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Why 400+ Waffle House closures for coronavirus is a bigger deal than you think

Today Waffle House announced that they’ve currently closed 418 Waffle House locations in the USA, or the MOST LOCATIONS CLOSED AT ONCE, EVER. Due to the historically extreme resiliency plans put in place by the Waffle House organization, there exists an informal measure of disaster severity in the USA called “The Waffle House Index.” There are three levels of severity in this metric: Green (normal), Yellow (limited menu, crisis mode), and Red (closed for business).

The term Waffle House Index came to prominence in a Wall Street Journal article from the year 2011. Craig Fugate, Former Head of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, spoke about two different measures of crisis for public assessment of a hurricane. One is called the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale – that’s not of much use to us at the moment.

#WaffleHouseIndexRed: 418 Waffle House restaurants closed. 1,574 open.

— Waffle House (@WaffleHouse) March 25, 2023

The other measure of the severity of a crisis, the Waffle House Index, shows how seriously a crisis should be treated. Normally all Waffle Houses are in the green – they’re open for business.

Waffle House locations across the United States have built a reputation for being open under harsh conditions. They want to be seen as a place where, basically no matter what, you can “still get a hot meal.” In the most extreme of circumstances, a Waffle House will go yellow – they’ll have a limited menu, but they’ll be open.

It is extremely rare that a Waffle House will go Red. Approximately 20% of Waffle House locations in the United States is in an area where conditions are so bad, they’ve gone RED. They’ve closed entirely – past the point at which they feel it’s safe to keep their doors open to serve food to citizens in crisis mode.

365 Waffle House locations closed would usually mean 365 locations at Level Red on the Waffle House Index.

But the index is for storm damage, where closing down is a proxy for severe damage & flooding.

It hasn’t been calibrated to a pandemic before.

— Mika McKinnon (@mikamckinnon) March 25, 2023

In a release today from representatives of Waffle House, they announced the closure of 418 locations across the USA. “We want to acknowledge the great efforts of our associates, who work hard every shift to create a safe, warm and welcoming dining experience 24 hours daily,” wrote a Waffle House representative. “We are working hard to support them as we do our best to manage through this crisis.”

The previous record for closed Waffle House locations was during Hurricane Irma. They closed 157 locations, and 143 of those locations were back up and running in 2 days (or less) after the end of said storm. If this is serious enough for Waffle House to close, it’s serious enough for citizens of the United States to stay home and avoid the spread of COVID-19.

Stay tuned to our COVID-19 coverage and take a peek at our guide: Coronavirus (COVID-19) resources: What should I do? Who do I trust?

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Uranus Blasted A Gas Bubble 22,000 Times Bigger Than Earth

But last year, while combing through NASA’s archives, two planetary scientists noticed something earlier analyses had overlooked—a blip in Uranus’s magnetic field as the spacecraft cruised through a magnetic bubble of sorts. The new result, which appeared last summer in Geophysical Research Letters, comes as planetary scientists start to shift their focus to some of the field’s deepest outstanding mysteries.

“The Cassini mission [to Saturn] is over and people are starting to say, ‘ok what else can we do,’” says Heidi Hammel, a planetary astronomer and the Vice President for Science at the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy. “People are turning their sights back to these other planets and brushing off the old data.”

Gina DiBraccio and Daniel Gershman of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are two such researchers. Motivated by the community’s growing interest in the outermost planets, they spent hours manually processing the thirty-year-old data in a new way. Voyager scientists calculated the strength of the magnetic field as a whole, DiBraccio says, so short variations in the magnometer reading were simply considered a nuisance. But while zooming in on those jagged hops and dips, DiBraccio and Gershman spotted a special 60-second long section of Voyager 2’s 45-hour flyby where the field rose and fell in an instantly recognizable way. “Do you think that could be… a plasmoid?” Gershman asked DiBraccio, according to a NASA press release.

Plasmoids are charged globs of atmosphere blown out into space when the solar wind whips around planets. Losing such blobs can dramatically transform a world over a long period of time, and studying them can provide insight into how planets live and die. Researchers have spotted them pinching off from various planets, but the magnetic belch Voyager 2 sailed through was a first for Uranus. “We expected that Uranus would likely have plasmoids; however, we didn’t know exactly what they would look like,” DiBraccio says.

Now that they’ve caught one red handed, she says it looks quite similar to those seen leaking from Saturn or Jupiter but stealing away relatively more mass. (This plasmoid formed a cylinder roughly 22,000 times larger than Earth).

