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Introduction to chúng tôi Methods

Vue.js methods are defined as a function to perform certain actions whenever the user is needed and the method is associated with a Vue instance as the method is similar to function like in other programming languages. In chúng tôi methods are defined using the “method” name property before declaring or using it as a method in the chúng tôi app code, in simple words we can say methods are function associated with an instance which are defined inside the method property, methods are usually defined similarly to as declaring “def” in the python for defining methods or functions and in chúng tôi we use “method” property.

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Working of Methods in chúng tôi with Examples

Here, we will discuss the method declaration in chúng tôi In this, methods are defined or declared inside the method property which means we have to write “method” before writing the method body. In chúng tôi methods are useful for connecting functionality to directives for handling the events. This can also be said to define any piece or small code of logic we need to use methods and this logic can be used for any other function or in the rest of the program. So we can also call a method inside a lifecycle hook also which is also another way of using methods in Vue.js.

Let us demonstrate how to declare methods in chúng tôi with the below syntax and example.


new Vue({ e1: '#app' ……. methods: { piece of code or logic } )}

In the above, we can see the syntax for declaring methods in the chúng tôi code snippets. In this, we can see we have declared method property to define or declare methods that will have a piece of code or logic within the method property which we want it to call in another method or rest.

Example #1

So let us consider a simple example for demonstrating the use and declaration of methods in Vue.js.

Html File:

{{ message }}

Vue js App Code:

new Vue({ el: '#app', data: { message: 'information' }, methods: { func() { this.message = 'Educba Training Institute'; } } });


Now we know whenever we need some actions or events to be performed then these methods are the easiest and useful ways to use in such cases. To do this a venue provides a directive called v-on which can be used to handle the events.

In chúng tôi accessing the date or message from the method is also simple as we saw in the above program where data to be accessed it written as the value of “message” which is information and this is accessed inside the method using “this. message” whereas we don’t need to use “ message” which would rather throw an error and hence chúng tôi provides transparent binding with the use of method property. And in the above program, we also saw they are closely interlinked to the events and hence in chúng tôi the methods are mostly used as event handlers.

In chúng tôi methods are also used to handle inline js statements because where instead of binding to the method name we can use inline statements using methods.

Example #2

Html file:

Vue js Code:

new Vue({ el: '#methodapp', methods: { disp: function (info) { alert(info) } } })



In this article, we conclude that the concept of the method in chúng tôi is similar to that of functions concepts in other programming languages. In this article, we saw how to declare methods using “method” property before writing the function logic code and we also saw how we have used methods as an event handler using v-on directive along with which we also saw how it used for binding inline javascript statements instead of directly binding with the method names.

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Working And Examples Of React Format

Introduction to React Format

Displaying a number on a webpage or an application is an easier task, but when it comes to formatting it, it becomes hectic. This hectic work has been simplified in this article. The format is the best way to represent a number so that it can have some meaning and provide more information to the user. By using appropriate formatting, we can enhance the readability and usability of numeric data. The article’s objective is to illustrate different approaches for formatting numbers to convey their intended meaning effectively. The examples would represent the concept more simply for the reader so that they can apply the same in their work.

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Number Format Syntax

import NumberFormat from 'react-number-format'

Currency Format Syntax

import MaskedInput from 'react-text-mask' Working of React Format

The above syntaxes can convert numerical digits into numbers or a currency format. The library “NumberFormat” can be imported for formatting the digits into a meaningful numbers, and MaskedInput can be used for currency formatting.


Lets us discuss the examples:

Example #1 – Basic

In the example below, we have used ‘react-number-format’ to import the Number format in the code. A basic example of a Number Format is displayed below.

