical thinking can help you to determine whether a source:

Is free from research bias

Provides evidence to support its research findings

Considers alternative viewpoints

Outside of academia, critical thinking goes hand in hand with information literacy to help you form opinions rationally and engage independently and critically with popular media.

Critical thinking examples

Critical thinking can help you to identify reliable sources of information that you can cite in your research paper. It can also guide your own research methods and inform your own arguments.

Outside of academia, critical thinking can help you to be aware of both your own and others’ biases and assumptions.

Academic examples

Example: Good critical thinking in an academic contextYou’re writing a research paper on recent innovations in diabetes treatments. You read an article that claims positive results for an at-home treatment that was recently developed. The results of the research are impressive, and the treatment seems to be groundbreaking.

However, when you compare the findings of the study with other current research, you determine that the results seem improbable. You analyze the paper again, consulting the sources it cites.

You notice that the research was funded by the pharmaceutical company that created the treatment. Because of this, you view its results skeptically and determine that more independent research is necessary to confirm or refute them.

Example: Poor critical thinking in an academic contextYou’re researching a paper on the impact wireless technology has had on developing countries that previously did not have large-scale communications infrastructure. You read an article that seems to confirm your hypothesis: the impact is mainly positive. Rather than evaluating the research methodology, you accept the findings uncritically.

In this instance, you have failed to engage with the source critically and have displayed confirmation bias in accepting its conclusions based on a belief you already held.

Nonacademic examples

Example: Good critical thinking in a nonacademic contextYou are thinking about upgrading the security features of your home. You want to install an alarm system but are unsure what brand is the most reliable. You search home improvement websites and find a five-star review article of an alarm system. The review is positive. The alarm seems easy to install and reliable.

However, you decide to compare this review article with consumer reviews on a different site. You find that these reviews are not as positive. Some customers have had problems installing the alarm, and some have noted that it activates for no apparent reason.

Example: Poor critical thinking in a nonacademic contextYou support a candidate in an upcoming election. You visit an online news site affiliated with their political party and read an article that criticizes their opponent. The article claims that the opponent is inexperienced in politics. You accept this without evidence, because it fits your preconceptions about the opponent.

In this case, you failed to look critically at the claims of the article and check whether they were backed up with evidence because you were already inclined to believe them.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Try for free

How to think critically

There is no single way to think critically. How you engage with information will depend on the type of source you’re using and the information you need.

However, you can engage with sources in a systematic and critical way by asking certain questions when you encounter information. Like the CRAAP test, these questions focus on the currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, and purpose of a source of information.

When encountering information, ask:

Who is the author? Are they an expert in their field?

What do they say? Is their argument clear? Can you summarize it?

When did they say this? Is the source current?

Where is the information published? Is it an academic article? Is it peer-reviewed?

Why did the author publish it? What is their motivation?

How do they make their argument? Is it backed up by evidence? Does it rely on opinion, speculation, or appeals to emotion? Do they address alternative arguments?

Critical thinking also involves being aware of your own biases, not only those of others. When you make an argument or draw your own conclusions, you can ask similar questions about your own writing:

Am I only considering evidence that supports my preconceptions?

Is my argument expressed clearly and backed up with credible sources?

Would I be convinced by this argument coming from someone else?

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about ChatGPT, AI tools, citation, and plagiarism, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

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What Is An Interjection?

An interjection is a word or phrase used to express a feeling or to request or demand something. While interjections are a part of speech, they are not grammatically connected to other parts of a sentence.

Interjections are common in everyday speech and informal writing. While some interjections such as “well” and “indeed” are acceptable in formal conversation, it’s best to avoid interjections in formal or academic writing.

Examples: Interjections in a sentenceWow! That bird is huge.

Uh-oh. I forgot to get gas.

We’re not lost. We just need to go, um, this way.

Psst, what’s the answer to number four?

How are interjections used in sentences?

Interjections add meaning to a sentence or context by expressing a feeling, making a demand, or emphasizing a thought.

Interjections can be either a single word or a phrase, and they can be used on their own or as part of a sentence.

Examples: Uses of interjections Phew!

Shoot, I’ve broken a nail.

Oh really? I didn’t know that.

As interjections are a grammatically independent part of speech, they can often be excluded from a sentence without impacting its meaning.

Examples: Sentences with and without interjections

Oh boy, I’m tired.

I’m tired.

Ouch! That hurts!

That hurts!