More such discoveries could remain in the archives, awaiting novel analyses. “Most of the Voyager 2 data are available on NASA’s Planetary Data System,” DiBraccio says, “and there is likely much to still be learned.”

Uranus in particular keeps on begging for further investigation. In 2014 Erich Karkoschka, an astronomer at the University of Arizona, revisited Voyager 2’s images with modern processing techniques. By blending 1600 images and sharpening the contrast, Karkoschka’s work revealed that a gumball world painted with candy-stripe clouds had been hiding within the bland blue ball all along.

On top of its unappreciated complexity, it’s also the odd planet out. Where others spin, Uranus rolls, tipped on its side with its poles pointing generally toward or away from the sun. Its magnetic field is bonkers too, offset from the planet’s center and tipped at a wild 60 degrees to the side. Planetary astronomers are blind to that magnetic field from Earth, although the Hubble Space Telescope can occasionally catch an indirect glimpse via Uranus’s auroras—which can shine far from the poles.

The Voyager team initially assumed the magnetic wackiness was linked to the Uranus’s belly flop position, but when the spacecraft flew by Neptune (which stands up straight) three years later it saw the same apparent mismatch between the planet and its field. Now researchers assume that something about the worlds’ inner workings must set their magnetic fields apart. “Boy would we like to be able to refine that theory,” Hammel says.

The next generation of planetary scientists might get to do just that, as interest in sending a dedicated probe to Uranus or Neptune is growing. Rough sketches of possible missions were published in 2023 and early last week. And DiBraccio says more such proposals are on the way. The general dream is to send a Cassini-style orbiter that will circle one of the planets for years, surveying its magnetic field and studying its heat flow. The spacecraft would also carry at least one smaller probe to fire into the atmosphere. There, it could measure otherwise invisible gases leftover from the planet’s formation.

And if the orbiter targets Neptune, it can schedule trysts with the enigmatic moon Triton (not to be confused with Saturn’s Titan). Likely an ex-dwarf planet Neptune plucked from the largely inaccessible realm ruled by Pluto and other frozen bodies, Triton may harbor an underground ocean.

Understanding the outer reaches of our solar system has never felt so urgent. NASA tends to plan its planetary priorities decade by decade, and they’re currently picking targets for the late 2023s and early 2030s. Meanwhile, between the last so-called “decadal survey” and the current one, exoplanet science has exploded, and Neptune and Uranus have become more than just local oddities.

Researchers now know that similar “Sub-Neptune” worlds are the most common type of planet in the galaxy. And many of these worlds are likely “ice giant” planets akin to our big blue duo. Unlike the gas giants, which are mostly hydrogen and helium, these planets are largely made from heavier molecules such as water and ammonia. If researchers want to understand what makes these worlds so common in alien systems—and why our solar system is such an oddball—they’ll have to figure out everything they can about Uranus and Neptune.

But our cosmic backyard is vast, and getting out toward the fence will take time and extensive planning. The sun shines too dimly out there for solar panels, so nuclear power is the only option for a years-long mission. And billions of miles is just really far away. “Even with our current best rockets and gravity assists, it’s still a decade to get out there,” Hammel says. Between technology development and mission design, she hopes to see a probe launch even if she doesn’t get to work on the data it will someday send back to Earth. “Most of us tend to think in multidecade time scales,” she says.

Proof of Uranus’s plasmoids sat buried in Voyager 2’s data for thirty years before DiBraccio and Gershman happened upon it. The next ice giant encounter might not take place for twenty years, and any researchers that may someday glean additional insights from its legacy data likely haven’t even been born yet. Imagining what sorts of discoveries might lie ahead gives astronomers like Hammel a uniquely long-term perspective. “I dream about exploring Uranus and Neptune and I dream about fantastic space telescopes,” Hammel says, “That’s how we get through tough times. We dream about the future.”

Why Giving Blockchains The Ability To Talk To Each Other Is A Big Deal

There are thousands of blockchains, all out to improve the way some system works: international money transfer, medical record-keeping, supply chain-tracking, etc. Here’s the catch, though: most of them can’t talk to each other, making their data useful mostly within their own ecosystems.

Every blockchain works differently, and there currently isn’t a set protocol that can reliably transfer data between multiple chains. That’s likely to change, though, as there are projects currently working on everything from chain-to-chain transactions to an “internet of blockchains.” If they’re successful, the way that data moves around the world and how we control it could change on many levels.