The files used in the example are:

[i] index.js

import React , {Component} from 'react' import {render} from 'react-dom' import NumberFormat from 'react-number-format' import AutosizeInput from 'react-input-autosize' export class App extends Component { state = {n: '0'} render() { return ( <NumberFormat customInput={AutosizeInput} isNumericString={true} allowNegative={false} decimalSeparator="." decimalScale={3} value={this.state.n} ) } }


Example #2 – Advance

For implementing the code, the files used are:

[i] reactSelectOptions.js

export default [ { value: "data analysis" , label: "Data Analysis" }, { value: "data engineering" , label: "Data Engineering" }, { value: "data science" , label: "Data Science" } ];

[ii] ButtonsResult.js

import React from "react"; {data && ( {JSON.stringify(data, null, 2)} )} <button className="button buttonBlack" type="button" reset(defaultValues); }} > );

[iii] DonwShift.js

import React from "react"; import Downshift from "downshift"; const items = ["Finance", "IT", "Consultant", "Research", "Other"]; <Downshift initialInputValue={value} onChange={onChange} > {({ getInputProps, getItemProps, getLabelProps, getMenuProps, isOpen, inputValue, highlightedIndex, selectedItem Background Information <input {...getInputProps()} className="input" placeholder="Enter your background" {isOpen ? items <li {...getItemProps({ key: item, index, item, style: { backgroundColor: highlightedIndex === index ? "lightgray" : null, fontWeight: selectedItem === item ? "bold" : "normal" } })} > {item} )) : null} )} );

[iv] Header.js

import React from "react"; <svg width="40px" height="40px" viewBox="0 0 150 150" style={{ top: 9, position: "relative", marginRight: 10 }} > Welcome to EduCBA This is an example of React Format where we have used React Number Format. );

[v] MuiAutoComplete.js

import React from "react"; import TextField from "@material-ui/core/TextField"; import Autocomplete from "@material-ui/lab/Autocomplete"; import { Controller } from "react-hook-form"; export default function CountrySelect({ onChange, control }) { return ( <Controller as={ <Autocomplete options={countries} {countryToFlag(option.code)} {option.label} )} <TextField {...params} label="Choose a country" variant="outlined" )} } name="country" control={control} defaultValue={{ code: "IN" , label: "India" , phone: "91" }} ); } function countryToFlag(isoCode) { return typeof String.fromCodePoint !== "undefined" ? isoCode .toUpperCase() String.fromCodePoint(char.charCodeAt(0) + 127397) ) : isoCode; } const countries = [ { code: "CA" , label: "Canada" , phone: "1" , suggested: true }, { code: "GB" , label: "United Kingdom" , phone: "44" }, { code: "IN" , label: "India" , phone: "91" }, { code: "JP" , label: "Japan" , phone: "81" , suggested: true }, { code: "US" , label: "United States" , phone: "1" , suggested: true }, ]; import React , { useState } from "react"; import ReactDOM from "react-dom"; import { useForm , Controller } from "react-hook-form"; import Header from "./Header"; import ReactDatePicker from "react-datepicker"; import NumberFormat from "react-number-format"; import ReactSelect from "react-select"; import options from "./constants/reactSelectOptions"; import { TextField , Checkbox , Select , MenuItem , Switch , RadioGroup , FormControlLabel , ThemeProvider , Radio , createMuiTheme , Slider } from "@material-ui/core"; import MuiAutoComplete from "./MuiAutoComplete"; import "react-datepicker/dist/react-datepicker.css"; import "./styles.css"; import ButtonsResult from "./ButtonsResult"; import DonwShift from "./DonwShift"; let renderCount = 0; const theme = createMuiTheme({ palette: { type: "light" } }); const defaultValues = { Native: "", TextField: "", Select: "", ReactSelect: { value: "data science" , label: "Data Science" }, Checkbox: false, switch: false, RadioGroup: "", numberFormat: 9876543210, downShift: "Finance" }; function App() { const { handleSubmit, register, reset, control } = useForm({ defaultValues }); const [data, setData] = useState(null); renderCount++; return ( <Controller as={Checkbox} name="Checkbox" type="checkbox" control={control} <Controller as={ <FormControlLabel value="female" label="Female" <FormControlLabel value="male" label="Male" <FormControlLabel value="transgender" label="Transgender" } name="RadioGroup" control={control} <Controller as={ } name="Select" control={control} <Controller as={Switch} type="checkbox" name="switch" control={control} <Controller name="MUI_Slider" control={control} defaultValue={[0, 10]} <Controller as={ReactSelect} options={options} name="ReactSelect" isClearable control={control} <Controller as={ReactDatePicker} control={control} valueName="selected" name="ReactDatepicker" className="input" placeholderText="Select date" <Controller as={NumberFormat} thousandSeparator name="numberFormat" className="input" control={control} ); } const rootElement = document.getElementById("root");