Primary interjections

A primary interjection is a word or sound that can only be used as an interjection. Primary interjections do not have alternative meanings and can’t function as another part of speech (i.e., noun, verb, or adjective).

Primary interjections are typically just sounds without a clear etymology. As such, while they sometimes have standard spellings, a single interjection may be written in different ways (e.g., “um-hum” or “mm-hmm”).

Examples: Primary interjections in a sentenceUgh! That’s disgusting.

Um-hum. I think that could work.

We won the game. Yippee!

Secondary interjections

A secondary interjection is a word that is typically used as another part of speech (such as a noun, verb, or adjective) that can also be used as an interjection.

Examples: Secondary interjections in a sentence

Goodness

! That was a close one.

Shoot! My flight has been canceled.

Awesome! Do that trick again.

Volitive interjections

A volitive interjection is used to give a command or make a request. For example, the volitive interjection “shh” or “shush” is used to command someone to be quiet.

Examples: Volitive interjections in a sentenceShh! I can’t focus when you’re singing.

Psst. Pass me an eraser.

Ahem. Please pay attention.

Emotive interjections

An emotive interjection is used to express an emotion or to indicate a reaction to something. For example, the emotive interjection “ew” is used to express disgust.

Curse words, also called expletives, are commonly used (in informal contexts) as emotive interjections to express frustration or anger.

Examples: Emotive interjections in a sentenceEw. I’m not eating that.

Yay! I’m so excited to see you.

Yum! This apple pie is delicious.

Cognitive interjections

A cognitive interjection is used to express a thought or indicate a thought process. For example, the cognitive interjection “um” can express confusion or indicate that the speaker is thinking.

Examples: Cognitive interjections in a sentenceUm, can you explain it once more?

Wow! I wasn’t expecting that.

Eureka! I’ve solved the puzzle.

Greetings and parting words

Greetings and parting words/phrases are interjections used to acknowledge or welcome someone or to express good wishes at the end of a conversation.

Examples: Greetings and parting words/phrases in a sentenceHey!

Hello! It’s good to see you.

Bye!

See you soon! Drive safe.

Interjections and punctuation

How an interjection is punctuated depends on the context and the intensity of the emotion or thought being expressed.

Exclamation points are most commonly used along with interjections to emphasize the intensity of an emotion, thought, or demand.

When the emotion or thought being expressed is less extreme, an interjection can also be followed by a period. If an interjection is used to express uncertainty or to ask a question, it should be followed by a question mark.

Examples: Interjections and punctuationOh. I don’t know.

We’ve just won the lottery. Hurray!

Hmm?

When an interjection is used as part of a sentence, it should be set off from the rest of the sentence using commas.

Examples: Interjections within a sentenceHmm, how are we going to do this?

It was an interesting lecture, indeed.

The project is, uh, going well.

Other interesting language articles

If you want to know more about nouns, pronouns, verbs, and other parts of speech, make sure to check out some of our other language articles with explanations and examples.

Frequently asked questions Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

This Scribbr article

Ryan, E. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

Cite this article

Sources

Aarts, B. (2011). Oxford modern English grammar. Oxford University Press.

Butterfield, J. (Ed.). (2024). Fowler’s dictionary of modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Show all sources (3)

Garner, B. A. (2024). Garner’s modern English usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

What Is Optimism Bias?

Optimism bias is the tendency to overestimate the likelihood of positive events and underestimate the likelihood of negative events. Optimism bias causes most people to expect that things will work out well, even if rationality suggests that problems are inevitable in life.

Example: Optimism biasYou’ve just bought a new bike, and the salesperson asks you whether you also want to look for a helmet.

Because you’ve been riding a bike since you were young, you think the chances of getting involved in an accident are really small. You conclude that you’ll be fine without it. Optimism bias makes you underestimate the risk of riding a bike without a helmet.

Although optimism bias can motivate us to overcome obstacles, it can also cause us to ignore potential risks, resulting in poor decision-making.

What is optimism bias?

Optimism bias (or unrealistic optimism) is a type of unconscious cognitive bias. It refers to an unrealistically favorable attitude that people have towards themselves and people that are close to them. Positive illusions help us maintain self-esteem and avoid discomfort, at least in the short term.

Optimism bias causes people to believe that they are less likely to experience negative events than other people. For example, people expect that their careers, marriages, or health will be better than those of others, and that the financial troubles, divorces, or illnesses that happen to other people will not happen to them.