What’s wrong with isolated blockchains?

Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Monero, Cardano, and all the other blockchains/cryptocurrencies are like islands, each of them with their own government, ecosystem, and population. The islands can see each other but don’t have any way to reach each other. Even if they could get across, though, they all have different languages and different writing and organization systems.

If an intrepid traveler made it to a new island and fell ill, that island’s hospital would need to create a new medical history for him, since even if he had happened to bring along his medical records, the new hospital wouldn’t be able to read them and port them over.

That’s why blockchain interoperability is one of the most important issues in the space today. Blockchains are really just a new kind of data storage, and if that data can’t move around freely between systems, it becomes exponentially less useful.

Imagine three banks, each on a different blockchain ecosystem, unable to directly transfer funds and customer information. That’s pretty inconvenient. Third-party centralized and decentralized exchanges do make it possible for people to easily go between cryptocurrencies, but coordinating smart contracts, decentralized apps, direct chain-to-chain transactions, and reliable data transfer is a lot trickier.

What can we do with interoperable blockchains?

In its current form, the Internet lets you transmit any kind of data you want as long as you use standardized protocols, but what happens on either end of that network is up to the sender and the receiver.

Connected blockchains would look similar: a network that takes data from different blockchains, gets it to behave in a manageable way, and delivers it, not interfering with how either blockchain actually functions. This opens up a lot of possibilities:

Much like Facebook/Google login, we could have our identities stored securely on a blockchain and use them to create online and offline presences.

Allowing easy access, conversion, and transfer of data that would otherwise be fragmented and difficult to use, like disconnected supply chains or widely-distributed research data.

Creating conditions on one chain (such as a car insurance blockchain) that can read and respond to events on another chain (like a police report blockchain or an auto shop’s financial system).

Establishing a truly decentralized internet-of-things network, taking tons of inputs from different hardware and data systems and seamlessly converting between them as needed. Set your smart home to buy its energy in real-time from the cheapest green energy source available – maybe your neighbor’s solar panels are selling some excess power!

What’s the solution?

We need to build bridges, hire translators, and figure out ways to get some very different systems to play nice with each other. The technical challenges here are massively complex, but we have a few main options:

1. Blockchain platforms/sidechains: There’s no shortage of projects that promise more or less interoperability if you build on their infrastructure, but generally, the catch is that you only get to connect to the other blockchains that are tapped into the same system. Given how many platforms are out there now, there’s very little chance that every project will fall in line behind just one or two of them. This is like building a new island with one system and telling everyone to move there.

2. Open protocols: This is essentially how the modern internet works. Everyone has generally agreed that there’s a good way to connect things, with TCP/IP, DNS, HTTP, and a lot of other standards being universally implemented and used. Since most blockchain projects aren’t likely to agree on and implement a single communication standard, the best way to make this work would be by implementing an internet-like communication layer that any chain can tap into and send data over.

Projects like Interledger are working on this right now. This is like building a bridge network and establishing trade agreements and a common second language between the islands.

3. Multi-chains/metachains/parachains/bridge chains: These are probably the most popular solution in development right now, with projects like Polkadot, Cosmos, Aion, ARK, Block Collider, and many others all throwing their hat in. Though the approaches differ quite a bit, the general idea is that you can build relays or bridges from each individual blockchain to some sort of hub, which is itself a blockchain.

The blockchain that initiates the action interacts with the hub, and the hub then interacts with the target blockchain, creating a sort of communication layer. This may turn out to be the most realistic solution, since it doesn’t require much from the blockchains themselves.

This is like building transportation hubs between the islands (airports, docks, etc) that come equipped with travel services designed to help visitors navigate unfamiliar territory.

Not just for blockchain geeks

While the technical side of blockchain interoperability is a topic that only a few people will really get excited about, the long-run implications are far-reaching. After all, the internet was also a bunch of islands in the beginning – before TCP/IP was standardized in the 1980s, there was no single protocol sending data around, and it took a while for anything resembling the modern unified internet to emerge out of the fragmented intranets.

Blockchains aren’t as visibly revolutionary of a technology, but they’re already changing the way we think about data, both on the macro and on the personal level. As debates over data handling and control heat up, we may see a lot more user-friendly blockchain-based technologies popping up with solutions to streamlining our digital existence.