[vii] styles.css

body { background: #870837; font-family: 'Times New Roman' , Times , serif; color: white; padding: 0 25px 110px; } .h1 { margin-top: 75px; color: #c8f54e; font-size: 23.5px; padding-bottom: 12px; border-bottom: 2px solid #c078eb; } .form { max-width: px; margin: 0 auto; } .p { color: #cbe043; text-align: center; } .input { display: block; box-sizing: border-box; width: 100%; border-radius: 50px; border: 1px solid #faf287; padding: 9.5px 14.5px; margin-bottom: 9.5px; font-size: 13.5px; } .label, line-height: 0.5; text-align: left; display: block; margin-bottom: 11.5px; margin-top: 19.5px; color: #faf287; font-size: 13.5px; font-weight: 199; } .button { background: #f5b767; color: #fcfbfa; text-transform: uppercase; border: none; margin-top: 40.5px; padding: 20.5px; font-size: 16.5px; font-weight: 100; letter-spacing: 10.5px; display: block; appearance: none; border-radius: 4.5px; width: 100%; } .buttonBlack { background: #807c78; border: 1px solid #f7f5f2; } .App { max-width: 605px; margin: 0 auto; } .container { display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr; grid-gap: 19.5px; } .counter { font-weight: 400; background: #f7f5f2; color: #0a0a09; padding: 9.5px 14.5px; border-radius: 3.5px; position: fixed; top: 19.5px; right: 19.5px; z-index: 9999999; border: 1px solid #1dd120; box-shadow: 0 0 4px #1dd120; }



This article explains how to use Format in different situations according to the requirement of the webpage or application. We hope this article has made the concept simpler for the developers.

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Working Of The Jquery Param() With Examples

Introduction to jQuery param()

In jQuery, param() is a function defined as the Ajax method, which is used for representing the continuous string of an object or an array; while making the Ajax request, the URL can use these serialized or continuous string values for calling the request. In general, we can define-param() function as a function for converting to the continuous string from the provided elements internally and if in case any plain object is passed which would properties like name or value that contains the input elements along with these properties and this function has the options to disable globally by setting the traditional value to true.

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Working of the jQuery param() with Examples

In this article, we will see the param() function of jQuery, which is an Ajax method for making the Ajax request; we need to use these serialized string obtained after applying this function to the elements internally, which contain the return value as a continuous string of an array or object. In jQuery, the param() function is used by the URL for making the Ajax request by converting the elements into the continuous string as the output of this param() function, or we can say this function returns the serialized string representation of an array or plain object.

Let us see syntax and examples of how to use this function:


$.param(object, traditional_style)


Object: This parameter is used to specify the string or object that needs to be serialized. This parameter needs to be specified compulsory.

Traditional: This parameter is used to specify the serialization styles of param() function that is required to use or not the traditional shallow style, which is a Boolean value to be specified, and this parameter is optional.

This function returns the converted serialized string representation of an array or an object that is passed to this function.

Let us consider an example of how to declare the param() function.