This irrational belief seems to be deeply ingrained in humans. Studies suggest that it is observed in about 80% of the population (but, notably, not among people with depression).

Why does optimism bias occur?

Throughout human evolution this characteristic served us well and was passed down from one generation to the next. In other words, because optimism bias proved beneficial to humans, we are inclined to mispredict the future.

There are two key assumptions at the root of optimism bias:

That we exercise some level of control over the world around us, including what will happen to us in the future.

That we, as individuals, possess more positive traits than the average person.

Several factors can help explain optimism bias:

We have the tendency to selectively update our beliefs and expectations about the future. We are more likely to update our beliefs based on positive information rather than negative information. This, in turn, perpetuates optimism bias.

Optimism is beneficial to our mental and physical health. Expecting positive outcomes reduces stress and anxiety. Optimistic patients are more likely to believe that they will recover, leading them to adopt behaviours that increase their chances (e.g., exercise, healthy diet).

Overall, optimism bias enables us to cope with our environment and worry less about uncertainty. Because of this, it can often lead to better results than unbiased or rational beliefs.

Why does optimism bias matter?

Because a majority of people are susceptible to optimism bias, it’s important to be aware of its influence on our perception and judgment.

Optimism bias can be a problem when it prevents us from accurately anticipating risk. In project management, for instance, optimism bias can cause us to underestimate the budget and time needed, a common error called the planning fallacy. Failure to assess potential hazards can also mean failing to take out sufficient insurance or to get regular medical check-ups. It can even cause us to adopt harmful habits, such as smoking.

On the other hand, optimism is also linked to achievement in several domains, such as sports, business, and education. When we are optimistic, we are more motivated to try harder, which in turn can influence the outcome. Sometimes, expecting positive things can become a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Optimism bias examples

Optimism bias can also influence collective behaviour and produce large-scale effects.

Example: Optimism bias and the economySeveral experts consider optimism bias to be one of the core causes of the financial crisis of 2007-2008. Individuals, analysts, and government officials were all too optimistic that the economy would grow (i.e., that businesses would continue to be profitable, that there would be more jobs for people, and that incomes would increase), leading them to ignore any warning signs.

This shows that when many people hold unrealistic expectations, their bias accumulates and is amplified, producing large scale effects.

Optimism bias can have negative consequences, particularly when serious risks are disregarded.

Example: Optimism bias and climate changeSome argue that optimism bias may help explain why we don’t do anything about climate change, even though we acknowledge the threat. Studies have shown that people who are more optimistic about a range of possible future events (e.g., contracting an illness, World War III) are also less concerned about the environment.

Additionally, among climate skeptics in particular, more optimism is associated with less guilt, less perceived responsibility, and lower behavioural intentions. Thus, overall, optimism seems to be negatively associated with an active response to environmental change.

How to avoid optimism bias

Although optimism bias is part of human nature (and can’t be entirely avoided), there are ways to keep it in check:

Perform a project “premortem.” A premortem analysis starts with the hypothesis that your project has failed. With that in mind, you try to come up with possible reasons why. This allows you to spot the weaknesses in your project plan and prepare for the future.

Use the availability heuristic. Actively attempt to retrieve negative past experiences or times things didn’t go as planned. Here, the purpose is not to demotivate yourself, but to learn from the past so as to make sensible choices in the future.

Take an outsider’s approach. Take an objective approach when making plans. For example, when you estimate how long you will need to write a paper, seek out information about the average time it takes most people and adjust your initial assumptions accordingly.

Other types of research bias Frequently asked questions about optimism bias

What is the opposite of optimism bias?

The opposite of optimism bias is pessimism bias. Optimism bias occurs when we overestimate our chances of experiencing positive events in our lives, while pessimism bias occurs when we overestimate our chance of experiencing negative events.

For example, pessimism bias could cause someone to think they are going to fail an exam, even though they are well prepared and usually get good grades.

What is a positive illusion?

A positive illusion is a form of self-deception under which people have inflated, favorable attitudes about themselves or others close to them.

The most common positive illusions involve:

Exaggerating one’s positive traits

Overestimating one’s degree of control in life

Harboring overly optimistic beliefs about future events (also called optimism bias).

What is the planning fallacy?

The planning fallacy refers to people’s tendency to underestimate the resources needed to complete a future task, despite knowing that previous tasks have also taken longer than planned.