Image credit: Sky Islands, Palau archipelago

Andrew Braun

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Teachers: We Are Doing Better Than We Think We Are

More than ever before, teachers are speaking out about their professional identity, voicing thoughts and opinions about stressors on the profession through the medium of blogging.

One year ago, I too wrote a teaching blog post titled What Students Remember Most About Teachers, a post which went viral the second month after I published it. Since then, it has been the single most-read item on my blog with hundreds of views each day and over two-million views to date. In particular, at key times of the year (August, September and mid-way through the year), it will spike an interest again with the teaching public, with tens of thousands of views on certain days.

I have been perplexed by this phenomenon, at a loss really, for why this particular blog post has struck such a chord. But then I happened upon these two articles. One, about why teachers feel so bad most of the time and the other, a test to take so as to determine whether or not you are a bad teacher, both written by blogger Ellie Herman (a former teacher).

It got me thinking about teachers again, and what matters most in our profession.

Instead of focusing solely on the content of either article so as to critique, I want to point out one thing in these two posts that I think explains the interest in my own blog post that went viral. That is, why it continues to be read by teachers one year later. According to Herman, teachers are inadequately trained for the classroom realities they face, get little to no support to deal with those realities, and don’t have the resources to do the job well. Add to this, the reality that many teachers (both those who are essentially good teachers as well as those who should never have entered the profession, according to Herman’s five criteria) have given up because the odds are stacked against them.

It is a tough gig being a teacher.

Ironically, when I wrote the article about teachers 14 months ago, I had no intentions of publishing the letter. It was actually written concerning a real person involved in an actual conversation with me. I sent the the letter because I cared about the person as a teacher, and I wrote the letter to somehow encourage that person in the very same ways I sometimes need encouragement. More than anything, I wanted to remind that individual that I believed in them and that I knew they were doing a better job than they were giving themselves credit for.

I think teachers need this type of encouragement so as to be reminded of how well they are doing, and all it takes is a moment for us to remember to do this for one another — spurring each other on so that we stay the course. Even more than this, teachers need to hear the message that they are good teachers, doing a far better job than they give themselves credit. As teachers, we need to believe in ourselves and the influence we have on our students. We are are making a difference in ways that matter.

Something I have heard said about students is the following: students bring their best selves with them each day to school. It might not be what we would deem best- but the reality is, it is their best for that particular day. I have had conversations with administration as well about parents — parents who do things differently than I do as a parent, but who love their children nonetheless; parents who bring their best to the table.

And what I have discovered about parents is this: parents differ in their understandings of what is BEST but, in general, as long as we are not talking about inflicting harm or injury on another human being in physical, emotional or psychological ways, parents tend to bring the best they have to give to their child’s education as well.

Which brings us around to teachers. Do teachers bring their best to school each day?

Let’s assume that teachers do not meet the five criteria that Herman has established which make for bad teachers (disliking children, consistently uninterested in their subject matter, don’t have a clue what they are teaching, ignoring a large subset of their students most of the time, and who are overall, totally disengaged in teaching).

Teachers who are not consistently practicing any of those five and who also have a desire at all to investigate their practice and think about their identity as a professional are really who form the baseline for me. If teachers are at that place — caring somewhat about who they are and what they do — then I feel those teachers are bringing their best to the profession.

Now again, that word best. It is a relative word. When someone talks BEST they start envisioning other buzz phrases: words like innovative, charismatic, creative, reform-minded and inspirational. Words associated with teaching style like: engaging in praxis, integrating technology, differentiating instruction and scaffolding instruction. But I am not talking about setting a bar for best using either personality or teaching style as criteria. What I am maintaining here is that bringing your BEST SELF to work means bringing the self that cares.

Care is the essence of truly great teaching, and caring is (for me) the underlying quality that defines a good teacher.

Weighed against that criteria, good teachers are those who do the following:

* Good teachers care about themselves – care for their own personal, emotional, physical and spiritual well-being.

* Good teachers care about others – care for the young and old, children, youth and adults.

* Good teachers care about ideas – care about critical thinking and understanding, knowing and connecting.

* Good teachers care about things – classrooms, and books, and lunches and school buses.

* Good teachers also care about non-human entities – animals, and plants, eco-systems and habitats.

* And good teachers finally care about experiences – what happens at home, in school and some of what happens in between.

Simply put: good teachers care. And they tend to care in more expansive ways the longer they exercise that caring muscle.