Example #1


Educba Training Institute <script src= EDUCBA Jquery $(document).ready(function() { jqpmobj = new Object(); jqpmobj.Fullword = “EDUCBA “; jqpmobj.Firstword = “Jquery “; jqpmobj.Secondword = “Param() “; jqpmobj.Thirdword = “Function “; jqpmobj.Wordcolor = “Blue”; $(“div”).text($.param(jqpmobj)); }); });


In the output, we can see each word is separated by “%20&” because we are specifying both for Fullwords and single word spaces are replaced by this in the above output. So in the above code, we have passed the object “jqpmobj”, so we must specify any name or value properties, and here it is “Fullword” or “Firstword”, etc. So this param() function when objects are passed these names or values parameters are added to the URL string, which is dynamically modified with the history API.

Now we will see an example with creating three objects and to display the decoded object, which is done using decodeURIComponent() in the below code.

Example #2

$(document).ready(function() { var com_obj1= new Object ({ p: [ 7, 1, 6 ] }); var com_obj2= new Object ({ p: { q: 7, r: 1, s: 6}, t: [ 3, 9] }); var com_obj3 = new Object({ p: {u: 4, v: 4}, w:[2, 8] }); var x = decodeURIComponent( $.param(com_obj1)); $(“#p1”).text(x); var y = decodeURIComponent( $.param(com_obj2)); $(“#p2”).text(y); var z = decodeURIComponent( $.param(com_obj3)); $(“#p3”).text(z); }); });


In the above code, we can see we are using the decoseURIComponent(), which is used for decoding the objects so which is a bit complex so; in the above code also we can see we are creating 3 objects and the decoded codes are as shown in the above screenshot of the output.


In this article, we conclude that the jQuery provides a function called param(), which is used for representing the array of objects in a serialized way. In this article, we saw how to declare and use the param() function with syntax and examples. In this article, we also saw an example with the simple creation of the object, and then in another example, we also saw the creation of complex objects and decoding the objects using param() and decodeURIComponent() function.

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Working Of Jquery Reference In Jquery With Examples

Definition of jQuery Reference

In Jquery, reference is defined as a set provided by jquery which contains jquery events used for triggering methods, selectors, and properties, which are defined for selecting and converting HTML elements provided few methods for handling events for such selections which when the events are triggered when the methods are executed and this jquery reference have the ability where to make the navigation (top, down, right and left) of the HTML elements along with supporting of jquery effects such as sliding or fading or showing or any kind of animations in the web pages using HTML elements are all defined and are provided by the jquery reference in Jquery.

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Working of Reference in jQuery Examples

In the below section let us take one by one element of the jquery reference that contains methods, events, effects, selectors, utilities, etc along with examples:

Events Example


#circle { width: 150px; height: 150px; border-radius: 50%; background-color: green; margin: 200px 200px 200px 200px; } });


jQuery Reference manipulation methods Example


$(document).ready(function () { $(‘p’).append(‘Educba ‘); }); div{ border: 2px solid; background-color:blue; margin: 5px 0 5px 0; font-size:20px; }


In the above program, we can see we are using append(), prepend(), after(), and before() method where we have added the content after the h1 element which shown in cyan color, then we are adding content before second div tag which is shown in yellow color, then we add the content at beginning of the paragraph which gives prepended paragraph and then the paragraph content is appended with the word “Educba” and prints complete sentence “Welcome to Educba”. There are many such methods used for constructing such web pages.


In jquery, it provides the main function which is used only when we are using jquery codes as we know before writing jquery code we start with $ symbol so this is called as factory function which has the syntax as “$()” where we can pass any name or element name, id, class, etc of tags that are defined in the HTML structure.



<script type = “text/javascript” #circle { width: 150px; height: 150px; border-radius: 50%; background-color: green; margin: 10px; } .educbaclass { margin:50px; border :10px solid; } }); $(“p”).css(“background-color”, “yellow”);

In the above program, we can see we have declared a div tag and defined with id name as “circle” so we are using the selector on div tags which has id. Similarly, we have also defined a class name for paragraph “p” and we can see in the above code we are printing that selected paragraph with different CSS styles which can be done not only by the CSS syntax in HTML structure but also using jquery selector and function CSS() on paragraph tag. Therefore there are many such selectors that are used in jquery reference such as selecting multiple elements, selecting all the elements of DOM using universal selector, etc.