For example, people generally tend to underestimate the cost and time needed for construction projects. The planning fallacy occurs due to people’s tendency to overestimate the chances that positive events, such as a shortened timeline, will happen to them. This phenomenon is called optimism bias.

What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?

This suggests that beliefs have the power to alter people’s behavior in such a way that they become a new reality in the end. Optimism bias can create a self-fulfilling prophecy: when we expect positive things, we are more likely to align our actions with this belief and try harder to influence the outcome.

What is positivity bias?

Positivity bias occurs when a person judges individual members of a group positively, even when they have negative impressions or judgments of the group as a whole. Positivity bias is closely related to optimism bias, or the expectation that things will work out well, even if rationality suggests that problems are inevitable in life.

Sources in this article

We strongly encourage students to use sources in their work. You can cite our article (APA Style) or take a deep dive into the articles below.

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Nikolopoulou, K. Retrieved July 19, 2023,

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What Is A Follow Train?

A follow train (also known as a follow chain or a follow for follow group) is a group of people who follow each other on a social media platform (e.g Instagram, Twitter, TikTok).

Participating in a follow train is a popular method used by many to grow their social media followers (especially Instagram).

Follow trains help you to grow your social media followers quickly and easily.

The follow train is originated from Instagram back in its early days, and it’s still very popular in the present for one reason—it works.

How does a follow train work?

A follow train works by sharing your social media handle, following others that interest you, and sending them a direct message telling them where you found them from (e.g. Reddit).

Let’s get into each one of the steps in detail.

Firstly, you’ll have to share your social media handle ‘link here’ in a follow train (e.g. chúng tôi in order for people to find and follow you.

In addition to sharing your social media handle, certain groups require you to write up a short description of yourself or the content that you post.

This is to allow people to know your niche, so they’ll only follow you if they are interested in your content.

Secondly, you can follow others that interest you.

A common fault in follow trains is that people don’t like to follow first. This can be due to ego, distrust, laziness, etc.

So if you do happen to follow others first, you can grow your followers at a faster rate then if you were to just share your social media handle.

Follow trains work because people follow each other, so someone needs to follow first in order for it to work.

The last step (and the most important one) is to direct message the person telling them where you found them from (e.g. Reddit).

This step is crucial because if you don’t send them a direct message, they won’t know that you’re doing follow for follow.

If you follow these three steps, you’re guaranteed to receive a follow back almost all of the time.

Types of follow trains

There are various types of follow trains (not only Instagram).

Here is a compiled list of follow trains you can check out to grow your followers.

All of them are completely free to join and are great places where you can connect with people in your niche.

Instagram follow train

Follow trains are widely used by Instagram users who want to quickly grow their followers.

One of the most popular follow trains for Instagram is the r/Instagram community on Reddit.

The community has a “Follow Friday” thread where you can share your Instagram handle with others every Friday.

The goal of the thread is to find new people to follow on Instagram and expand your follower-base in the process.

There are lots of people in varying niches on the “Follow Friday” thread—from photography to personal accounts so you’ll definitely find someone in your niche.

Hundreds of Redditors use the thread on a weekly basis to grow their Instagram followers. You’ll be surprised by the number of followers you’ll get when you first start using it.

I’ve personally used the “Follow Friday” thread for about 2 years now, met a lot of interesting people, and had meaningful conversations.

You can potentially gain hundreds of followers from the thread if you use it consistently.

A cool tip about the thread is that it resets every Friday at around 9 am EST.

So, it’s best to share your Instagram handle at that time for maximum visibility.

Twitter follow train

A popular user who hosts Follow trains on a consistent basis is @toolzbabe on Twitter.

LinkedIn Follow Train

(Insert indiehackers linkedin screenshot here)

LinkedIn is another platform where follow trains can be used to expand your network.

However, LinkedIn follow trains are not common as there aren’t as many LinkedIn users as compared to other social media platforms like Instagram or Twitter.

That being said, the most popular follow train for LinkedIn is started by a post on Indiehackers.

Indiehackers has various follow for follow posts like, “Hacking Twitter”, “Hacking Instagram”, and so on.

These posts are basically follow trains for various social media platforms.

In order to expand your connections on LinkedIn, you can use the “Hacking LinkedIn” post on Indiehackers.

Simply request to connect with the users that shared their LinkedIn handle and tell them that you’re from Indiehackers.

These “Hacking x” posts are only created once in a while, so you’ll have to be sure to look out for them.

They are incredibly useful if you want to expand your network quickly.