When it comes to criteria for defining good and bad teachers, focusing on the fact that most teachers who care enough about ideas and experiences to read an article about teaching are probably good teachers, it almost becomes a moot point for teachers to ask themselves if they are bad at their job. We hear enough negativity in the onslaught of media messages to waste too much on this consideration. What we need to be asking is this: what makes us great chúng tôi how can we find ways to be great again tomorrow?

Then too, ask this as well: how can we find ways to rise above the imperfect circumstances in which we find ourselves, the less than ideal situations we find ourselves in as a teachers and still be our best teaching selves? And how can we tap into that reservoir of care that brought us into this profession in the first place?

Teachers, we are better than we think we are. We just have to remember.

We are a caring profession. And while we are diverse in scope, each of us bringing different traditions, orientations, philosophies, backgrounds, experiences, personalities, cultures, attitudes and beliefs to the table, what binds us together as a collective is our common care for our students and our profession.

We care.

And may we never forget how important that quality is in making us great teachers.

Windows 11 Is Faster Than Windows 10 And Here’s Why

Many Windows 10 users are wondering if Windows 11 is indeed faster than its predecessor. That’s one key element that would convince many people to upgrade to the new OS version. Keep reading to find out more.

⇒ One quick note before we dive in. Do make sure your computer is compatible with Windows 11 before hitting the Update button. We’ve also got seven handy tips that you can use to ensure the upgrade process goes on smoothly.

Is Windows 11 Faster than Windows 10?

Personally, I’ve been using Windows 11 since the day Microsoft rolled it out to mainstream users. In terms of responsiveness, I can confirm that Windows 11 is indeed faster than Windows 10.

Apps Load Insanely Fast

Windows 11 has been great in terms of app stability and speed. So far, I haven’t experienced any issues with apps or programs freezing or crashing. I’ve never had to restart my computer because an app or the OS itself stopped responding.

Also, browser launching speed is significantly faster. This is valid for both Edge and third-party browsers. I initially thought there would be slight differences in speed between Edge and other browsers, but that’s not the case.

As a quick reminder, Edge now features sleeping tabs. You can use this option to put inactive tabs to sleep and save resources. By doing so, the OS can then direct those resources to foreground apps.

The Secret Ingredient: A New Memory Management System

Windows 11 prioritizes apps and processes running in the foreground over background apps. Microsoft revamped the memory management system to favor foreground apps. In other words, the OS lets foreground apps use more CPU power and resources. Even if the CPU is under massive load, the UI feels responsive and fast thanks to foreground prioritization.

As a quick reminder, Windows 10 users often complain about apps using too much CPU power. Well, Windows 11 users will rarely encounter similar problems.

The same applies to Windows Shell, aka the OS graphical user interface. That’s why everything feels so fast and responsive. Moreover, the new memory management system also helps you extend your laptop’s battery life.

Games also start faster. However, I’m not referring to loading times here; that’s a whole different story that depends on many other factors. It’s just that you can launch games faster compared to previous OS releases.

Resume from Sleep Is Instantaneous

My laptop now boots up and shuts down much faster. It also wakes from sleep much quicker compared to the Windows 10 era. Resuming from sleep is almost instantaneous. This is because Windows 11 features an optimized instant-on experience. Microsoft has optimized call to hardware components needed to power on.

Another essential thing to note is that bloatware is still present but not running in the background. Fortunately, you can use PowerShell to remove bloatware.

Conclusion

Windows 11 definitely feels faster and smoother compared to Windows 10. Much of this comes from the improved memory management system that Windows 11 is using. If you own an average computer in terms of specs, you’ll definitely notice the difference. The same is valid for old low-specs machines. Windows 11 feels a lot snappier, even on HDD machines. Overall, it runs better than its predecessor on many computers.

Is A Gaming Pc Really More Expensive Than A Console?

If you want to play video games in this day and age there have never been more options. You can grab a smartphone or hop on a game streaming service and be playing in no time. However, for most people who play video games as a primary form of entertainment, there are two choices: PC vs console.

Consoles are purpose-built gaming machines that offer plug-and-play gaming with no need to mess about with game settings. They are also pretty affordable, or at least their initial price tag is. 

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PCs, on the other hand, offer complete hardware flexibility and, if you spend enough, the sort of gaming horsepower that no console can match. Except perhaps right as a new generation of consoles launches.