In jquery reference, there are effects which are used for animation effects in web pages such as animate(), fadIn(), fadeout(), hide(), show(), etc. In traversing reference can be used for movement of elements such as up, down, right, left, etc.

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Working Of Long Data Type In C++ With Examples

Introduction to C++ long

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Working of long Data Type in C++

In this article, we will discuss the long data type in C++. The long data type is a basic numerical signed and unsigned integer type which is used for specifying the storage size and location of variables or constants that are used in programs that can hold values as long as a single 64-bit signed (numbers can be either positive or negative) integer type or unsigned (only positive numbers) integer type that is long can store 263 with one bit for the sign. This long type is used to store large values that are equivalent to the long int type. These long type variables can be used with double variables also as it can be used as a long int. In C++ there is also another data type where it can help us store numbers larger than long and such variables can be stored with data type long long which is created twice using long data type but this long long type modifier can only be used with the int data type. In C++, there are specific literals provided to these data types such as for long type we use either “L” or “l” is used to identify long literal by suffixing these alphabets and for long long int we suffix with “LL” literal which are used for signed and if we want to indicate unsigned long then suffix wit “UL” and unsigned long long int then we have to suffix with “ULL”.

Examples of C++ long

Now in the below section let us see how to declare long variables in a program.

Example #1


using namespace std; int main() { long a = 4564667; long int b = 4564667; cout <<“Program to demonstrate long in C++” <<“n”<<endl; cout <<“The value of variable with long variable a is  “<< a <<“n”<< endl; cout <<“The value of variable with log int variable b is “<< b << “n”<<endl; cout <<“The size of long variable a is ” << sizeof(a) <<“n” << endl; cout <<“The size of long int variable b is “<< sizeof(b) <<“n” <<endl; return 0; }


In the above program, we can see we have created a variable with long type “a” and another variable “b” with long int type these both have the same value so we can say long long and long int type is the same and we also can see we are declaring the size of the variables which can be done using sizeof() function. So we can say the size of long and long int have the same size that is 8.

Example #2


using namespace std; int main () { long p, q; long long res; p = 5456943859; q = 254689; res = p * q; cout<<“Program to demonstrate long long type in C++” <<“n”<<endl; cout<<“The long type varaibles p ” << p << ” and q ” <<q << “is n”<<endl; cout <<“The product of two long variables p*q = “<< res <<endl;; cout<< sizeof(res)<<endl; return 0; }


In the above program, we can see we have declared two long variables p and q and we are trying to find the product of these two variables which will be a very large value so we are declaring the variable “res” which will be the long long type which can store large value than long type. So in the above screenshot, we can see the output, and also we can see a size of long long variable “res” which prints 8 and the product value is 1389823574504851.

Example #3

Now we will see a sample example of using literals for long unsigned and signed data types.

using namespace std; int main () { long p = -5456943859L; long z = 8647627343UL; long long r = 1389823574504851LL; cout<<“Program to demonstrate long long and long type literals in C++” <<“n”<<endl; cout<<“The long type varaibles p literal is  ” << p <<“n”<<endl; cout<<“The long type variable z literal of unsigned long variable is “<<z <<“n”<<endl; cout<<“The long long type of variable r literal is = “<< r <<endl; return 0; }


In the above program, we can see we have declared a long variable “p” with value and we have suffixed it with “L” and we have also declared long long type variable “r” and we have suffixed it with “LL”. In the above program, we have seen we have p value suffixed with L as “5456943859L” and r variable which is the long long type with value 1389823574504851LL where we can see p and r are signed long variables. So the variable “z” is also a long type but it is unsigned so it can have only a positive number which can be seen in the above screenshot.