Follow train rules

• You should always follow others back from a follow train especially if the person that followed you sent you a direct message.

• Try to write-up a short description about yourself or the content that you post so that people can easily identify your niche.

Advantages of a follow train

Follow trains have existed since the early days of social media (particularly Instagram) and people are still using them to grow their accounts to this day.

Are you wondering why they’re still such a popular growth strategy?

Quick way to grow your followers

Firstly, a follow train is a quick way you can grow your social media followers.

If you were to join a follow for follow group on Instagram now, all you need to do is to share your Instagram handle and people will start following you.

In addition, you can follow others that shared their handle. They’ll follow you back if you send them a direct message telling them where you came from (e.g. Reddit).

Follow trains are specifically catered for people who want to grow their followers by following others. This is also known as follow for follow.

As follow trains are made up of people looking to expand their follower-base through the means of following each other, everyone is like-minded.

Thus, the majority of people will follow you back and not unfollow.

You can find new people to follow

Follow trains enable you to find new and interesting people/content to follow.

As people usually share a short description of themselves or the content that they post, you can easily identify people in your niche to follow.

Consequently, your engagement rate will increase as both parties are in the same niche, and enjoy each other’s content.

The thing about Instagram’s search is that you need to know the username of a person before you can find and follow them.

If you were to search for a keyword on Instagram, the top search results will be dominated with accounts with a large number of followers.

Follow trains give you the ability to find new people and content which cannot be achieved from an Instagram search.

After all, Instagram’s search is incredibly restrictive, so you can utilize a follow train to broaden it.

Attract the right audience

It’s important to attract the right audience on Instagram as you don’t want people that are uninterested in your content to follow you.

If they do, it’ll negatively affect your engagement rate.

Naturally, you’ll be more inclined to like someone’s posts that are in the same niche as you.

This is because you have the same interests as them. Follow trains give you the ability to attract the right audience if you specify your niche.

If you’re a business, this is especially important. Attracting the right people can lead to more conversions and sales.

Instead of blindly following people from a list, you should focus on attracting the right audience, and a follow Train will enable you to do that.

It’s time-consuming

If you’re utilizing a follow train, you need to be very consistent with it if you want to grow your social media followers quickly.

Joining a follow train is about sharing your social media handle with others. But that’s not enough if you’re looking to gain hundreds of followers.

In order to grow your followers by hundreds, you’ll have to constantly follow and direct message others first instead of waiting for them to do so.

This is incredibly time-consuming as you’ll have to dedicate at least an hour a day to follow and message various people.

In addition, social media apps like Instagram will impose an action block on your account if you follow or direct message others too quickly.

This will hinder your growth efforts.

In order to prevent to action block, you’ll have to be sure to follow and direct message in intervals of 5 to 10 minutes.

In addition to sharing your social media handle, following, and direct messaging others, you’ll have to watch out for the action block as well—which makes it time-consuming.

If you’re not consistent with it, you’re not going to get a lot of followers.

Your feed may be overcrowded

Secondly, by utilizing a follow train, your feed may be overcrowded with posts.

This is because the more people you follow, the more posts you’ll have on your feed.

This makes it harder for you to like every post on your feed and you might miss the posts from people you care about.

Thus, it’s important that you mute people who post too much.

Overposters are one of the worst types of people on Instagram as they clutter your feed unnecessarily.

To identify overposters, simply visit someone’s profile and check the time frame between each post.

If the time frame between their posts is short (a few hours), then they might be an overposter.

If that’s the case, you have to make sure to mute the person’s posts right after following them.

You can do so by refreshing your Instagram feed right after following them.

Once you do so, their posts will most likely appear at the top of your feed where you can tap on the “triple dots” icon to mute them.

Unorganized feed

If you’re not meticulous about who you follow, your feed might be filled with posts in varying niches.

This means that your feed will be very unorganized—from photography posts to memes to fitness.

To prevent an unorganized/messy feed, be sure to include a short description of yourself or the content that you post so that people can identify your niche and follow you only if they like your content.

In addition, you can explicitly mention that you’re only following back people in your niche.

This will make sure that your feed stays consistent (with posts within a niche).

Conclusion

Growing your social media can be challenging, but it’s not rocket science.

There are many ways to grow your social media followers, and follow trains are one of them.

The best part about follow trains is that you can stop using them once you’re satisfied with the number of your followers.

The only restriction to watch out for is the rate in which you’re following or direct messaging others.