While the PC platform is, in general the home of premium video game performance, gamers often baulk at the perceived price of being a PC gamer. The question is whether that perception is accurate. The answer, as we’ll see, depends on how you look at things.

The Hardware Costs

There’s no two ways about it. The amount of money you have to hand over to take a console home is less than you’d pay for an equivalent or better gaming PC. As a console’s lifespan rolls along, that fact changes. Since the console hardware doesn’t change, new PC hardware becomes more powerful at a lower price. So eventually a similar asking price for the console will net you a PC with better specifications.

Why are consoles so much cheaper? There are a few reasons for this. Console makers get preferential hardware prices because they build millions and millions of consoles. Console makers also don’t need to make a profit on their consoles. Often they either break even or take a loss on each unit. 

This is acceptable because of something known as the “attach rate”. In the case of a console, this refers to the games, services and accessories users must buy to get any real use out of their machine. So even if the console hardware itself doesn’t make any money, there’s instant profit from the sale of the first game, accessory or subscription.

With PCs, every component has a profit margin. The individual manufacturers need to make a return on the hardware or there’d be no point. The end result of this is that, from a performance-per-dollar point of view, PCs are more expensive than consoles. However that’s not the whole story. It would be more accurate to say that PCs cost more upfront. But if we look at the cost over the lifespan of a typical console, that picture changes. 

The Software Costs

Because consoles are a closed platform, game developers need to pay for the privilege of releasing games on that system. This comes in the form of a fee attached to every copy sold. Rather than take a hit to their own profits, that cost is passed on to the console gamer. So you’ll find that, at launch, console games cost more than the same title on PC.

That’s not all! Since several different distributors compete for PC game sales, you’ll hardly ever pay retail price for a PC game. Whether it’s a pre-order discount or price cuts mere months or even weeks after launch, there are always amazing deals to be had on PC games. Console games, in contrast, tend to hold their full price for much longer. They also don’t enjoy price cuts nearly as deep as those on PC when they do go on sale.

This is where the main equalizer in the price of gaming on PC vs console comes into play. However, this clearly depends heavily on how many games you buy. 

For argument’s sake, let’s say that a console game costs $10 more than the PC version on average. If you buy one game a month for five years, that would be $10 x 12 months x 5 years. Equalling $600.

If you had added that $600 to your initial console purchase and bought a $1000 PC instead, your total expenditure would have been the same. These days, a $1000 can buy a pretty decent gaming laptop or desktop. However that’s just one area of hidden cost that console gamers have to contend with.

Online Services Costs

Since the PC offers an open platform, players don’t have to pay for functions such as multiplayer to a third party.  On consoles, online multiplayer is usually reserved for a subscription service, which is in addition to any actual game subscriptions you might have to pay.

Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft have all sweetened the deal by adding discounts and “free” digital games into the mix. So whether that’s worth the cost will be up to individuals. However, the bottom line is that if you want to play online at all the fee isn’t optional.

So the value added aspects don’t carry that much weight. If you add the difference in monthly online multiplayer subscriptions to the average difference in game prices, it further equalizes the price difference between PC and console hardware over the console life cycle.

Upgrade Costs

Next, we need to factor in the cost of upgrading a PC. First of all, upgrades to PC over the course of it’s console equivalent generation is optional. At least when it comes to cross-platform games. 

A rather recent development with consoles is the mid-generation upgrade. Which gave us the PlayStation 4 Pro and Xbox One X. Neither of these were essential upgrades, but they did offer a fairly affordable bump to graphical power. 

The CPUs for these mid-generation machines were virtually unchanged. So if you did the same thing to your PC mid-generation and only upgrade the GPU, then you’d spend about as much (or less) as you would on a new, updated console. From that point of view upgrading has a negligible effect when comparing PC vs console.

Do You Need A PC For Other Things?

The next important consideration when calculating comparative cost is whether you need a computer for anything besides gaming. If you do need a computer for more than gaming, then the console’s cost is in addition to that of a non-gaming PC.

In that case, you might as well add the costs together and get the gaming PC. If you don’t need a PC at all, then we can leave it out of the cost comparison.

A Different Perspective On Costs

As we’ve seen, if you look at the total cost of ownership over the lifespan of the typical console, the cost differences of PC vs console aren’t nearly as dramatic as they’ve been made out to be. Of course, PCs can be incredibly expensive at the high end, but this is not a comparison of extremes.

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