In this article, we can conclude that the long type variable in C++ is a type of data type which is used for storing the values that are as large as 64-bit values, and in C++ it also provides a data type long long which is another data type to store values larger than the long type which means it can hold the value twice of long type. In this article, we have seen a simple example of how to declare the long type variables which is equivalent to long int in C++. In this article, we also saw the example of long long type variables along with the literals which are used by suffixing it with value to indicate the signed or unsigned long type variables.

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Methods And Benefits Of Agile Testing

Introduction to Agile Testing

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Principles of Agile Testing

The mentioned principles are as follows:

1. Continuous: It provides feedback continuously, on an ongoing basis, so the products meet the needs of the business.

2. Teamwork: In other software, the test team is responsible for testing, but in agile testing, along with the test team, the developers and the business analysts are equally involved in the testing.

3. Time of Feedback Response: Since the business team is involved in agile testing, the feedback is fast and continuous, so the feedback response time is short.

4. Clean and Simplified Code: The defects found by the agile team are corrected within the same iteration, and thus the code is kept clean and simplified.

5. Undertaking Tests: Here, testing is done during implementation, whereas in other processes, testing is performed after implementation.

6. Lightweight Documents: Agile testers use reusable checklists to decide on tests to be taken. The documents can be used for several purposes, and the tools are also light.

Values of Agile Testing

Agile testing prioritizes individuals and communication over rigid processes and tools. Agile testing does not overlook procedures and tools but builds upon robust and reasonable processes and tools, leveraging their strengths. The rule here is that testers drive the tools, and the output depends on the testers, not vice versa.

The choice made in agile testing is functional and usable software over unusable and comprehensive documentation. The main goal here is the actual testing rather than elaborate documents whose only objective is pointing towards the goal. The documents are present if a member decides to leave.

Customer participation is the secret here. The project ensures continuous involvement of the client, keeping them informed about the progress. It implies that the client should have regular meetings throughout the project instead of receiving the project directly upon completion. This is extra work but better than working in the wrong direction.

The team accepts and implements any necessary changes. While the project maintains a plan, it remains flexible to accommodate changes in the situation. So one does not have to wait until the end to find out about the changed scenario and have the project dismissed because of the changed requirement.

Agile Testing Methods

There are various agile testing methods:

1. Behavior Driven Development (BDD)

Behavior-driven development improves communication so all members understand each feature before the process starts. Developers, analysts, and testers are in continuous communication.

2. Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD)

The main object here is to involve all the team members, i.e., the customer, tester, and developer, as all three have different perspectives. The customer focuses on solving the problem, the developer focuses on determining how to solve it, and the tester’s objective is to identify potential issues. These tests, known as Acceptance tests, incorporate all three perspectives and describe how the system will function.

3. Exploratory Testing Test Plan

In agile testing, the team writes and updates a test plan for each iteration or as required.

It includes:

Scope of testing

The newly implemented functionalities are undergoing testing.

Level or types of testing

Performance and load testing

Considering the infrastructure

Relief plan

Planning resources

Deliverables and milestones

Phases of Agile Testing Lifecycle

There are 5 phases of the Agile Testing Lifecycle:

Impact assessment means gathering inputs from stakeholders and users, which will act as feedback for the next development cycle.

Agile test planning involves the collaboration of all stakeholders to plan the testing process, meetings, and deliverables.

In the stage of release readiness, the team decides whether the developed features are ready to go live or not.

Daily scrums include a regular standing morning meeting to catch up on the testing status and set goals for the day.

Agility review involves holding weekly meetings with stakeholders to assess the progress made.


Agile testing has its benefits. It is both time and money-saving software as it reduces documentation and is very flexible and adaptable to the continuous changes in the business. The final stage of the process incorporates regular feedback from actual users, ensuring they may not be fully aware of the ongoing process.

Agile testing is the perfect software for the early detection of defects, and as the problems are fixed early, the cost of fixing is also reduced. The final product is customer-centric and of high quality. Continuous communication between the teams makes agile testing a success.

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