Further Reading

What Is Perfect Forward Secrecy?

In cryptography, some ciphers may be labelled with the acronym PFS. This stands for Perfect Forward Secrecy. Some implementations may simply refer to PFS as FS. This acronym means Forward Secrecy or Forward Secure. In any case, they all talk about the same thing. Understanding what Perfect Forward Secrecy means, requires you to understand the basics of cryptographic key exchange.

Cryptography basics

To communicate securely the ideal solution is to use symmetric encryption algorithms. These are fast, much faster than asymmetric algorithms. They, however, have a fundamental problem. Because the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt a message, you cannot send the key over an insecure channel. As such you need to be able to secure the channel first. This is done using asymmetric cryptography in practice.

Note: It would also be possible, if infeasible to use an out-of-band, secure channel, though the difficulty remains in securing that channel.

To secure an insecure channel a process called Diffie-Hellman key exchange is performed. In Diffie-Hellman key exchange, one party, Alice, sends their public key to the other party, Bob. Bob then combines his private key with Alice’s public key to generate a secret. Bob then sends his public key to Alice, who combines it with her private key, allowing her to generate the same secret. In this method, both parties can transmit public information but end up generating the same secret, without ever having to transmit it. This secret can then be used as the encryption key for a fast symmetric encryption algorithm.

Note: Diffie-Hellman key exchange doesn’t natively offer any authentication. An attacker in a Man in the Middle or MitM position could negotiate a secure connection with both Alice and Bob, and quietly monitor the decrypted communications. This issue is solved via PKI or Public Key Infrastructure. On the Internet, this takes the form of trusted Certificate Authorities signing certificates of websites. This allows a user to verify that they’re connecting to the server they expect to.

The problem with standard Diffie-Hellman

While the authentication problem is easy to solve, that’s not the only issue. Websites have a certificate, signed by a certificate authority. This certificate includes a public key, for which the server has the private key. You can use this set of asymmetric keys to communicate securely, however, what happens if that private key is ever compromised?

If an interested, malicious party wanted to decrypt encrypted data, they’d have a hard time of it. Modern encryption has been designed in such a way that it would take at least many millions of years to have a reasonable chance at guessing a single encryption key. A cryptographic system, however, is only as secure as the key. So if the attacker is able to compromise the key, say by hacking into the server, they can use it to decrypt any traffic it was used to encrypt.

This issue obviously has some large requirements. First, the key needs to be compromised. The attacker also needs any encrypted traffic that they want to decrypt. For your average attacker, this is quite a difficult requirement. If, however, the attacker is a malicious ISP, VPN provider, Wi-Fi hotspot owner, or nation-state, they are in a good place to capture vast amounts of encrypted traffic which they may be able to decrypt at some point.

The problem here is that with the server’s private key, the attacker could then generate the secret and use that to decrypt all traffic it was ever used to encrypt. This could allow the attacker to decrypt years of network traffic for all users to a website in one fell swoop.

Perfect Forward Secrecy

The solution to this is to not use the same encryption key for everything. Instead, you want to use ephemeral keys. Perfect forward secrecy requires the server to generate a new asymmetric key pair for each connection. The certificate is still used for authentication but is not actually used for the key negotiation process. The private key is kept in memory only long enough to negotiate the secret before being wiped. Likewise, the secret is only kept for as long as it’s in use before it is cleared. In particularly long sessions, it may even be renegotiated.

Tip: In cipher names, ciphers featuring Perfect Forward Secrecy are typically labelled with DHE or ECDHE. The DH stands or Diffie-Hellman, while the E on the end stands for Ephemeral.

By using a unique secret for each session, the risk of the private key being compromised is greatly reduced. If an attacker is able to compromise the private key, they can decrypt current and future traffic, but they can’t use it to bulk decrypt historical traffic.

As such perfect forward secrecy provides broad protection against blanket network traffic capture. While in the case of the server being compromised, some data may be decrypted, it is only current data, not all historical data. Additionally, once the compromise has been detected the issue can be resolved leaving only a relatively small amount of total lifetime traffic being decryptable by the attacker.

Conclusion

Perfect Forward Secrecy is a tool to protect against blanket historical surveillance. An attacker capable of collecting and storing vast troves of encrypted communications may be able to decrypt those if they ever gain access to the private key. PFS ensures that each session uses unique ephemeral keys. This limits the ability of the attacker to “only” be able to decrypt current traffic, rather than all historical traffic.

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